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  • Petroica multicolor (bird)

    robin: Familiar in Australia is the scarlet robin (Petroica multicolor), a species 11 cm (4.5 inches) tall, marked with black, white, and bright scarlet.

  • Petroicidae (bird)

    passeriform: Annotated classification: Family Petroicidae (Australasian robins) Small thrushlike and chatlike songbirds, 11–22 cm (4.3–8.7 inches). Some flycatcher-like in habits, but also engage in wing and tail flicking. Drab brown to colourful (yellow and red) plumages. DNA revealed they are not related to similar species of Eurasia but instead part…

  • Petrokrepost (Russia)

    Shlisselburg, town, Leningrad oblast (region), northwestern European Russia. It is located on the Neva River where it flows out of Lake Ladoga, east of St. Petersburg city. Founded as Oreshek in 1323 by the republic of Novgorod, the town was captured in the early 17th century by the Swedes, who

  • petrol (fuel)

    Gasoline, mixture of volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbons derived from petroleum and used as fuel for internal-combustion engines. It is also used as a solvent for oils and fats. Originally a by-product of the petroleum industry (kerosene being the principal product), gasoline became the

  • petrol engine

    Gasoline engine, any of a class of internal-combustion engines that generate power by burning a volatile liquid fuel (gasoline or a gasoline mixture such as ethanol) with ignition initiated by an electric spark. Gasoline engines can be built to meet the requirements of practically any conceivable

  • petrol station (business)

    operations research: Model construction: …the cars stopping at urban automotive service stations located at intersections of two streets revealed that almost all came from four of the 16 possible routes through the intersection (four ways of entering times four ways of leaving). Examination of the percentage of cars in each route that stopped for…

  • Petrolândia (town, Brazil)

    Petrolândia, town, south-central Pernambuco estado (state), northeastern Brazil. It lies on the left (east) bank of the São Francisco River, at the borders of Bahia, Pernambuco, and Alagoas states. It was known as Jatobá until 1939 and as Itaparica from 1939 until 1943. Petrolândia is the western

  • petrolatum (chemical compound)

    Petroleum jelly, translucent, yellowish to amber or white, unctuous substance having almost no odour or taste, derived from petroleum and used principally in medicine and pharmacy as a protective dressing and as a substitute for fats in ointments and cosmetics. It is also used in many types of

  • Petróleo Brasileiro S.A. (Brazilian corporation)

    Petrobras, Brazilian oil and gas company that was founded in 1953 to engage in the exploration, production, refining, and transport of domestic petroleum and petroleum products. Originally a state-owned monopoly, Petrobras became majority-owned by the state but competes against other Brazilian

  • Petróleos de Venezuela, SA (Venezuelan company)

    Petróleos de Venezuela, SA, state-owned Venezuelan company created through the nationalization of the petroleum industry on Jan. 1, 1976. It earns the largest share of Venezuela’s foreign exchange. Its headquarters are in Caracas. By 1971 Venezuela had begun to take steps to curb the influence of

  • Petróleos Mexicanos (Mexican company)

    Petróleos Mexicanos, state-owned Mexican company, a producer, refiner, and distributor of crude oil, natural gas, and petroleum products. It is one of the largest petroleum companies in the world. It is also a major source of revenue for Mexico’s federal government, contributing as much as

  • petroleum

    Petroleum, complex mixture of hydrocarbons that occur in Earth in liquid, gaseous, or solid form. The term is often restricted to the liquid form, commonly called crude oil, but, as a technical term, petroleum also includes natural gas and the viscous or solid form known as bitumen, which is found

  • petroleum benzin (chemistry)

    fat and oil processing: Processes: …especially the various grades of petroleum benzin (commonly known as petroleum ether, commercial hexane, or heptane). In large-scale operations, solvent extraction is a more economical means of recovering oil than is mechanical pressing. In the United States and increasingly in Europe, there are many instances of simple petroleum benzin extraction…

