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  • Phra Nakhorn (section of Bangkok, Thailand)

    Phra Nakhon, section of Bangkok Metropolis, Thailand’s capital and largest city, on the east bank of the Mae Nam (river) Chao Phraya. It was a changwat (province) until 1972, when it was merged with Thon Buri, west of the river, to form the enlarged province of Krung Thep Mahanakhon (Bangkok

  • Phra Nakorn (section of Bangkok, Thailand)

    Phra Nakhon, section of Bangkok Metropolis, Thailand’s capital and largest city, on the east bank of the Mae Nam (river) Chao Phraya. It was a changwat (province) until 1972, when it was merged with Thon Buri, west of the river, to form the enlarged province of Krung Thep Mahanakhon (Bangkok

  • Phra Naret (king of Siam)

    Naresuan, king of Siam (1590–1605), regarded as a national hero by the Thai people for having liberated the country from the Myanmar (Burmese). In 1569 the Myanmar king Bayinnaung (reigned 1551–81) conquered Siam and placed Naresuan’s father, Maha Thammaracha, on the throne as his vassal. The

  • Phra Pathom (stupa, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand)

    Nakhon Pathom: Phra Pathom, the highest stupa in Thailand, rises to 380 feet (116 m). The town also has a campus (arts, education, and science) of the Bangkok-based Silpakorn University (1943).

  • Phra Wes (Buddha)

    Vessantara, in Buddhist mythology, a previous incarnation of the Buddha Gotama. A crown prince, Vessantara was famous for his vast generosity, and, to the despair of his more practical-minded father, he accepted banishment to the forest, where he attained the ultimate self-abnegation by giving away

  • Phraates I (king of Parthia)

    ancient Iran: Phraates I: Precise information is not available concerning the reign of Priapatius (c. 191–176 bc), who succeeded Artabanus and whose name appears in documents found in excavations at Nisā. Under his son Phraates I (reigned c. 176–171 bc), the young Parthian kingdom seems to have…

  • Phraates II (king of Parthia)

    Phraates II, king of Parthia (reigned c. 138–128 bce), the son and successor of Mithradates I. Phraates was attacked in 130 by the Seleucid Antiochus VII Sidetes, who after initial successes was defeated and killed during 129 in Media. With his defeat, Seleucid dominion over the countries east of

  • Phraates III (king of Parthia)

    Phraates III, king of Parthia (reigned 70–58/57 bc), the son and successor of Sanatruces (Sinatruces). On Phraates’ accession, the Roman general Lucullus was preparing to attack King Tigranes I of Armenia, who had wrested several vassal states from the Parthian kingdom. Phraates refused to help

  • Phraates IV (king of Parthia)

    Phraates IV, king of Parthia (reigned c. 37–2 bc) who murdered his father, Orodes II, and his brothers to secure the throne. In 36 the Romans under Mark Antony attacked Parthia, penetrating through Armenia into Media Atropatene. Phraates, however, defeated Antony, who retreated with heavy losses.

  • Phraates V (king of Parthia)

    Phraates V, king of Parthia (reigned c. 2 bc–c. ad 4), the son and successor of Phraates IV. Phraates’ mother, Musa, secured the throne for him by murdering his father. The two were later married (ad 2) and ruled jointly. Under Phraates, war with Rome threatened to break out over the control of

  • Phrachomklao (king of Siam)

    Mongkut, king of Siam (1851–68) who opened his country to Western influence and initiated reforms and modern development. Mongkut was the 43rd child of King Rama II, but as the first son to be born of a queen he was favoured to succeed to the throne. When his father died in 1824, however, Mongkut

  • Phrachunlachomklao (king of Siam)

    Chulalongkorn, king of Siam who avoided colonial domination and embarked upon far-reaching reforms. Chulalongkorn was the ninth son of King Mongkut, but since he was the first to be born to a royal queen, he was recognized as heir to the throne. He was only 15 years old when his father died in

  • Phrae (Thailand)

    Phrae, town in the mountainous northern region of Thailand. It is located on the Yom River and the Sukhothai-Nan road in a historic region with many temples and ruins. Teak lumbering is a major activity, and tobacco and rice are grown extensively around the town. Phrae has an airport with scheduled

  • Phragmipedium (genus of plants)

    lady's slipper: Genera: …lady’s slippers constitute the genus Phragmipedium. They are narrow-leaved plants native to tropical America. One to six flowers with ribbonlike petals are borne on a stalk nearly 90 cm (35 inches) tall.

