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  • Philippine Trade Act (United States [1946])

    Bell Trade Act, an act passed by the U.S. Congress specifying the economic conditions governing the emergence of the Republic of the Philippines from U.S. rule; the act included controversial provisions that tied the Philippine economy to that of the United States. When the Philippines became

  • Philippine Trench (trench, Pacific Ocean)

    Philippine Trench, submarine trench in the floor of the Philippine Sea of the western North Pacific Ocean bordering the east coast of the island of Mindanao. The abyss, which reaches the second greatest depth known in any ocean, was first plumbed in 1927 by the German ship Emden. The reading

  • Philippine-American War (Filipino history)

    Philippine-American War, a war between the United States and Filipino revolutionaries from 1899 to 1902, an insurrection that may be seen as a continuation of the Philippine Revolution against Spanish rule. The Treaty of Paris (1898) had transferred Philippine sovereignty from Spain to the United

  • Philippines

    Philippines, island country of Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. It is an archipelago consisting of some 7,100 islands and islets lying about 500 miles (800 km) off the coast of Vietnam. Manila is the capital, but nearby Quezon City is the country’s most-populous city. Both are part of

  • Philippines, flag of the

    national flag consisting of horizontal stripes of blue and red with a white hoist triangle incorporating a golden sun and three stars. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is generally 1 to 2.The 1898 overthrow of Spanish authority by the United States led Filipinos to believe that their country’s

  • Philippines, history of

    Philippines: History: The Philippines is the only country in Southeast Asia that was subjected to Western colonization before it had the opportunity to develop either a centralized government ruling over a large territory or a dominant culture. In ancient times the inhabitants of the Philippines were a diverse…

  • Philippines, University of the (university, Quezon City, Philippines)

    Philippines: Education: …prominent tertiary institutions include the University of the Philippines (1908), which has numerous campuses and is the only national university in the country; the Polytechnic University of the Philippines (1904), another public institution, with its main campus in Manila and numerous affiliated campuses on Luzon; and the Philippine Women’s University…

  • Philippon, Armand (French general)
  • Philippopolis (Bulgaria)

    Plovdiv, second largest city of Bulgaria, situated in the south-central part of the country. It lies along the Maritsa River and is situated amid six hills that rise from the Thracian Plain to a height of 400 feet (120 metres). Called Pulpudeva in Thracian times, it was renamed Philippopolis in 341

  • Philippoteaux, Paul (artist)

    panorama: His son Paul painted the panorama The Battle of Gettysburg (1883), exhibiting it in several American cities before its permanent installation in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Other examples survive at The Hague and in Quebec city. A higher form of panoramic art is the Chinese and Japanese traditional hand…

  • Philipps-Universität Marburg (university, Marburg, Germany)

    Philipps University of Marburg, coeducational institution of higher learning at Marburg, Ger. Marburg was the first Protestant university in Germany. It was founded in 1527 by Philip the Magnanimous of Hesse as a state institution for the support and dissemination of Lutheranism. It rapidly became

  • Philippsburg (Germany)

    Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban: Innovations in siege craft: …the dauphin Louis, he took Philippsburg, on the right bank of the Rhine south of Speyer. At this siege he introduced ricochet gunfire, whereby a cannonball was made to bounce forward over parapets and to hit several objectives before its force was spent. At the same time he was advocating…

  • Philippus, Lucius Marcus (Roman consul)

    ancient Rome: Developments in Italy: …gain; and an active consul, Lucius Philippus, provided leadership for their disparate opposition. After much violence, Drusus’ laws were declared invalid. Finally he himself was assassinated. The Italians now rose in revolt (the Social War), and in Rome a special tribunal, manned by the Gracchan jury class, convicted many of…

  • Philips & Company (Dutch manufacturer)

    Philips Electronics NV, major Dutch manufacturer of consumer electronics, electronic components, medical imaging equipment, household appliances, lighting equipment, and computer and telecommunications equipment. Philips & Company was founded in 1891 by Frederik Philips and his son Gerard, who had

  • Philips Electronics NV (Dutch manufacturer)

    Philips Electronics NV, major Dutch manufacturer of consumer electronics, electronic components, medical imaging equipment, household appliances, lighting equipment, and computer and telecommunications equipment. Philips & Company was founded in 1891 by Frederik Philips and his son Gerard, who had

