History of Europe
Media
  • The Metal Ages
  • The chronology of the Metal Ages
  • The people of the Metal Ages
  • Greeks, Romans, and barbarians
  • Greeks
  • Romans
  • Barbarian migrations and invasions
  • The Germans and Huns
  • The reconfiguration of the empire
  • The Middle Ages
  • The idea of the Middle Ages
  • The term and concept before the 18th century
  • Enlightenment scorn and Romantic admiration
  • The Middle Ages in modern historiography
  • Chronology
  • Late antiquity: the reconfiguration of the Roman world
  • The organization of late imperial Christianity
  • Kings and peoples
  • The great commission
  • The bishops of Rome
  • The Mediterranean world divided
  • The Frankish ascendancy
  • The Merovingian dynasty
  • Charlemagne and the Carolingian dynasty
  • Carolingian decline and its consequences
  • Growth and innovation
  • Demographic and agricultural growth
  • Technological innovations
  • Urban growth
  • Reform and renewal
  • The consequences of reform
  • The transformation of thought and learning
  • The structure of ecclesiastical and devotional life
  • Ecclesiastical organization
  • Devotional life
  • From persuasion to coercion: The emergence of a new ecclesiastical discipline
  • Christianity, Judaism, and Islam
  • From territorial principalities to territorial monarchies
  • The office and person of the king
  • Instruments of royal governance
  • The three orders
  • Crisis, recovery, and resilience: Did the Middle Ages end?
  • The Renaissance
  • The Italian Renaissance
  • Urban growth
  • Wars of expansion
  • Italian humanism
  • Growth of literacy
  • Language and eloquence
  • The humanities
  • Classical scholarship
  • Arts and letters
  • Renaissance thought
  • The northern Renaissance
  • Political, economic, and social background
  • Northern humanism
  • Christian mystics
  • The growth of vernacular literature
  • Renaissance science and technology
  • The emergence of modern Europe, 1500–1648
  • Economy and society
  • The economic background
  • Demographics
  • Trade and the “Atlantic revolution”
  • Prices and inflation
  • Landlords and peasants
  • Protoindustrialization
  • Growth of banking and finance
  • Political and cultural influences on the economy
  • Aspects of early modern society
  • Politics and diplomacy
  • The state of European politics
  • Discovery of the New World
  • Nation-states and dynastic rivalries
  • Turkey and eastern Europe
  • Reformation and Counter-Reformation
  • Diplomacy in the age of the Reformation
  • The Wars of Religion
  • The Thirty Years’ War
  • The crisis in Germany
  • The crisis in the Habsburg lands
  • The triumph of the Catholics, 1619–29
  • The crisis of the war, 1629–35
  • The European war in Germany, 1635–45
  • Making peace, 1645–48
  • Problems not solved by the war
  • Problems solved by the war
  • The great age of monarchy, 1648–1789
  • Order from disorder
  • The human condition
  • Population
  • Climate
  • War
  • Health and sickness
  • Poverty
  • The organization of society
  • Corporate society
  • Nobles and gentlemen
  • The bourgeoisie
  • The peasantry
  • The economic environment
  • Innovation and development
  • Early capitalism
  • The old industrial order
  • Absolutism
  • Sovereigns and estates
  • Major forms of absolutism
  • France
  • The empire
  • Prussia
  • Variations on the absolutist theme
  • Sweden
  • Denmark
  • Spain
  • Portugal
  • Britain
  • Holland
  • Russia
  • The Enlightenment
  • Sources of Enlightenment thought
  • The role of science and mathematics
  • The influence of Locke
  • The proto-Enlightenment
  • History and social thought
  • The language of the Enlightenment
  • Man and society
  • The Encyclopédie
  • Rousseau and his followers
  • The Aufklärung
  • The Enlightenment throughout Europe
  • Revolution and the growth of industrial society, 1789–1914
  • The Industrial Revolution
  • Economic effects
  • Social upheaval
  • The age of revolution
  • The French Revolution
  • The Napoleonic era
  • The conservative reaction
  • The Revolutions of 1848
  • Romanticism and Realism
  • The legacy of the French Revolution
  • Cultural nationalism
  • Simplicity and truth
  • Populism
  • Nature of the changes
  • Napoleon’s influence
  • General character of the Romantic movement
  • Romanticism in literature and the arts
  • Drama
  • Painting
  • Sculpture and architecture
  • Music
  • Self-analysis
  • Early 19th-century social and political thought
  • Postrevolutionary thinking
  • The principle of evolution
  • Science
  • Early 19th-century philosophy
  • Kant
  • Kant’s disciples
  • Religion and its alternatives
  • Scientific positivism
  • The cult of art
  • The middle 19th century
  • Realism and Realpolitik
  • Scientific materialism
  • Victorian morality
  • The advance of democracy
  • Realism in the arts and philosophy
  • Literature
  • Painting and sculpture
  • Popular art
  • Music
  • Summary
  • A maturing industrial society
  • The “second industrial revolution”
  • Modifications in social structure
  • The rise of organized labour and mass protests
  • Conditions in eastern Europe
  • The emergence of the industrial state
  • Political patterns
  • Changes in government functions
  • Reform and reaction in eastern Europe
  • Diplomatic entanglements
  • The scramble for colonies
  • Prewar diplomacy
  • Modern culture
  • Symbolism and Impressionism
  • Aestheticism
  • Naturalism
  • The new century
  • Arts and Crafts movement
  • New trends in technology and science
  • The social sciences
  • Reexamination of the universe
  • The prewar period
  • European society and culture since 1914
  • The Great War and its aftermath
  • The shock of World War I
  • The mood of Versailles
  • The interwar years
  • Hopes in Geneva
  • The lottery in Weimar
  • The impact of the slump
  • The trappings of dictatorship
  • The phony peace
  • The blast of World War II
  • Postwar Europe
  • Planning the peace
  • The United States to the rescue
  • A climate of fear
  • Affluence and its underside
  • The reflux of empire
  • Ever closer union?
  • History of Europe