  • petroleum engineering

    Petroleum engineering, the branch of engineering that focuses on processes that allow the development and exploitation of crude oil and natural gas fields as well as the technical analysis, computer modeling, and forecasting of their future production performance. Petroleum engineering evolved from

  • Petroleum Exporting Countries, Organization of the (multinational organization)

    OPEC, multinational organization that was established to coordinate the petroleum policies of its members and to provide member states with technical and economic aid. OPEC was established at a conference held in Baghdad September 10–14, 1960, and was formally constituted in January 1961 by five

  • petroleum fly (insect)

    shore fly: …interesting species is the carnivorous petroleum fly (Helaeomyia petrolei), which lives and breeds in pools of crude petroleum and feeds on trapped insects. At one time, Indians in the western United States gathered the aquatic larvae of shore flies for food.

  • petroleum geology (science)

    geology: Oil and natural gas: …20th century, the consumption of petroleum products increased sharply. This led to a depletion of many existing oil fields, notably in the United States, and intensive efforts to find new deposits.

  • petroleum industry

    crude oil: The petroleum industry, however, uses the American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity scale, in which pure water has been arbitrarily assigned an API gravity of 10°. Liquids lighter than water, such as oil, have API gravities numerically greater than 10. On the basis of their API gravity,…

  • petroleum jelly (chemical compound)

    Petroleum jelly, translucent, yellowish to amber or white, unctuous substance having almost no odour or taste, derived from petroleum and used principally in medicine and pharmacy as a protective dressing and as a substitute for fats in ointments and cosmetics. It is also used in many types of

  • petroleum naphtha (chemical compound)

    naphtha: Petroleum naphtha is a name used primarily in the United States for petroleum distillate containing principally aliphatic hydrocarbons and boiling higher than gasoline and lower than kerosene.

  • petroleum product (chemistry)
  • petroleum production

    Petroleum production, recovery of crude oil and, often, associated natural gas from Earth. Petroleum is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon material that is believed to have formed from animal and vegetable debris in deep sedimentary beds. The petroleum, being less dense than the surrounding water,

  • petroleum refinery

    petroleum refining: Processing configurations: Each petroleum refinery is uniquely configured to process a specific raw material into a desired slate of products. In order to determine which configuration is most economical, engineers and planners survey the local market for petroleum products and assess the available raw materials. Since about half…

  • petroleum refining

    Petroleum refining, conversion of crude oil into useful products. The refining of crude petroleum owes its origin to the successful drilling of the first oil wells in Ontario, Canada, in 1858 and in Titusville, Pennsylvania, U.S., in 1859. Prior to that time, petroleum was available only in very

  • petroleum reservoir (geology)

    petroleum trap: …and gas is called the petroleum reservoir.

  • petroleum trap (geology)

    Petroleum trap, underground rock formation that blocks the movement of petroleum and causes it to accumulate in a reservoir that can be exploited. The oil is accompanied always by water and often by natural gas; all are confined in a porous and permeable reservoir rock, which is usually composed of

  • petroleum wax (chemical compound)

    Petroleum wax, any wax obtained from petroleum, including paraffin wax, microcrystalline wax, and petroleum jelly (qq.v.). By comparison, animal and vegetable waxes are generally higher in cost, of varying chemical constitution, and of uncertain availability and have thus been largely displaced by

  • Petrolina (Brazil)

    Petrolina, city, southwestern Pernambuco estado (state), northeastern Brazil. It lies on the left (north) bank of the São Francisco River, just across from Juazeiro, in Bahia state, with which it is linked by bridge. Petrolina is one of Brazil’s leading fruit-producing areas. The city is the

  • Petroline (pipeline, Saudi Arabia)

    Saudi Arabia: Petroleum: In 1981 Petroline, built to carry crude oil, was completed from Al-Jubayl on the Persian Gulf to Yanbuʿ on the Red Sea, and this greatly shortened the distance to Europe and obviated navigation through the gulf and the Strait of Hormuz. Petroline was built by the General…

  • Petrolini, Ettore (Italian actor and author)