  • Philips, Ambrose (English poet and playwright)

    Ambrose Philips, English poet and playwright associated with pastoral literature. Philips was educated at the University of Cambridge. His first and best-known poems were collected in Pastorals and were probably written while he was a fellow at Cambridge, although they were not published until

  • Philips, Frits (Dutch industrialist)

    Frits Philips, (Frederik Jacques Philips), Dutch industrialist (born April 16, 1905, Eindhoven, Neth.—died Dec. 5, 2005, Eindhoven), during a 48-year career (1930–77) with Philips Electronics, oversaw its expansion from a family-run manufacturer into a vast multinational enterprise and Europe’s l

  • Philips, Katherine (American reformer)

    Katherine Philips Edson, American reformer and public official, a strong influence on behalf of woman suffrage and an important figure in securing and enforcing labour standards both in California and at the federal level. While studying music at a Chicago conservatory, Katherine Philips met and

  • Philips, Katherine (English poet)

    Katherine Philips, English poet who, as Orinda, the central figure in a literary group in Cardigan, Wales, wrote lyrics on friendship that represent a transition from courtly poetry to the Augustan style typical of Restoration

  • Philips, Obbe (Dutch religious leader)

    Menno Simons: Life: …group founded in 1534 by Obbe Philips, and was ordained by Obbe. He also married. From this time on his life was in constant danger as a heretic. In 1542 the Holy Roman emperor Charles V himself issued an edict against him, promising 100 guilders reward for his arrest. One…

  • Philips, Peter (British composer)

    Peter Philips, English composer of madrigals, motets, and keyboard music of considerable reputation in his lifetime. Philips was a Roman Catholic, and in 1582 he left England for Italy, where he became organist of the English College in Rome. In 1585 he entered the service of Lord Thomas Paget,

  • Philipsdam (dam, Netherlands)

    Eastern Schelde: …the Eastern Schelde and the Philipsdam in the Volkerak Channel north of Sint Philipsland peninsula. The Oesterdam forms freshwater Lake Zoom and is connected by the Eendracht (Schelde-Rhine Canal) north to the freshwater Volkerak Channel. The dams accommodate road travel and frontage recreation areas.

  • Philipse, Frederick (American colonist)

    Yonkers: …lands were then bought by Frederick Philipse, who built a manor there in 1682 (later used as the Yonkers city hall). The house, known as Philipse Manor Hall, was confiscated (1779) because the founder’s great grandson espoused the Tory cause during the American Revolution; it is now a state historic…

  • Philistia

    Palestine, area of the eastern Mediterranean region, comprising parts of modern Israel and the Palestinian territories of the Gaza Strip (along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea) and the West Bank (the area west of the Jordan River). The term Palestine has been associated variously and sometimes

  • Philistine (cultural term)

    history of Europe: Modern culture: …barbarian upper class and the Philistine middle class. Similarly, Nietzsche anatomized what he called the culture-Philistine; that is, the person whose mind fed on middling ideas and “genteel” tastes halfway between those of the populace and those of the genuinely cultivated. Numerous artists and writers, high in repute and believed…

  • Philistine (people)

    Philistine, one of a people of Aegean origin who settled on the southern coast of Palestine in the 12th century bce, about the time of the arrival of the Israelites. According to biblical tradition (Deuteronomy 2:23; Jeremiah 47:4), the Philistines came from Caphtor (possibly Crete, although there

  • Philistus (Greek historian)

    Philistus, Greek historian of Sicily during the reigns of the tyrants Dionysius I and Dionysius II. Philistus helped Dionysius I to seize power in Syracuse in 405 bc and then became his right-hand man and commander of the citadel in Ortygia. He was later exiled (386/385) for unknown reasons but was

  • Philitas of Cos (Greek poet)

    Philitas of Cos, Greek poet and grammarian, regarded as the founder of the Hellenistic school of poetry, which flourished in Alexandria after about 323 bc. He is reputed to have been the tutor of Ptolemy II and the poet Theocritus. The Roman poets Propertius and Ovid mention him as their model, but

  • Phillies (American baseball team)

    Philadelphia Phillies, American professional baseball team based in Philadelphia that plays in the National League (NL). The Phillies have won seven NL pennants and two World Series titles (1980 and 2008) and are the oldest continuously run, single-name, single-city franchise in American

  • Phillip Island (island, Australia)