    History of Europe, history of European peoples and cultures from prehistoric times to the present. Europe is a more ambiguous term than most geographic expressions. Its etymology is doubtful, as is the physical extent of the area it designates. Its western frontiers seem clearly defined by its coastline, yet the position of the British Isles remains equivocal. To outsiders, they seem clearly part of Europe. To many British and some Irish people, however, “Europe” means essentially continental Europe. To the south, Europe ends on the northern shores of the Mediterranean Sea. Yet, to the Roman Empire, this was mare nostrum (“our sea”), an inland sea rather than a frontier. Even now, some question whether Malta or Cyprus is a European island. The greatest uncertainty lies to the east, where natural frontiers are notoriously elusive. If the Ural Mountains mark the eastern boundary of Europe, where does it lie to the south of them? Can Astrakhan, for instance, be regarded as European? The questions have more than merely geographic significance.

    Vikings. Viking warriors hold swords and shields. 9th c. AD seafaring warriors raided the coasts of Europe, burning, plundering and killing. Marauders or pirates came from Scandinavia, now Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. European History
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    European History
    Who was the architect who rebuilt London after the Great Fire of 1666?

    These questions have acquired new importance as Europe has come to be more than a geographic expression. After World War II, much was heard of “the European idea.” Essentially, this meant the idea of European unity, at first confined to western Europe but by the beginning of the 1990s seeming able at length to embrace central and eastern Europe as well.

    Unity in Europe is an ancient ideal. In a sense it was implicitly prefigured by the Roman Empire. In the Middle Ages, it was imperfectly embodied first by Charlemagne’s empire and then by the Holy Roman Empire and the Roman Catholic church. Later, a number of political theorists proposed plans for European union, and both Napoleon Bonaparte and Adolf Hitler tried to unite Europe by conquest.

    It was not until after World War II, however, that European statesmen began to seek ways of uniting Europe peacefully on a basis of equality instead of domination by one or more great powers. Their motive was fourfold: to prevent further wars in Europe, in particular by reconciling France and Germany and helping to deter aggression by others; to eschew the protectionism and “beggar-my-neighbour” policies that had been practiced between the wars; to match the political and economic influence of the world’s new superpowers, but on a civilian basis; and to begin to civilize international relations by introducing common rules and institutions that would identify and promote the shared interests of Europe rather than the national interests of its constituent states.

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    Underlying this policy is the conviction that Europeans have more in common than divides them, especially in the modern world. By comparison with other continents, western Europe is small and immensely varied, divided by rivers and mountains and cut into by inlets and creeks. It is also densely populated—a mosaic of different peoples with a multiplicity of languages. Very broadly and inadequately, its peoples can be sorted into Nordic, Alpine or Celtic, and Mediterranean types, and the bulk of their languages classified as either Romance or Germanic. In this sense, what Europeans chiefly share is their diversity; and it may be this that has made them so energetic and combative. Although uniquely favoured by fertile soils and temperate climates, they have long proved themselves warlike. Successive waves of invasion, mainly from the east, were followed by centuries of rivalry and conflict, both within Europe and overseas. Many of Europe’s fields have been battlefields, and many of Europe’s cities, it has been said, were built on bones.

    Yet Europeans have also been in the forefront of intellectual, social, and economic endeavour. As navigators, explorers, and colonists, for a long time they dominated much of the rest of the world and left on it the impress of their values, their technology, their politics, and even their dress. They also exported both nationalism and weaponry.

    Then, in the 20th century, Europe came close to destroying itself. World War I cost more than 8 million European lives, World War II more than 18 million in battle, bombing, and systematic Nazi genocide—to say nothing of the 30 million who perished elsewhere.

    As well as the dead, the wars left lasting wounds, psychological and physical alike. But, whereas World War I exacerbated nationalism and ideological extremism in Europe, World War II had almost the opposite effect. The burned child fears fire; and Europe had been badly burned. Within five years of the war’s end, the French foreign minister Robert Schuman, prompted by Jean Monnet, proposed to Germany the first practical move toward European unity, and the West German chancellor Konrad Adenauer agreed. Others involved in that first step included the statesmen Alcide De Gasperi and Paul-Henri Spaak. All except Monnet were men from Europe’s linguistic and political frontiers—Schuman from Lorraine, Adenauer from the Rhineland, De Gasperi from northern Italy, Spaak from bilingual Belgium. Europe’s diversity thus helped foster its impulse to unite.

    This article treats the history of European society and culture. For a discussion of the physical and human geography of the continent, see Europe. For the histories of individual countries, see specific articles by name. Articles treating specific topics in European history include Byzantine Empire; Steppe, the; World War I; and World War II. For the lives of prominent European figures, see specific biographies by name—e.g., Charlemagne, Erasmus, and Bismarck. Related topics are discussed in such articles as those on religion (e.g., Celtic religion; Greek religion; Germanic religion; Christianity; and Judaism), literature (e.g., English literature, Scandinavian literature, and Russian literature), and the fine arts (e.g., painting, history of; and music, history of).

    Richard J. Mayne
    History of Europe
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