    Ettore Petrolini, Italian theatrical actor and author, creator of numerous caricature sketches, and inventor of a revolutionary and anticonformist way of performing. Petrolini was the son of a blacksmith, and he did not receive training in the theatre. As an adolescent he discovered his innate gift

  • petrologic type (science)

    meteorite: Classification systems: …differences are referred to as petrologic types; they are broken down in the Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.petrologic types table. Types 2 and 1 represent increasing degrees of alteration by water, and types 3 through 6

  • petrology (science)

    Petrology, scientific study of rocks that deals with their composition, texture, and structure; their occurrence and distribution; and their origin in relation to physicochemical conditions and geologic processes. It is concerned with all three major types of rocks—igneous, metamorphic, and

  • Petromarivka (eastern Ukraine)

    Pervomaysk, mining town, eastern Ukraine, on the Donets Coal Basin. The town was established by 1765 and grew with the development of mining there after 1872. It was incorporated in 1938. Besides mining, Pervomaysk has been the site of electrical-engineering and light industries. Pop. (2001)

  • Petrometopon cruentatus (fish)

    Graysby, species of sea bass

  • petromictic orthobreccia (geology)

    sedimentary rock: Clast-supported conglomerates: Petromictic conglomerates and breccias, on the other hand, reflect the existence of high-relief (mountainous) source areas. Topographically high source areas signify tectonic mobility in the form of active folding or faulting or both. The existence of petromictic conglomerates and breccias in the geologic record is therefore significant: their…

  • petromictic orthoconglomerate (geology)

    sedimentary rock: Clast-supported conglomerates: Petromictic conglomerates and breccias, on the other hand, reflect the existence of high-relief (mountainous) source areas. Topographically high source areas signify tectonic mobility in the form of active folding or faulting or both. The existence of petromictic conglomerates and breccias in the geologic record is…

  • Petromin (Saudi Arabian company)

    Saudi Arabia: Petroleum: Petroline was built by the General Petroleum and Mineral Organization (Petromin), a government-owned corporation. Aramco constructed a massive gas-gathering system and, parallel to Petroline, a pipeline for transporting natural-gas liquids, which reached Yanbuʿ in 1981.

  • Petromus typicus (rodent)

    Dassie rat, (Petromus typicus), a medium-sized rodent adapted to life among rocky outcrops in the desert hills and plateaus of southwestern Africa. The dassie rat weighs 170 to 300 grams (6 to 11 ounces) and has a squirrel-like body 14 to 21 cm (5.5 to 8.3 inches) long; its hairy tail is 12 to 17

  • Petromyzon marinus (agnathan vertebrate)

    agnathan: General features: …a typical lamprey such as Petromyzon marinus migrates to the sea, where it feeds by attaching itself with its sucker to bony fishes. It rasps into the flesh with a toothed, tonguelike structure on the floor of the mouth. Saliva containing an anticoagulant facilitates the ingestion of blood and muscle…

  • Petromyzonidae (agnathan vertebrate)

    Lamprey, any of about 43 species of primitive fishlike jawless vertebrates placed with hagfishes in the class Agnatha. Lampreys belong to the family Petromyzonidae. They live in coastal and fresh waters and are found in temperate regions around the world, except Africa. The eel-like, scaleless

  • Petromyzontiformes (agnathan vertebrate order)

    fish: Annotated classification: (Monorhina) Order Petromyzontiformes (lampreys) Without dermal ossification of any sort; pectoral appendages absent; eyes more or less lateral or dorsal; 7 pairs of external gill openings; tail more or less diphycercal. Primarily bottom-dwelling fishes, but suctorial, feeding on blood and juices of live fishes; horny teeth present.…

  • Petronas (Malaysian company)

    Petronas Twin Towers: …to house the headquarters of Petronas, the national petroleum company of Malaysia, were designed by the Argentine-born American architect Cesar Pelli; they were completed in 1998. The plan for each tower is identical: an eight-lobed circular structure that contains 88 stories of occupiable space and a pyramid-shaped pinnacle surmounted by…

  • Petronas (Byzantine military leader)