  • Phragmites (plant genus)

    reed: …four species constituting the genus Phragmites of the grass family (Poaceae). The common, or water, reed (Phragmites australis) occurs along the margins of lakes, fens, marshes, and streams from the Arctic to the tropics. It is a broad-leafed grass, about 1.5 to 5 metres (5 to 16.5 feet) tall, with…

  • Phragmites australis (plant)

    reed: …common, or water, reed (Phragmites australis) occurs along the margins of lakes, fens, marshes, and streams from the Arctic to the tropics. It is a broad-leafed grass, about 1.5 to 5 metres (5 to 16.5 feet) tall, with feathery flower clusters and stiff, smooth stems. Other plants of the…

  • Phragmites communis (plant)

    Bangweulu: …of a common water reed, Phragmites communis, growing just above mean water level; a zone of papyrus at water level; and a floating grass, called hippo-grass, in deeper water. The lake’s fish are caught, dried, and exported to the copper-mining belt 100 miles (160 km) to the west. The explorer-missionary…

  • Phramongkutklao (king of Siam)

    Vajiravudh, king of Siam from 1910 to 1925, noted for his progressive reforms and prolific writings. Vajiravudh was educated at the University of Oxford, where he read history and law; he also received military training at Sandhurst and served briefly with the British Army. Having been named heir

  • Phranangklao (king of Siam)

    Rama III, king of Siam (1824–51) who made Siam’s first tentative accommodations with the West, and under whom the country’s boundaries reached their maximum extent. Rama III was the eldest son of King Rama II by a royal concubine, and in his youth he was given responsibility for overseeing foreign

  • Phrantzes, George (Byzantine historian)

    George Sphrantzes, Byzantine historian and diplomat who wrote a chronicle covering the years 1413–77. Sphrantzes rose to high office in the service of Manuel II and the later Palaeologan rulers, both in Constantinople and in the Peloponnese. In 1451 he was great logothete (chancellor) in

  • Phraortes (king of Media)

    Phraortes, king of Media from 675 to 653 bc. Phraortes, who was known by that name as a result of the writings of the 5th-century-bc Greek historian Herodotus, was originally a village chief of Kar Kashi, but he later subjugated the Persians and a number of other Asian peoples, eventually forming

  • Phraphutthaloetla Naphalai (king of Siam)

    Rama II, the second ruler (1809–24) of the present Chakkri dynasty, under whose rule relations were reopened with the West and Siam began a forward policy on the Malay peninsula. A gifted poet and dramatist, Rama II wrote a famous version of Inao, dramatic version of a popular traditional story, as

  • Phraphutthayotfa Chulalok (king of Siam)

    Rama I, Siamese king (1782–1809) and founder of the Chakkri dynasty (q.v.), which reigns in Thailand. Rama I was the son of a high court official and his part-Chinese wife. At the time of the Burmese invasion of Siam in 1766–67, he was serving as chief judge in Rat Buri province. After the fall of

  • Phrapokklao (king of Siam)

    Prajadhipok, last absolute king of Siam (1925–35), under whose rule the Thai revolution of 1932 instituted the constitutional monarchy. Prajadhipok never expected to succeed to the throne. He was the 32nd and last son of King Chulalongkorn, the youngest of five sons by Queen Saowabha. When King

  • phrase (music)

    musical form: Principles of musical form: …principal of which is the phrase—a complete musical utterance, roughly corresponding to what can be sung or played in one breath or played with a single stroke of the bow. A melody, then, ordinarily consists of a succession of phrases, in which there may occur repetition (the same phrase repeated),…

  • phrase (dance)

    dance: Gathering the movement material: …movement material is connected into dance phrases.

  • phrase marker (grammar)

    linguistics: Chomsky’s grammar: The tree diagram, or phrase marker, may now be considered as a structural description of the sentence “The man hit the ball.” It is a description of the constituent structure, or phrase structure, of the sentence, and it is assigned by the rules that generate the sentence.