    Phillip Island, island astride the entrance to Western Port (bay) on the south coast of Victoria, Australia, southeast of Melbourne. About 14 miles (23 km) long and 6 miles (10 km) at its widest, the island occupies 40 square miles (100 square km) and rises to 360 feet (110 metres). Visited in 1798

  • Phillip, Andrew (American basketball player)

    Andrew Phillip, (“Andy”), American basketball player (born March 7, 1922, Granite City, Ill.—died April 29, 2001, Rancho Mirage, Calif.), was an All-American basketball player at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the first National Basketball Association (NBA) player to make 500 a

  • Phillip, Arthur (British admiral)

    Arthur Phillip, British admiral whose convict settlement established at Sydney in 1788 was the first permanent European colony on the Australian continent. Phillip joined the British Navy in 1755, retired in 1763 to farm for 13 years in England, then served with the Portuguese Navy against Spain

  • Phillips 66 (American company)

    ConocoPhillips: The former downstream portions became Phillips 66, a separate company engaged in the refining and marketing of petroleum products around the world under brand names such as Phillips 66, 76, and Jet; it also retained the parent company’s interests in the production of petrochemicals. The new ConocoPhillips and Phillips 66…

  • Phillips Academy (school, Andover, Massachusetts, United States)

    Phillips Academy, private, coeducational college-preparatory school (grades 9–12) in Andover, Massachusetts, U.S. Features of its 500-acre (200-hectare) campus include a bird sanctuary, the Addison Gallery of American Art, and the Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology. It was founded as a

  • Phillips Andover Academy (school, Andover, Massachusetts, United States)

    Phillips Academy, private, coeducational college-preparatory school (grades 9–12) in Andover, Massachusetts, U.S. Features of its 500-acre (200-hectare) campus include a bird sanctuary, the Addison Gallery of American Art, and the Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology. It was founded as a

  • Phillips Collection (museum, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    Phillips Collection, museum containing an outstanding small collection of late 19th- and 20th-century American and European painting and sculpture that was founded in 1918 by Duncan Phillips. It is housed in Phillips’s residence (built 1897) in Washington, D.C. The museum sponsors concerts, docent

  • Phillips curve (economics)

    Phillips curve, graphic representation of the economic relationship between the rate of unemployment (or the rate of change of unemployment) and the rate of change of money wages. Named for economist A. William Phillips, it indicates that wages tend to rise faster when unemployment is low. In “The

  • Phillips Exeter Academy (school, Exeter, New Hampshire, United States)

    Phillips Exeter Academy, private, coeducational, college-preparatory school (grades 9–12) in Exeter, N.H., U.S. It was founded as a boys’ school in 1781 by John Phillips, a local merchant and uncle of Samuel Phillips, the founder three years earlier of Phillips Academy in Andover, Mass. Exeter’s

  • Phillips Petroleum Company (American company)

    Phillips Petroleum Company, former U.S. petroleum company that merged with Conoco in August 2002 to form ConocoPhillips. Phillips was incorporated in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, in 1917 to acquire the Oklahoma and Kansas oil-producing properties of Frank and L.E. Phillips. The acquisition of a refinery

  • Phillips, Anna Lena (American lawyer)

    Lena Madesin Phillips, American lawyer and clubwoman, a moving force in establishing national and international organizations to address the interests and concerns of business and professional women. Phillips, who adopted the given names Lena Madesin at age 11, was educated at Jessamine Female

  • Phillips, David Graham (American writer)

    muckraker: David Graham Phillips’s series “The Treason of the Senate” (Cosmopolitan, 1906), which inspired Pres. Roosevelt’s speech in 1906, was influential in leading to the passage of the Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution, which provided for popular senatorial elections. Muckraking as a movement largely disappeared

  • Phillips, Dewey (American radio personality)

    Dewey Phillips: Broadcasting on WHBQ in Memphis six nights a week from 9:00 pm until midnight, Dewey Phillips was tremendously popular with both black and white listeners in the 1950s. An excitable, flamboyant good old boy who seemed to have stepped from the pages of Al Capp’s…

  • Phillips, Fannie Fern (American pacifist and author)

    Fannie Fern Phillips Andrews, Canadian-born American pacifist and writer, a tireless advocate, nationally and internationally, for education and peace. Fannie Phillips grew up in Nova Scotia and, from about 1876, in Lynn, Massachusetts. She graduated from the Salem Normal School (now Salem State