    Battle of Poson: …met by the Byzantine general Petronas and a large army near Poson, west of the Halys River (now Kızıl River). A fierce engagement took place on September 3, in which the Arab army was surrounded and annihilated and in which ʿUmar himself was killed. Petronas’ victory marked a turning point…

  • Petronas Twin Towers (buildings, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)

    Petronas Twin Towers, pair of skyscraper office buildings in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, that are among the world’s tallest buildings. The Twin Towers, built to house the headquarters of Petronas, the national petroleum company of Malaysia, were designed by the Argentine-born American architect Cesar

  • Petronila (queen of Aragon)

    Spain: The medieval empire, 1035–1157: …marrying and fathering a child, Petronila, who could inherit the kingdom, Ramiro returned to his monastery. Petronila was betrothed in 1137 to Count Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona (1131–62), who assumed responsibility for the governance of the kingdom. Alfonso II (1162–96), the child of this marriage, united under his rule…

  • Petronilla (queen of Aragon)

    Spain: The medieval empire, 1035–1157: …marrying and fathering a child, Petronila, who could inherit the kingdom, Ramiro returned to his monastery. Petronila was betrothed in 1137 to Count Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona (1131–62), who assumed responsibility for the governance of the kingdom. Alfonso II (1162–96), the child of this marriage, united under his rule…

  • Petronium (castle, Bodrum, Turkey)

    Bodrum: Their spectacular castle, the Petronium, or Castle of St. Peter, remained a Christian stronghold until the Ottoman sultan Süleyman I the Magnificent captured it in 1522. The castle continues to be the town’s major landmark. The ruins of the Mausoleum of Mausolus, ruler of Caria (4th century bce), at…

  • Petronius Arbiter, Gaius (Roman author)

    Gaius Petronius Arbiter, reputed author of the Satyricon, a literary portrait of Roman society of the 1st century ad. The most complete and the most authentic account of Petronius’ life appears in Tacitus’ Annals, an account that may be supplemented, with caution, from other sources. It is probable

  • Petronius Maximus (Roman emperor)

    Petronius Maximus, Western Roman emperor from March 17 to May 31, 455. He was not recognized as emperor by the Eastern empire. Maximus was prefect of Rome in 420 and twice served as consul. In 454 he and the eunuch Heraclius engineered the assassination of the powerful patrician Aetius. Proclaimed

  • Petronius Niger, Titus (Roman author)

    Gaius Petronius Arbiter, reputed author of the Satyricon, a literary portrait of Roman society of the 1st century ad. The most complete and the most authentic account of Petronius’ life appears in Tacitus’ Annals, an account that may be supplemented, with caution, from other sources. It is probable

  • Petronius, Gaius (governor of Syria)

    ancient Rome: Foreign policy: The same year Gaius Petronius, the prefect of Egypt, tightened Rome’s grip as far as the First Cataract and established a broad military zone beyond it. The vast region north of the Sahara and the Atlas Mountains was also secured (c. 25) after a series of punitive raids…

  • Petropavl (Kazakhstan)

    Petropavlovsk, city, northern Kazakhstan. It lies along the Esil (Ishim) River in the centre of the Esil Steppe. Petropavlovsk was founded as a Russian fort in 1752 and soon became an important centre of trade between Russia and Central Asia and the Kazakh steppes. The Trans-Siberian Railroad

  • Petropavlovsk (Kazakhstan)

    Petropavlovsk, city, northern Kazakhstan. It lies along the Esil (Ishim) River in the centre of the Esil Steppe. Petropavlovsk was founded as a Russian fort in 1752 and soon became an important centre of trade between Russia and Central Asia and the Kazakh steppes. The Trans-Siberian Railroad

  • Petropavlovsk-Kamčatskij (Russia)

    Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, port and administrative centre of Kamchatka kray (territory), far eastern Russia. It lies along the landlocked Avachinskaya Gulf, on the Pacific coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula. The city was founded in 1740 during Vitus Bering’s second Kamchatka expedition. In 1854,

  • Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Russia)

    Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, port and administrative centre of Kamchatka kray (territory), far eastern Russia. It lies along the landlocked Avachinskaya Gulf, on the Pacific coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula. The city was founded in 1740 during Vitus Bering’s second Kamchatka expedition. In 1854,

  • Petropedetinae (amphibian subfamily)

    Anura: Annotated classification: …Zealand, and eastern Polynesia) and Petropedetinae (Africa). Family Rhacophoridae No fossil record; 8 presacral vertebrae; vertebral column procoelous with Presacral VIII biconcave; intercalary cartilages present; 2 tarsals; aquatic larvae; 10 genera, 203 species; adult size 1.5–12 cm (0.5–5 inches); 2 subfamilies: Buergeriinae (Taiwan and Japan) and

  • Petrópolis (Brazil)

    Petrópolis, city, central Rio de Janeiro estado (state), southeastern Brazil. It is situated in a valley at 2,667 feet (813 metres) above sea level, in the Órgãos Mountains, about 25 miles (40 km) north of Rio de Janeiro city. Petrópolis was founded in 1845 by Bavarian immigrants under the

  • Petrópolis, Treaty of (Brazil-Bolivia [1903])

    Bolivia: Liberal rule, 1899–1920: …territory to Brazil in the Treaty of Petrópolis (1903). As a result of the financial indemnities provided by both treaties, Bolivia was able to finance a great era of railroad construction. By 1920 most of the major cities were linked by rail, and La Paz was connected to the two…

  • Petros VII (Greek cleric)

    Petros VII, (Petros Papapetrou), Greek Orthodox cleric (born Sept. 3, 1949, Sichari, British Cyprus—died Sept. 11, 2004, while flying over the Aegean Sea), viewed his position as the Greek Orthodox patriarch of Africa as an opportunity to strengthen and spread the message of Greek Orthodoxy t

  • Petroşani (Romania)

    Petroșani, city, Hunedoara județ (county), west-central Romania, situated on a tributary of the Jiu River. Founded in the 17th century, it is the principal city and cultural centre for the upper Jiu Valley coalfield. It has a theatre and a museum of mining. The city is the headquarters for a group

  • Petrosaviales (plant order)

    angiosperm: Annotated classification: Order Petrosaviales Family: Petrosaviaceae. Commelinids An assemblage of 4 related monocot orders. Order Arecales Families: Arecaceae, Dasypogonaceae. Order

  • Petroselinum crispum (plant)

    Parsley, (Petroselinum crispum), hardy biennial herb of the family Apiaceae, or Umbelliferae, native to Mediterranean lands. Parsley leaves were used by the ancient Greeks and Romans as a flavouring and garnish for foods. The compound leaves—deep green, tender, and curled or deeply frilled—that

  • Petroşeni (Romania)

    Petroșani, city, Hunedoara județ (county), west-central Romania, situated on a tributary of the Jiu River. Founded in the 17th century, it is the principal city and cultural centre for the upper Jiu Valley coalfield. It has a theatre and a museum of mining. The city is the headquarters for a group

  • Petrosian, Mekhitar (Armenian priest)

    Mechitarist: …1701 by the Armenian priest Mekhitar Petrosian of Sivas. Driven from Constantinople in 1703, the Mechitarists moved to Modon in Morea (1703–15) and finally settled in 1717 on the island of San Lazzaro, Venice, which was given to them by the Venetian state. This community, known as the Ordo Mechitaristarum…

  • Petrosian, Tigran Vartanovich (Soviet chess player)

    Tigran Vartanovich Petrosyan, Soviet Armenian chess master who won the world championship from Mikhail Botvinnik in 1963, defended it successfully against Boris Spassky in 1966, and was defeated by Spassky in 1969. Petrosyan’s play, subtle and tirelessly patient, was designed to weaken an

  • Petrosino, Joseph (American policeman)

    Black Hand: Joseph Petrosino (1860–1909) of the New York Police Department, who had hundreds of gang members arrested, imprisoned, or deported before he was gunned down in Palermo on a visit to Sicily in 1909.