  • phrase structure (grammar)

    linguistics: Chomsky’s grammar: …three sections, or components: the phrase-structure component, the transformational component, and the morphophonemic component. Each of these components consisted of a set of rules operating upon a certain “input” to yield a certain “output.” The notion of phrase structure may be dealt with independently of its incorporation in the larger…

  • phrase structure rule (grammar)

    linguistics: Chomsky’s grammar: …consisted of a set of rules operating upon a certain “input” to yield a certain “output.” The notion of phrase structure may be dealt with independently of its incorporation in the larger system. In the following system of rules, S stands for Sentence, NP for Noun Phrase, VP for Verb…

  • phratry (social groups)

    Melanesian culture: Kinship and local groups: The segmentary structures, or phratries—essentially groups of clans that share a mythical ancestor—characteristically use brother-brother and father-son links to represent what were once in fact relatively unstable political alliances. Phratries were important when intergroup warfare was common because they provided a structure through which to conjoin otherwise distantly related…

  • Phraya Taksin (king of Siam)

    Taksin, Thai general, conqueror, and later king (1767–82) who reunited Thailand, or Siam, after its defeat at the hands of the Myanmar (Burmese) in 1767. Of Chinese-Thai parentage, Taksin became the protégé of a Thai nobleman who enrolled him in the royal service. In 1764 he gained the rank of

  • phreaking (communications)

    Phreaking, fraudulent manipulation of telephone signaling in order to make free phone calls. Phreaking involved reverse engineering the specific tones used by phone companies to route long distance calls. By emulating those tones, “phreaks” could make free calls around the world. Phreaking largely

  • phreatic zone (Earth science)

    hydrosphere: Distribution of precipitation: …between the groundwater zone (phreatic zone) and the overlying unsaturated zone (vadose zone) is called the groundwater table. The water balance equation for change of moisture storage in a soil is given as

  • phrenic nerve (anatomy)

    human nervous system: Cervical plexus: …C3 and C5, are the phrenic nerves, which carry sensory information from parts of the pleura of the lungs and pericardium of the heart as well as motor impulses to muscles of the diaphragm.

  • phrenic vein (anatomy)

    human cardiovascular system: Inferior vena cava and its tributaries: …cava as does the right phrenic, above the gonadal vein. Two or three short hepatic trunks empty into the inferior vena cava as it passes through the diaphragm.

  • phrenology (pseudoscientific practice)

    Phrenology, the study of the conformation of the skull as indicative of mental faculties and traits of character, especially according to the hypotheses of Franz Joseph Gall (1758–1828), a German doctor, and such 19th-century adherents as Johann Kaspar Spurzheim (1776–1832) and George Combe

  • Phriapites (chief of the Parni)

    Arsaces: …descended from Arsaces, son of Phriapites (date unknown), a chief of the seminomadic Parni tribe from the Caspian steppes. The first of his line to gain power in Parthia was Arsaces I, who reigned from about 250 to about 211 bc. (Some authorities believe that a brother, Tiridates I, succeeded…

  • Phrixothrix (insect genus)

    bioluminescence: The range and variety of bioluminescent organisms: Phrixothrix, the railroad worm, possesses two longitudinal rows, with a red luminous spot on the head.

  • Phrixus (Greek mythology)

    Argonaut: …Athamas had had two children, Phrixus and Helle, by his first wife, Nephele, the cloud goddess. Ino, his second wife, hated the children of Nephele and persuaded Athamas to sacrifice Phrixus as the only means of alleviating a famine. But before the sacrifice, Nephele appeared to Phrixus, bringing a ram…

  • phrontistiria (Greek education)

    Greece: Education: …consequence, many children attend private phrontistiria, institutions that tutor students outside normal school hours.

  • Phryganistria chinensis (insect)

    arthropod: Size range: …insects is the phasmid (walkingstick) Phryganistria chinensis, a specimen of which measured 62.4 centimetres (about 2 feet) in length. The phasmid Phobaeticus chani reaches a length of more than 30 centimetres. The smallest arthropods include some parasitic wasps, beetles of the family Ptiliidae, and mites that are less than 0.25…

  • Phrygia (ancient district, Turkey)

    Phrygia, ancient district in west-central Anatolia, named after a people whom the Greeks called Phryges and who dominated Asia Minor between the Hittite collapse (12th century bc) and the Lydian ascendancy (7th century bc). The Phrygians, perhaps of Thracian origin, settled in northwestern

  • Phrygian alphabet

    Anatolia: Phrygia from c. 1180 to 700 bce: …period between more purely native Phrygians in the west and the eastern Phrygians, with their neo-Hittite affiliations.

