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STEM education experiences are made available in a variety of settings by schools and community organizations as a way of fostering a diverse STEM workforce. In the 2012 report Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education: A Primer, STEM education was defined as:
Teaching and learning in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. It typically includes educational activities across all grade levels—from pre-school to post-doctorate—in both formal (e.g., classrooms) and informal (e.g., afterschool programs) settings.
Educators focused on improving science and mathematics instruction employed several approaches to K-12 STEM education. For example, some teachers integrated project-based activities that demanded knowledge and skill-application in specific areas, such as engineering. In some instances, extracurricular activities, including team competitions in which students worked together (for example, to build robots or to mock-engineer cities), were added or expanded. Students also were given opportunities to spend time with professionals in STEM fields, either job-shadowing or working as interns.
Throughout the second half of the 20th century, officials in developed countries focused on improving science, mathematics, and technology instruction, intending to not only increase literacy in those content areas but also expand existing workforces of scientists and engineers. The importance placed on the role of educational programs in preparing students to participate in the workforce and compete in the global economy was signaled by the continued participation in the early 21st century of dozens of countries in the periodic international comparisons (TIMSS and PISA) of student knowledge and skills. Moreover, an Australian study on global STEM policies and practices revealed in 2013 that countries worldwide were working to broaden the participation of underrepresented groups (e.g., women and girls) in STEM studies and careers. Efforts were also being made to increase general awareness of STEM careers and to provide a deeper understanding of STEM content through application and problem-solving activities.
Many countries had created STEM-specific educational pathways with options for technical, vocational, or academic tracks of study. Some programs emphasized the sharing of educational strategies across national borders as a way of enhancing STEM learning and better preparing students to solve problems faced by society. In Europe, coinciding with events in the United States, foundations and educational officials called for specific programs to help teachers make connections between content learned in science classrooms and STEM career opportunities where students could apply their knowledge.
From 2000 to 2010 the growth in STEM jobs in the United States was at three times the rate of growth in non-STEM jobs. However, racial and gender gaps remained a problem. Employers continued to struggle with the need for qualified STEM workers. While some programs demonstrated success in bringing underrepresented groups into STEM fields and careers, such efforts were not widespread, and many students were left without effective STEM experiences.
In the United States and elsewhere, the absence of a clear definition of STEM contributed to disagreement about what professions actually qualified as STEM careers. Some groups considered any job requiring skills and knowledge from any STEM field to constitute a STEM job. However, government agencies used different criteria for designating such jobs. The criteria of the U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC), for example, implied that many STEM jobs require specialized knowledge, but they may not require a baccalaureate or graduate degree. The DOC defined four categories of STEM occupations: computer and math, engineering and surveying, physical and life sciences, and STEM management. Education and social sciences were excluded.
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) has had a difficult time analyzing statistics for STEM occupations, since there is no commonly agreed-upon definition of a STEM job. However, a working group of representatives from U.S. government agencies and offices identified 96 STEM occupations and divided them into two domains with two sub-domains each. The first domain was the Science, Engineering, Mathematics, and Information Technology Domain, with the sub-domains Life and Physical Science, Engineering, Mathematics, and Information Technology Occupations; and Social Science Occupations. The second domain was the Science- and Engineering-Related Domain, with the sub-domains Architecture Occupations and Health Occupations. The BLS list of STEM occupations included relevant education fields and social science as STEM careers. Despite their differences, all reports agreed that workers in STEM occupations were critically important, as they drove economic growth and competitiveness through innovations that addressed global challenges and created additional jobs.Judith Hallinen