  • Phillips, Frank, Jr. (American singer)

    Billy Guy, (Frank Phillips, Jr.), American pop singer (born June 20, 1936, Itasca, Texas—died Nov. 12, 2002, Las Vegas, Nev.), was one of the original members of the Coasters, a rock and roll group popular in the late 1950s. A baritone, he sang the lead on one of the quartet’s biggest hits, “

  • Phillips, Irna (American radio and television writer)

    Irna Phillips, American radio and television writer who developed the modern soap opera. She worked as a teacher before turning to writing for radio and creating the first soap opera, Painted Dreams (1930). Later known as “Queen of the Soaps,” she introduced techniques such as the organ bridge to

  • Phillips, Jack (British wireless operator)

    Titanic: Final hours: radio operators on the Titanic, Jack Phillips and Harold Bride, had been receiving iceberg warnings, most of which were passed along to the bridge. The two men worked for the Marconi Company, and much of their job was relaying passengers’ messages. On the evening of April 14 the Titanic began…

  • Phillips, James Frederick (American environmentalist)

    James Frederick Phillips, (“the Fox”), American environmentalist (born Nov. 20, 1930, Aurora, Ill.—died Oct. 3, 2001, Aurora), employed a number of creative means of demonstrating his displeasure with pollution, especially that caused by corporations, and he acknowledged his efforts by leaving a n

  • Phillips, John (English geologist)

    geochronology: Completion of the Phanerozoic time scale: John Phillips, another English geologist, went on to describe the Mesozoic Era to accommodate what then was the Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic, and partially Permian strata, and the Kainozoic (Cainozoic, or Cenozoic) era to include Lyell’s Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene. This subdivision of the generally fossiliferous…

  • Phillips, John (British bishop)

    Celtic literature: Manx: …about 1610 by a Welshman, John Phillips, bishop of Sodor and Man, but it remained unpublished until it was printed in 1893–94 side by side with the 1765 version made by the Manx clergy.

  • Phillips, John Edmund Andrew (American musician)

    John Edmund Andrew Phillips, American singer and songwriter (born Aug. 30, 1935, Parris Island, S.C.—died March 18, 2001, Los Angeles, Calif.), was the guiding force behind the Mamas and the Papas, the folk-pop-rock group that in only about two years in the mid-1960s had six numbers in the top 10 a

  • Phillips, Julia (American producer and writer)

    Julia Phillips, American film producer and writer who was the first woman to win an Academy Award for best picture, for The Sting (1973). Phillips was educated at Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Mass. (B.A., 1965), and worked in publishing before becoming a story editor for Paramount Pictures

  • Phillips, Lena Madesin (American lawyer)

    Lena Madesin Phillips, American lawyer and clubwoman, a moving force in establishing national and international organizations to address the interests and concerns of business and professional women. Phillips, who adopted the given names Lena Madesin at age 11, was educated at Jessamine Female

  • Phillips, Leslie (American musician)

    T Bone Burnett: …album by Christian pop artist Leslie Phillips, proved significant personally. Burnett and Phillips—who recorded as Sam on later albums—became involved romantically, and the two were married in 1989 (they divorced in 2004).

  • Phillips, Mark (British officer)

    Prince William and Catherine Middleton: The Royal Wedding of 2011: Princess Anne and Mark Phillips: The marriage of Princess Anne and Capt. Mark Phillips could trace its roots, as a dual biography published in the Britannica Book of the Year in 1974 put it, to “their joint interest and prowess in competitive horsemanship.” It was a sport in…

  • Phillips, Michael (American producer)
  • Phillips, Michelle (American singer)

    the Mamas and the Papas: …18, 2001, Los Angeles, California), Michelle Phillips (original name Holly Michelle Gilliam; b. April 6, 1944, Long Beach, California, U.S.), (“Mama”) Cass Elliot (original name Ellen Naomi Cohen; b. September 19, 1943, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.—d. July 29, 1974, London, England), and Dennis Doherty (b. November 29, 1941, Halifax, Nova Scotia,…

  • Phillips, Moses Dresser (American publisher)

    The Atlantic: …Atlantic Monthly was created by Moses Dresser Phillips and Francis H. Underwood in Boston, and the first issue was published in November 1857. The journal quickly became known for the quality of its fiction and general articles, contributed by a long line of distinguished editors and authors that includes James…