  • Phrygian cap

    Phrygian cap, soft felt or wool conical headdress fitting closely around the head and characterized by a pointed crown that curls forward. It originated in the ancient country of Phrygia in Anatolia and is represented in ancient Greek art as the type of headdress worn not only by Phrygians but by

  • Phrygian language

    Phrygian language, ancient Indo-European language of west-central Anatolia. Textual evidence for Phrygian falls into two distinct groups. Old Phrygian texts date from the 8th to 3rd centuries bce and are written in an alphabet related to but different from that of Greek. The majority of those that

  • Phrygian mode (music)

    Phrygian mode, in music, third of the eight medieval church modes. See church

  • Phrygian religion

    Anatolian religion: The Phrygians: Little would be known of the religion of the Phrygians but for the fact that in 204 bc the Roman Senate, on the instructions of the priests, who had consulted the Sibylline books, had the sacred black stone of the Phrygian Mother goddess, Cybele,…

  • phrygium (papal dress)

    Tiara, in Roman Catholicism, a triple crown worn by the pope or carried in front of him, used at some nonliturgical functions such as processions. Beehive-shaped, it is about 15 inches (38 cm) high and is made of silver cloth and ornamented with three diadems, with two streamers, known as lappets,

  • Phryne (Greek courtesan)

    Phryne, (Greek: “Toad”) famous Greek courtesan. Because of her sallow complexion she was called by the Greek name for “toad.” She was born in Thespiae, Boeotia, but lived at Athens, where she earned so much by her beauty and wit that she offered to rebuild the walls of Thebes, on condition that the

  • Phrynichida (arachnid)

    Tailless whip scorpion, (order Amblypygi, sometimes Phrynichida), any of 70 species of the arthropod class Arachnida that are similar in appearance to whip scorpions (order Uropygi) but lack a telson, or tail. They occur in hot parts of both North and South America, Asia, and Africa, where, by day,

  • Phrynichus (Greek tragic poet)

    Phrynichus, Athenian tragic poet, an older contemporary of Aeschylus. Phrynichus is the earliest tragedian of whose work some conception can be formed. Phrynichus’s first victory in the festival contests probably occurred about 510 bc, and he may have been the first to introduce female masks (i.e.,

  • Phrynichus (Greek comic poet)

    Phrynichus, comic poet of Attic Old Comedy. Phrynichus, son of Eunomis, belonged to the last generation to write in that style. He produced his first play in 434 or 429 bc. (His contemporary Eupolis produced his first in 429.) Phrynichus is credited with three victories in the festival contests:

  • Phrynichus Arabius (grammarian and rhetorician)

    Phrynichus Arabius, grammarian and rhetorician who produced Sophistike paraskeue (“A Grounding in Sophistic”), of which a few fragments and a summary by Photius survive, and an Attikistes, extant in an abridged form, called the Ekloge (“Selected Atticisms”). He is critical not only of contemporary

  • Phrynomerinae (amphibian subfamily)

    Anura: Annotated classification: …Islands), Melanobatrachinae (east-central Africa, India), Phrynomerinae (Africa), and Otophryninae (South America). Family Ranidae (true frogs) Miocene to present; 8 presacral vertebrae; vertebral column diplasiocoelous (mixed amphicoelous and procoelous); intercalary cartilages present or absent; larvae with single spiracle, on left, and complex mouthparts; 39 genera and about

  • Phrynops hilarii (reptile)

    turtle: Courtship and copulation: …batagur (Batagur baska), and the Argentine side-necked turtle (Phrynops hilarii), the male develops bright head and trunk colours that signal his reproductive readiness and possibly elicit a female’s cooperation.

  • Phrynosoma (reptile)

    Horned toad, (genus Phrynosoma), any of about 14 species of lizards belonging to the family Iguanidae that are usually characterized by daggerlike head spines, or horns; a flattened oval body, pointed fringe scales along the sides of the body, and a short tail are typical features. The lizards

  • PHS (United States agency)

    public health: Variations among developed countries: …federal, or national, level, the Public Health Service of the Department of Health and Human Services is the principal health agency, but several other departments have health interests and responsibilities. Federal health agencies accept responsibility for improving state and local services, for controlling interstate health hazards, and for working with…

  • PHS (telecommunications)

    telephone: Personal communication systems: …on the DECT concepts, the Personal Handy-Phone System (PHS), was introduced to the public in 1994. The PHS became popular throughout urban areas as an alternative to cellular systems. Supporting data traffic at 32 and 64 kilobits per second, it could perform as a high-speed wireless modem for access to…

