• The Roman period (63 bce–135 ce)
  • New parties and sects
  • Origin of Christianity: the early Christians and the Jewish community
  • Judaism under Roman rule
  • Rabbinic Judaism (2nd–18th century)
  • The age of the tannaim (135–c. 200)
  • The role of the rabbis
  • The making of the Mishna
  • The age of the amoraim: the making of the Talmuds (3rd–6th century)
  • Palestine (c. 220–c. 400)
  • Babylonia (200–650)
  • The age of the geonim (c. 640–1038)
  • Triumph of the Babylonian rabbinate
  • Anti-rabbinic reactions
  • The gaonate of Saʿadia ben Joseph
  • Medieval European Judaism (950–1750)
  • The two major branches
  • Sephardic developments
  • Ashkenazic developments
  • Marginalization and expulsion
  • Conflicts and new movements
  • Modern Judaism (c. 1750 to the present)
  • The new situation
  • The Haskala, or Enlightenment
  • In central Europe
  • In eastern Europe
  • Religious reform movements
  • Orthodox developments
  • In western and central Europe
  • In eastern Europe
  • Developments in scholarship
  • Jewish-Christian relations
  • Zionism
  • American Judaism
  • Judaism in other lands
  • Contemporary Judaism
  • The Judaic tradition
  • The literature of Judaism
  • General considerations
  • Sources and scope of the Torah
  • Prophecy and religious experience
  • Modern views of Torah
  • Basic beliefs and doctrines
  • God
  • Unity and uniqueness
  • Creativity
  • Activity in the world
  • Otherness and nearness
  • Modern views of God
  • Israel (the Jewish people)
  • Choice and covenant
  • Israel and the nations
  • The people and the land
  • Modern views of the people Israel
  • Humanity
  • The image of God
  • The earthly-spiritual creature
  • The ethically bound creature
  • Medieval and modern views of man
  • Ethics and society
  • The ethical emphasis of Judaism
  • Interpenetration of communal and individual ethics
  • The key moral virtues
  • The relation to non-Jewish communities and cultures
  • The formulation of Jewish ethical doctrines
  • The universe
  • Creation and Providence: God’s world
  • Humanity’s place in the universe
  • Intermediary beings: angels and demons
  • Eschatology
  • The future age of humankind and the world
  • The king-messiah and his reign
  • Secularization of messianism
  • Basic practices and institutions
  • The hallowing of everyday existence
  • The traditional pattern of individual and familial practices
  • The traditional pattern of synagogue practices
  • Ceremonies marking the individual life cycles
  • Holy places: the land of Israel and Jerusalem
  • The sacred language: Hebrew and the vernacular tongues
  • The rabbinate
  • Legal, judicial, and congregational roles
  • Chief rabbinates
  • General councils or conferences
  • Modern variations
  • The Jewish religious year
  • The cycle of the religious year
  • The Jewish calendar
  • Lunisolar structure
  • Months and notable days
  • Origin and development
  • The Sabbath
  • Importance
  • Observances
  • The Jewish holidays
  • Pilgrim Festivals
  • Ten Days of Penitence
  • Minor festivals: Hanukkah and Purim
  • The five fasts
  • The lesser holidays
  • The situation today
  • Art and iconography
  • The anti-iconic principle and its modifications
  • Ceremonial objects and symbols
  • Architecture
  • Paintings and illustrations
  • Music
  • Literature
  • Jewish philosophy
  • Pre-Hellenistic and Hellenistic thought
  • Bible and Apocrypha
  • Philo Judaeus
  • Other ancient sources
  • Medieval philosophy
  • Jewish kalām
  • Saʿadia ben Joseph
  • The Karaites
  • Jewish Neoplatonism
  • Isaac Israeli
  • Solomon ibn Gabirol
  • Judah ha-Levi
  • Other Jewish thinkers, c. 1050–c. 1150
  • Jewish Aristotelianism
  • Abraham ibn Daud
  • Maimonides
  • Averroists
  • Gersonides
  • Ḥasdai Crescas
  • Joseph Albo
  • Modern philosophy
  • The Iberian-Dutch philosophers
  • Uriel Acosta
  • Benedict de Spinoza
  • German philosophers
  • Moses Mendelssohn
  • Solomon Formstecher
  • Samuel Hirsch
  • Nachman Krochmal
  • Solomon Steinheim
  • Hermann Cohen
  • Franz Rosenzweig
  • Martin Buber
  • Emmanuel Lévinas
  • Jewish mysticism
  • Nature and characteristics
  • The Judaic context
  • Three types of Jewish mysticism
  • Main lines of development
  • Early stages to the 6th century ce
  • Sefer yetzira
  • The Arabic-Islamic influence (7th–13th century)
  • The making of Kabbala (c. 1150–1250)
  • Sefer ha-bahir
  • School of Isaac the Blind
  • The 10 sefirot
  • School of Gerona (Catalonia)
  • Sefer ha-temuna
  • Medieval German (Ashkenazic) Hasidism
  • The making of the Zohar (c. 1260–1492)
  • The Lurianic Kabbala
  • Shabbetaianism
  • Modern Hasidism
  • Modern Jewish mysticism
  • Jewish myth and legend
  • Significance and characteristics
  • Sources and development
  • Myth and legend in the Bible
  • Myths
  • Legends and other tales
  • Contemporary interpretations
  • Myth and legend in the Persian period
  • Myth and legend in the Hellenistic period
  • Historiated Bibles and legendary histories
  • Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha
  • Myth and legend in the Talmud and Midrash
  • Midrash and Haggada
  • Fables and animal stories
  • Contribution of Haggada to Christian and Islamic legends
  • Myth and legend in the medieval period
  • Jewish contributions to diffusion of folktales
  • Hebrew versions of medieval romances
  • Jewish contributions to Christian and Islamic tales
  • Major medieval Hebrew collections
  • Medieval legendary histories and Haggadic compendiums
  • Myth and legend in the modern period
  • Kabbalistic tales
  • Judeo-German (Yiddish) tales
  • Judeo-Persian and Judeo-Spanish (Ladino) tales
  • Hasidic tales
  • Droll stories
  • Modern Israeli folktales
  • Judaism in world perspective
  • Relation with non-Judaic religions
  • Exclusivist and universalist emphases
  • Relation to Christianity
  • Relation to Islam
  • Relations with other religions
  • The role of Judaism in Western culture and civilization
  • Its historic role
  • Its present role
  • Future prospects
  • Judaism