  • Phillips, Pauline Esther Friedman (American newspaper columnist)

    Pauline Esther Friedman Phillips, (Abigail Van Buren; “Popo”), American advice columnist (born July 4, 1918, Sioux City, Iowa—died Jan. 16, 2013, Minneapolis, Minn.), fielded tens of thousands of questions and dispensed thoughtful and sometimes acerbic answers to newspaper readers who queried “Dear

  • Phillips, Richard (American captain)

    Maersk Alabama hijacking: …crew eventually repelled the attackers, Capt. Richard Phillips was taken hostage aboard one of the Maersk Alabama’s lifeboats. The resulting standoff with the U.S. Navy ended on April 12 after Navy SEAL snipers killed three of the captors; a fourth had already surrendered.

  • Phillips, Robert A. (American physician)

    cholera: Development of treatments: …not occur until 1958, when Robert A. Phillips, a U.S. Navy physician, identified a solution that proved to be even more effective. Further refinements of Phillips’s solution and the methods of administering treatment occurred in Bangkok (Thailand), Taiwan, Manila, and Dhaka. By the mid-1960s, mortality rates in those areas were…

  • Phillips, Sam (American record producer)

    Samuel Cornelius Phillips, (“Sam”), American record producer (born Jan. 5, 1923, Florence, Ala.—died July 30, 2003, Memphis, Tenn.), recorded early works by blues greats Howlin’ Wolf, B.B. King, and Bobby “Blue” Bland in his Memphis studio and maintained that “if I could find a white man who had t

  • Phillips, Sam (American musician)

    T Bone Burnett: …album by Christian pop artist Leslie Phillips, proved significant personally. Burnett and Phillips—who recorded as Sam on later albums—became involved romantically, and the two were married in 1989 (they divorced in 2004).

  • Phillips, Samuel Cornelius (American record producer)

    Samuel Cornelius Phillips, (“Sam”), American record producer (born Jan. 5, 1923, Florence, Ala.—died July 30, 2003, Memphis, Tenn.), recorded early works by blues greats Howlin’ Wolf, B.B. King, and Bobby “Blue” Bland in his Memphis studio and maintained that “if I could find a white man who had t

  • Phillips, Sir Richard (British author and publisher)

    encyclopaedia: The reader’s needs: …issued by a remarkable publisher, Sir Richard Phillips, who realized the great demand for pocket-size compendia and drove a thriving trade in issuing a number of these; he is thought to have written large sections of these himself.

  • Phillips, Stephen (English actor and poet)

    Stephen Phillips, English actor and poet who was briefly successful as a playwright. Phillips was educated at Trinity College School, Stratford-upon-Avon, and at King’s School, Peterborough. In 1885 he joined an acting company founded by Frank Benson, his cousin. Phillips’s first collection of

  • Phillips, Tom (American jurist)

    Karl Rove: Senate in 1984, and Tom Phillips, who in 1988 became the first Republican ever elected to the Texas Supreme Court.

  • Phillips, W. T. (American bishop)

    Apostolic Overcoming Holy Church of God: Phillips in Mobile, Ala. The name was changed in 1927. The founder left the Methodist Episcopal Church, which he served as a minister, after becoming concerned about the doctrine of holiness and the process of sanctification.

  • Phillips, Wendell (American abolitionist)

    Wendell Phillips, abolitionist crusader whose oratorical eloquence helped fire the antislavery cause during the period leading up to the American Civil War. After opening a law office in Boston, Phillips, a wealthy Harvard Law School graduate, sacrificed social status and a prospective political

  • Phillips, William (English geologist)

    geochronology: Completion of the Phanerozoic time scale: Conybeare and William Phillips, in their synthesis of the geology of England and Wales in 1822. Conybeare and Phillips coined the term Carboniferous (or coal-bearing) to apply to the succession of rocks from north-central England that contained the Coal Measures. The unit also included several underlying rock…

  • Phillips, William (American editor)

    William Phillips, American editor (born Nov. 14, 1907, New York, N.Y.—died Sept. 13, 2002, New York City), was the cofounder of Partisan Review, an influential magazine of politics, literature, and culture. He was the son of Russian immigrants. Phillips was educated at the City College (now U

  • Phillips, William D. (American physicist)

    William D. Phillips, American physicist whose experiments using laser light to cool and trap atoms earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1997. He shared the award with Steven Chu and Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, who also developed methods of laser cooling and atom trapping. Phillips received his

  • Phillips-head screwdriver (tool)

    screwdriver: …common special screw is the Phillips head (Phillips Screw) as shown in the Figure.