  • Phthah (Egyptian god)

    Ptah, in Egyptian religion, creator-god and maker of things, a patron of craftsmen, especially sculptors; his high priest was called “chief controller of craftsmen.” The Greeks identified Ptah with Hephaestus (Vulcan), the divine blacksmith. Ptah was originally the local deity of Memphis, capital

  • phthalate (chemical compound)

    plastic pollution: Pollution by plastics additives: …used in plastics, such as phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), have come under close scrutiny and regulation. Phthalates are plasticizers—softeners used to make plastic products less brittle. They are found in medical devices, food packaging, automobile upholstery, flooring materials, and computers as well as in

  • phthalic acid (chemical compound)

    Phthalic acid, colourless, crystalline organic compound ordinarily produced and sold in the form of its anhydride. The annual production of phthalic anhydride exceeded 1,000,000 metric tons in the late 20th century; most of it was used as an ingredient of polyesters, including alkyd resins

  • phthalic anhydride (chemical compound)

    carboxylic acid: Aromatic acids: Phthalic anhydride is used to make polymeric resins called alkyd resins, which are used as coatings, especially for appliances and automobiles. The para isomer, terephthalic acid, is also used to make polymers—namely, polyesters (see below Derivatives of carboxylic acids: Carboxylic esters).

  • phthalimide (chemical compound)

    amine: Occurrence and sources of amines: …one such method; it utilizes phthalimide, C6H4(CO)2NH, whose one acidic hydrogen atom has been removed upon the addition of a base such as KOH to form a salt.

  • phthalocyanine (chemical compound)

    coordination compound: Coordination compounds in industry: Phthalocyanine complexes (e.g., copper phthalocyanine), containing large-ring ligands closely related to the porphyrins, constitute an important class of dyes for fabrics.

  • Phthiraptera (insect)

    Louse, (order Phthiraptera), any of a group of small wingless parasitic insects divisible into two main groups: the Amblycera and Ischnocera, or chewing or biting lice, which are parasites of birds and mammals, and the Anoplura, or sucking lice, parasites of mammals only. One of the sucking lice,

  • Phthirus pubis (insect)

    Pubic louse, (Phthirus pubis), sucking louse in the human louse family, Pediculidae (suborder Anoplura, order Phthiraptera), that is found principally at the pubic and perianal areas, occasionally on the hairs of the thighs and abdomen, and rarely on other hairy regions of the human body. It is

  • phthisis (pathology)

    Tuberculosis (TB), infectious disease that is caused by the tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In most forms of the disease, the bacillus spreads slowly and widely in the lungs, causing the formation of hard nodules (tubercles) or large cheeselike masses that break down the respiratory

  • Phu Chaik (Myanmar religious leader)

    Telakhon: …cult’s seventh successive head, the Phu Chaik (“Elder of the Faith”), was presented with vernacular Bibles by American missionaries. Expectations rose on both sides and membership (mostly in eastern Myanmar) increased to 10,000, but the Bible was rejected as not revealing the mysteries of Western knowledge. Renewed opposition to the…

  • Phu Cuong (Vietnam)

    Thu Dau Mot, city, southern Vietnam. It is located on the Saigon River (Song Sai Gon) at the head of a branch of the Mekong River delta inland waterway and on a spur railway line from Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon), 14 miles (23 km) to the south. There are clay pits, asbestos mines, and

  • Phu Quoc Island (island, Vietnam)

    Phu Quoc Island, island in the Gulf of Thailand, belonging to Vietnam. Lying 7 miles (11 km) off the Cambodian coast south of Bok Koŭ (formerly Bokor) and 43 miles (69 km) west of the west coast of southern Vietnam, the partially forested island is almost 30 miles (48 km) long from north to south

  • Phuket (Thailand)

    Phuket, city and island, southern Thailand. The island lies in the Andaman Sea, off the west coast of peninsular Thailand. Phuket city, located in the southeastern portion of the island, is a major port and commercial centre. Its harbour exports tin, rubber, charcoal, lumber, and fish products

  • Phuket Island (island, Thailand)

    Phuket: island, southern Thailand. The island lies in the Andaman Sea, off the west coast of peninsular Thailand. Phuket city, located in the southeastern portion of the island, is a major port and commercial centre. Its harbour exports tin, rubber, charcoal, lumber, and fish products south…

  • Phulabani (India)