    Judaism, monotheistic religion developed among the ancient Hebrews. Judaism is characterized by a belief in one transcendent God who revealed himself to Abraham, Moses, and the Hebrew prophets and by a religious life in accordance with Scriptures and rabbinic traditions. Judaism is the complex phenomenon of a total way of life for the Jewish people, comprising theology, law, and innumerable cultural traditions.

    The first section of this article treats the history of Judaism in the broadest and most complete sense, from the early ancestral beginnings of the Jewish people to contemporary times. In the second section the beliefs, practices, and culture of Judaism are discussed.

    The history of Judaism

    It is history that provides the key to an understanding of Judaism, for its primal affirmations appear in early historical narratives. Thus, the Bible reports contemporary events and activities for essentially religious reasons. The biblical authors believed that the divine presence is encountered primarily within history. God’s presence is also experienced within the natural realm, but the more immediate or intimate disclosure occurs in human actions. Although other ancient communities also perceived a divine presence in history, the understanding of the ancient Israelites proved to be the most lasting and influential. It is this particular claim—to have experienced God’s presence in human events—and its subsequent development that is the differentiating factor in Jewish thought.

    Moreover, the ancient Israelites’ entire mode of existence was affected by their belief that throughout history they stood in a unique relationship with the divine. The people of Israel believed that their response to the divine presence in history was central not only for themselves but for all humankind. Furthermore, God—as person—had revealed in a particular encounter the pattern and structure of communal and individual life to this people. Claiming sovereignty over the people because of his continuing action in history on their behalf, he had established a covenant (berit) with them and required from them obedience to his teaching, or law (Torah). This obedience was a further means by which the divine presence was made manifest—expressed in concrete human existence. The corporate life of the chosen community was thus a summons to the rest of humankind to recognize God’s presence, sovereignty, and purpose—the establishment of peace and well-being in the universe and in humankind.

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    History, moreover, disclosed not only God’s purpose but also humankind’s inability to live in accord with it. Even the chosen community failed in its obligation and had to be summoned back, time and again, to its responsibility by the prophets—the divinely called spokespersons who warned of retribution within history and argued and reargued the case for affirmative human response. Israel’s role in the divine economy and thus Israel’s particular culpability were dominant themes sounded against the motif of fulfillment, the ultimate triumph of the divine purpose, and the establishment of divine sovereignty over all humankind.