  • Phillipsia (trilobite genus)

    Phillipsia, genus of trilobites (an extinct group of aquatic arthropods) uncommonly found as fossils in Carboniferous and Permian rocks (about 251 million to 359 million years old) in Europe, North America, and the Far East. One of the last known trilobite genera, Phillipsia is characterized by a

  • phillipsite (mineral)

    Phillipsite, hydrated calcium, sodium, and potassium aluminosilicate mineral in the zeolite family [(K,Na,Ca)1-2(Si,Al)8O16·6H2O]. It typically is found as brittle white crystals filling cavities and fissures in basalt and in phonolite lava, occurring near Rome; on Sicily; in Victoria, Australia;

  • Phillpotts, Eden (British writer)

    Eden Phillpotts, British novelist, poet, and dramatist especially noted for novels evoking their Devon setting in a manner reminiscent of the style of Thomas Hardy. Phillpotts was educated at Plymouth and for 10 years was a clerk in an insurance office. He then studied for the stage and later

  • Phillpotts, Henry (British clergyman)

    Henry Phillpotts, Church of England bishop of Exeter (from 1830), who represented the conservative High Church wing of the Oxford Movement and emphasized liturgical forms of worship, episcopal government, monastic life, and early Christian doctrine as normative of orthodoxy. His unsuccessful

  • Philly cheesesteak (cuisine)

    Cheesesteak, a sandwich made with sliced or chopped steak and melted cheese on a long sandwich roll. While its origins are subject to debate, brothers Pat and Harry Olivieri are often credited with coming up with the idea in South Philadelphia in the 1930s. The sandwich soon gained popularity, and

  • Phillyrea (plant)

    Mock privet, any shrub or small tree of the genus Phillyrea in the olive family, Oleaceae. The four species of mock privet, native to the Mediterranean area, sometimes are grown as ornamentals for their handsome, glossy, evergreen leaves. P. decora reaches 3 m (10 feet) and has shining leaves and

  • Phillyrea decora (plant)

    mock privet: P. decora reaches 3 m (10 feet) and has shining leaves and clusters of small, white flowers. The small, bright red, one-seeded fruits turn purple-black as they mature. P. latifolia reaches 10 m, and P. angustifolia, about 5 m.

  • Philo Judaeus (Jewish philosopher)

    Philo Judaeus, Greek-speaking Jewish philosopher, the most important representative of Hellenistic Judaism. His writings provide the clearest view of this development of Judaism in the Diaspora. As the first to attempt to synthesize revealed faith and philosophic reason, he occupies a unique

  • Philo of Alexandria (Jewish philosopher)

    Philo Judaeus, Greek-speaking Jewish philosopher, the most important representative of Hellenistic Judaism. His writings provide the clearest view of this development of Judaism in the Diaspora. As the first to attempt to synthesize revealed faith and philosophic reason, he occupies a unique

  • Philo of Byblos (ancient author)

    Sanchuniathon: …derived from the works of Philo of Byblos (flourished ad 100). Excavations at Ras Shamra (ancient Ugarit) in Syria in 1929 revealed Phoenician documents supporting much of Sanchuniathon’s information on Phoenician mythology and religious beliefs. According to Philo, Sanchuniathon derived the sacred lore from inscriptions on the Ammouneis (i.e., images…

  • Philo of Larissa (Greek philosopher)

    Platonism: Greek Platonism from Aristotle through Middle Platonism: its nature and history: …philosophical teaching was effected by Philo of Larissa (died c. 79 bce) and his pupil Antiochus of Ascalon, who was head of the school in 79–78 bce.