    Phulabani, town, central Odisha (Orissa) state, eastern India. It is located about 22 miles (35 km) southwest of the Mahanadi River. The town is relatively modern, although small in size. Its industries produce milled rice, glassware, and woven cloth. Phulabani is the site of a government science

  • Phulbani (India)

    Phulabani, town, central Odisha (Orissa) state, eastern India. It is located about 22 miles (35 km) southwest of the Mahanadi River. The town is relatively modern, although small in size. Its industries produce milled rice, glassware, and woven cloth. Phulabani is the site of a government science

  • Phumĭ Rôloŭs (Cambodia)

    Cambodia: Foundation of the kingdom: …the Tonle Sap, near present-day Phumĭ Rôluŏs. A king named Indravarman I (ruled 877–c. 890) constructed a large reservoir and several temples there, including a pyramidical structure called the Bakong—the first Cambodian temple to be built primarily of stone rather than brick. The so-called “temple mountain” became the model for…

  • Phumiphon Adunlayadet (king of Thailand)

    Bhumibol Adulyadej, ninth king of the Chakkri dynasty (1950–2016), which has ruled or reigned in Thailand from 1782, and Thailand’s longest-serving monarch. He was a grandson of King Chulalongkorn and was born while his father, Prince Mahidol of Songkhla, was studying at Harvard University. His

  • Phuntsholing (Bhutan)

    Bhutan: Settlement patterns: …larger urban centres or towns, Phuntsholing, in the Duars Plain, is the most important. It is the southern terminus of a major highway from Thimphu and functions as the gateway to the well-populated Lesser Himalayan valleys. A vigorous commercial sector has developed in the centre of the town. Bhutan’s capital,…

  • phur-bu (ritual dagger)

    Phur-bu, (Tibetan: “peg,” or “nail”), a ritual dagger used in the Tantric (esoteric) rites of Tibetan Buddhism to exorcise evil. The dagger has a three-sided blade and a hilt that terminates in the head of Hayagrīva (Tibetan: Rta-mgrin), the fierce protective deity identified by a horse’s head in

  • Phurba Tashi Sherpa (Nepali mountaineer)

    Apa Sherpa: …record was later tied by Phurba Tashi Sherpa (2013) and Kami Rita Sherpa (2017), and the latter broke it in 2018. Apa announced his retirement from high-altitude climbing in 2012, but he stayed active in the Himalayas. In January–April of that year he participated in a 99-day trek through that…

  • phuri dai (Rom woman)

    Roma: …that also consulted with the phuri dai, a senior woman in the band. The phuri dai’s influence was strong, particularly in regard to the fate of the women and children, and seemed to rest much on the evident earning power and organization of the women as a group within the…

  • Phuthaditjhaba (South Africa)

    Phuthaditjhaba, town, northeastern Free State province, South Africa. It was the capital of the territory formerly designated by South Africa as the nonindependent Bantustan of Qwaqwa. Phuthaditjhaba lies near the merger point of the Free State–Lesotho borders. The inhabitants of the town are

  • Phya Tak (king of Siam)

    Taksin, Thai general, conqueror, and later king (1767–82) who reunited Thailand, or Siam, after its defeat at the hands of the Myanmar (Burmese) in 1767. Of Chinese-Thai parentage, Taksin became the protégé of a Thai nobleman who enrolled him in the royal service. In 1764 he gained the rank of

  • Phyag-na-rdo-rje (Buddhist mythological figure)

    Vajrapāṇi, in Mahāyāna Buddhist mythology, one of the celestial bodhisattvas (“Buddhas-to-be”), the manifestation of the self-born Buddha Akṣobhya. Vajrapāṇi (Sanskrit: Thunderbolt-Bearer) is believed to be the protector of the nāgas (half-man, half-serpent deities) and sometimes assumes the shape

  • phycobilin (pigment)

    blue-green algae: …yellowish carotenoids, the blue pigment phycobilin, and, in some species, the red pigment phycoerythrin. The combination of phycobilin and chlorophyll produces the characteristic blue-green colour from which these organisms derive their popular name. Because of the other pigments, however, many species are actually green, brown, yellow, black, or red.