    General observations

    Nature and characteristics

    In nearly 4,000 years of historical development, the Jewish people and their religion have displayed a remarkable adaptability and continuity. In their encounter with the great civilizations, from ancient Babylonia and Egypt to Western Christendom and modern secular culture, they have assimilated foreign elements and integrated them into their own social and religious systems, thus maintaining an unbroken religious and cultural tradition. Furthermore, each period of Jewish history has left behind it a specific element of a Judaic heritage that continued to influence subsequent developments, so that the total Jewish heritage at any given time is a combination of all these successive elements along with whatever adjustments and accretions have occurred in each new age.

    The various teachings of Judaism have often been regarded as specifications of the central idea of monotheism. One God, the creator of the world, has freely elected the Jewish people for a unique covenantal relationship with himself. This one and only God has been affirmed by virtually all professing Jews in a variety of ways throughout the ages.

    Jewish monotheism has had both universalistic and particularistic features. Along universal lines, it has affirmed a God who created and rules the entire world and who at the end of history will redeem all Israel (the classical name for the Jewish people), all humankind, and indeed the whole world. The ultimate goal of all nature and history is an unending reign of cosmic intimacy with God, entailing universal justice and peace. Between creation and redemption lies the particularistic designation of the Jewish people as the locus of God’s activity in the world, as the people chosen by God to be “a kingdom of priests and a holy nation” (Exodus 19:6). This arrangement is designated a covenant and is structured by an elaborate and intricate law. Thus, the Jewish people are both entitled to special privileges and burdened with special responsibilities from God. As the prophet Amos (8th century bce) expressed it: “You alone have I intimately known of all the families of the earth; therefore I will punish you for all your iniquities” (Amos 3:2). The universal goal of the Jewish people has frequently expressed itself in messianism—the idea of a universal, political realm of justice and peace. In one form or another, messianism has permeated Jewish thinking and action throughout the ages, and it has strongly influenced the outlook of many secular-minded Jews (see also eschatology).

    Law embraces practically all domains of Jewish life, and it became the principle means by which Judaism was to bring about the reign of God on earth. It is a total guide to religious and ethical conduct, involving ritualistic observance as well as individual and social ethics. It is a liturgical and ethical way constantly expatiated on by the prophets and priests, by rabbinic sages, and by philosophers. Such conduct was to be performed in the service of God, the transcendent and immanent ruler of the universe, the Creator and the propelling force of nature, and the one giving guidance and purpose to history. According to Judaic belief, this divine guidance is manifested through the history of the Jewish people, which will culminate in the messianic age. Judaism, whether in its “normative” form or in its sectarian deviations, never completely departed from this basic ethical and historical monotheism.

    Salo Wittmayer Baron Lou Hackett Silberman


    The division of the millennia of Jewish history into periods is a procedure frequently dependent on philosophical predilections. The Christian world long believed that until the rise of Christianity the history of Judaism was but a “preparation for the Gospel” (preparatio evangelica) that was followed by the “manifestation of the Gospel” (demonstratio evangelica) as revealed by Christ and the Apostles. This formulation could be theologically reconciled with the assumption that Christianity had been preordained even before the creation of the world.

    In the 19th century, biblical scholars moved the decisive division back to the period of the Babylonian Exile and the restoration of the Jews to the kingdom of Judah (6th–5th century bce). They asserted that after the first fall of Jerusalem (586 bce) the ancient “Israelitic” religion gave way to a new form of the “Jewish” faith, or Judaism, as formulated by the reformer Ezra (5th century bce) and his school. In Die Entstehung des Judentums (1896; “The Origin of Judaism”) the German historian Eduard Meyer argued that Judaism originated in the Persian period, or the days of Ezra and Nehemiah (5th century bce); indeed, he attributed an important role in shaping the emergent religion to Persian imperialism.

    These theories, however, have been discarded by most scholars in the light of a more comprehensive knowledge of the ancient Middle East and the abandonment of a theory of gradual evolutionary development that was dominant at the beginning of the 20th century. Most Jews share a long-accepted notion that there never was a real break in continuity and that Mosaic-prophetic-priestly Judaism was continued, with only a few modifications, in the work of the Pharisaic and rabbinic sages well into the modern period. Even today the various Jewish groups—whether Orthodox, Conservative, or Reform—all claim direct spiritual descent from the Pharisees and the rabbinic sages. In fact, however, many developments have occurred within so-called normative or Rabbinic Judaism.

    In any event, the history of Judaism can be divided into the following major periods: biblical Judaism (c. 20th–4th century bce), Hellenistic Judaism (4th century bce–2nd century ce), Rabbinic Judaism (2nd–18th century ce), and modern Judaism (c. 1750 to the present).

    Salo Wittmayer Baron
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