  • Philo of Megara (Greek philosopher)

    history of logic: The Megarians and the Stoics: …century bce) and his pupil Philo of Megara. The Stoics were followers of Zeno of Citium (c. 336–c. 265 bce). By far the most important Stoic logician was Chrysippus (c. 279–206 bce). The influence of Megarian on Stoic logic is indisputable, but many details are uncertain, since all but fragments…

  • Philo, Phoebe (British fashion designer)

    Phoebe Philo, British fashion designer who was creative director of the French fashion houses Chloé (2001–06) and Céline (2008–17). Philo’s British parents were working in Paris when she was born. By the time she was two years old, the family had returned to Britain. At age 10 she began putting her

  • Philobiblon (work by Bury)

    history of publishing: The revival of the secular book trade: This is evident in Philobiblon, a book finished in 1345 describing the book-collecting activities of Richard de Bury, bishop of Durham. The book relates how the bishop established good relations with stationers and booksellers in England, France, Germany, and Italy by sending advance payments. Evidence from the same century…

  • Philocalia (works by Origen)

    Saint Gregory of Nazianzus: …friends collaborated in editing the Philocalia, an anthology of theological and devotional selections from the works of Origen.

  • Philocalian Calendar (Roman almanac)

    church year: Christmas: …(the Chronographer of 354, or Philocalian Calendar), which indicates that the festival was observed by the church in Rome by the year 336.

  • Philochorus (ancient Greek historian)

    ancient Greek civilization: Historical writings: …contrary, the greatest of them, Philochorus, was put to death in the 3rd century by a Macedonian king for his excessive partiality toward King Ptolemy II Philadelphus of Egypt. All these authors were, in different ways, coming to terms with monarchy.

  • Philocopus; or, The Deaf and Dumb Man’s Friend (work by Bulwer)

    John Bulwer: …Language of the Hand (1644); Philocopus; or, The Deaf and Dumb Man’s Friend (1648); Pathomyotamia; or, A Dissection of the Significative Muscles of the Affections of the Mind (1649); and Anthropometamorphosis; or, The Artificial Changeling (1650).

  • Philocrates, Peace of (ancient Greek history)

    ancient Greek civilization: Macedonian supremacy in Greece: This was the notorious Peace of Philocrates—notorious because of the attempts by various leading Athenian orator-politicians to saddle each other with responsibility for what was in fact an inevitability.

  • Philoctetes (Greek hero)

    Philoctetes, Greek legendary hero who played a decisive part in the final stages of the Trojan War. He (or his father, Poeas) had been bequeathed the bow and arrows of the Greek hero Heracles in return for lighting his funeral pyre; Philoctetes thus became a notable archer. En route to Troy he was

  • Philoctetes (play by Sophocles)

    Philoctetes, play by Sophocles, first performed in 409 bce. The play opens after the Troy-bound Greeks have cast away the title character on the desert island of Lemnos because of a foul-smelling and incurable ulcer on his foot. In the course of battle, the Greeks discover that they cannot defeat

  • Philodemus (Greek poet and philosopher)

    Philodemus, Greek poet and Epicurean philosopher who did much to spread Epicureanism to Rome. After studying under the Epicurean Zeno of Sidon at Athens, he moved to Rome c. 75 bc and became the mentor of the Roman aristocrat Lucius Calpurnius Piso, who invited Philodemus to live in his villa at

  • Philodendron (plant)

    Philodendron, (genus Philodendron), approximately 450 species of stout-stemmed climbing herbs of the family Araceae, native to tropical America. Many species begin life as vines and then transform into epiphytes (plants that live upon other plants). Because many young philodendrons are adapted to

  • philodendron (plant)

    Philodendron, (genus Philodendron), approximately 450 species of stout-stemmed climbing herbs of the family Araceae, native to tropical America. Many species begin life as vines and then transform into epiphytes (plants that live upon other plants). Because many young philodendrons are adapted to

  • Philodendron bipenniflorium (plant)

    philodendron: Major species: Of moderate size is the fiddle-leaf, or horsehead, philodendron (P. bipennifolium), with large fiddle-shaped glossy green leaves up to 15–25 cm (6–10 inches) wide and 45 cm (18 inches) long. Larger types include the spade-leaf philodendron (P. domesticum), with triangular leaves up to 60 cm (24 inches) long, and the…

  • Philodendron domesticum (plant, Philodendron domesticum)

    philodendron: Major species: …include the spade-leaf philodendron (P. domesticum), with triangular leaves up to 60 cm (24 inches) long, and the tree philodendron (P. bipinnatifidum), with deeply cut leaves up to 1 metre (3 feet) long, both of which are striking plants that require considerable indoor space.

  • Philodendron hastatum (plant, Philodendron hastatum)
  • Philodendron pertusum (plant)
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