  • phycobiont (biology)

    fungus: Basic features of lichens: …cells of algae (called the phycobiont) woven into a matrix formed of the filaments of the fungi (called the mycobiont). Many mycobionts are placed in a single group of Ascomycota called the Lecanoromycetes, which are characterized by an open, often button-shaped fruit called an apothecium. Although lichens had long been…

  • phycocolloid (biology)

    algae: Ecological and commercial importance: …walls of many seaweeds contain phycocolloids (algal colloids) that can be extracted by hot water. The three major phycocolloids are alginates, agars, and carrageenans. Alginates are extracted primarily from brown seaweeds, and agar and carrageenan are extracted from red seaweeds. These phycocolloids are polymers of chemically modified sugar molecules, such…

  • phycocyanin (pigment)

    algae: Photosynthesis and light-absorbing pigments: …which appear either blue (phycocyanins) or red (phycoerythrins), are found in red algae and cryptomonads.

  • phycoerythrin (pigment)

    algae: Photosynthesis and light-absorbing pigments: …blue (phycocyanins) or red (phycoerythrins), are found in red algae and cryptomonads.

  • phycology (biology)

    Phycology, the study of algae, a large heterogeneous group of chiefly aquatic plants ranging in size from microscopic forms to species as large as shrubs or trees. The discipline is of immediate interest to humans because of algae’s importance in ecology. Certain algae, especially planktonic (i.e.,

  • Phycomycetes (former fungus group)

    Phycomycetes, an obsolete name formerly used to describe lower fungi in the classes Chytridiomycetes, Hyphochytridiomycetes, Plasmodiophoromycetes, Oomycetes, Zygomycetes, and

  • Phycophyta (protist)

    Algae, members of a group of predominantly aquatic photosynthetic organisms of the kingdom Protista. Algae have many types of life cycles, and they range in size from microscopic Micromonas species to giant kelps that reach 60 metres (200 feet) in length. Their photosynthetic pigments are more

  • Phycosecidae (insect family)

    coleopteran: Annotated classification: Family Phycosecidae Few species; examples Phycosecis, Alfieriella; in Australia, Asia, Africa. Family Trogossitidae (bark-gnawing beetles) About 500 species, mostly tropical; vary in shape and habits; sometimes in stored products; example Tenebroides.

  • phycotoxicology (biochemistry)

    poison: Moneran toxins: …strains of a species are toxic; other strains of the same species are not. Water blooms of blue-green algae have been responsible for the death of fishes, waterfowl, cattle, horses, swine, and other animals. Blue-green algae have also been implicated as causes of human intoxications.

  • Phyfe, Duncan (American furniture designer)

    Duncan Phyfe, Scottish-born American furniture designer, a leading exponent of the Neoclassical style, sometimes considered the greatest of all American cabinetmakers. The Fife family went to the United States in 1784, settling in Albany, New York, where Duncan worked as an apprentice cabinetmaker

  • phyi-mchod (Tibetan Buddhist rite)

    Phyi-mchod, in Tibetan Buddhist ceremonies, the eight offerings of external worship, presented before the tranquil deities. They are basically the eight ways of honouring a distinguished guest—by offering water for drinking, water for washing, flowers, incense, lamps, perfume, food (the sacrificial

  • phyla (taxon)
  • phylactery (Judaism)

    Phylactery, in Jewish religious practice, one of two small black leather cube-shaped cases containing Torah texts written on parchment, which, in accordance with Deuteronomy 6:8 (and similar statements in Deuteronomy 11:18 and Exodus 13:9, 16), are to be worn by male Jews 13 years of age and older

  • Phylactolaemata (class of bryozoans)

    moss animal: Annotated classification: Class Phylactolaemata Zooids basically cylindrical, with a crescentic lophophore and an epistome (hollow flap overhanging mouth); body wall non-calcareous, muscular, used for everting the lophophore; coelom continuous between zooids; new zooids arise by replication of polypides; special dormant buds (statoblasts) are produced; zooids monomorphic; exclusively freshwater;…

  • phylactolaemate (class of bryozoans)

    moss animal: Annotated classification: Class Phylactolaemata Zooids basically cylindrical, with a crescentic lophophore and an epistome (hollow flap overhanging mouth); body wall non-calcareous, muscular, used for everting the lophophore; coelom continuous between zooids; new zooids arise by replication of polypides; special dormant buds (statoblasts) are produced; zooids monomorphic; exclusively freshwater;…

  • phylae (ancient Greece)

    Phyle, any of several “tribes” that formed the largest political subgroups within all Dorian and most Ionian Greek city-states in antiquity. The phylae were at one and the same time kinship groups embracing all citizens; corporations with their own officials and priests; and local units for

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