  • Petrosyan, Tigran V. (Soviet chess player)

    Tigran Vartanovich Petrosyan, Soviet Armenian chess master who won the world championship from Mikhail Botvinnik in 1963, defended it successfully against Boris Spassky in 1966, and was defeated by Spassky in 1969. Petrosyan’s play, subtle and tirelessly patient, was designed to weaken an

  • Petrosyan, Tigran Vartanovich (Soviet chess player)

    Tigran Vartanovich Petrosyan, Soviet Armenian chess master who won the world championship from Mikhail Botvinnik in 1963, defended it successfully against Boris Spassky in 1966, and was defeated by Spassky in 1969. Petrosyan’s play, subtle and tirelessly patient, was designed to weaken an

  • Petrouchka (Russian puppet character)

    Petrushka, main character of Russian folk puppet shows (see puppetry), first noted in 17th-century accounts and popular well into the 20th century. Petrushka was typically depicted as a smiling young boy with a large, hooked nose and often was humpbacked. The character was made internationally

  • Petrov, Ilya (Bulgarian artist)

    Bulgaria: The arts: …for his village portraits; and Ilya Petrov, who painted scenes and themes from Bulgarian history. After World War II, Socialist Realism dominated Bulgarian artistic circles. Its influence was seen in the broad historical themes that were adopted by artists in genres ranging from cartoons to still-life paintings and regional landscapes.…

  • Petrov, Nikolay Arnoldovich (Russian musician)

    Nikolay Arnoldovich Petrov, Russian pianist (born April 14, 1943, Moscow, Russia, U.S.S.R.—died Aug. 3, 2011, Moscow, Russia), was one of the few Soviet pianists to perform widely both within the U.S.S.R. and abroad. In the 1960s, while studying at the Moscow Conservatory, Petrov won second place

  • Petrov, Yevgeny (Soviet humorist)

    Ilf and Petrov: Petrov, the son of a teacher, began his career as a news-service correspondent, worked briefly as a criminal investigator, and went to Moscow in 1923, where he became a professional journalist. Initially, Ilf worked on the staff of Gudok (“The Whistle”), the central rail-workers’ newspaper,…

  • Petrov-Vodkin, Kuzma (Russian painter)

    Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, Russian painter who combined many traditions of world art in his work and created an original language in painting that was both deeply individual and national in spirit. Petrov-Vodkin’s birthplace was a small town on the banks of the Volga River, where he was born into the

  • Petrov-Vodkin, Kuzma Sergeyevich (Russian painter)

    Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, Russian painter who combined many traditions of world art in his work and created an original language in painting that was both deeply individual and national in spirit. Petrov-Vodkin’s birthplace was a small town on the banks of the Volga River, where he was born into the

  • Petrovaradinski šanac (Serbia)

    Novi Sad, city and administrative capital of the ethnically mixed autonomous region of Vojvodina in northern Serbia. It is a transit port on the heavily trafficked Danube River northwest of Belgrade and is also situated on the Belgrade-Budapest rail line. Before the 18th century Novi Sad was a

  • Petrović, Danilo Nikola (ruler of Montenegro)

    Danilo I, the first ruler of Montenegro of the Petrović-Njegoš dynasty, which lasted from 1697 to 1918, when Montenegro was absorbed into the new Yugoslav state. In 1696 Danilo was nominated vladika, or prince-bishop, with power to select his successor from among his relatives—thus confirming the

  • Petrović, Ðorðe (Serbian political leader)

    Karadjordje, leader of the Serbian people in their struggle for independence from the Turks and founder of the Karadjordjević (Karađorđević) dynasty. The son of a peasant, Karadjordje (“Black George”), so named because of his dark complexion and penetrating eyes, in his youth herded swine and

  • Petrović, Dražen (Croatian basketball player)

    Drazen Petrovic, Croatian basketball player (born Oct. 22, 1964, Sibenik, Yugos.—died June 7, 1993, near Ingolstadt, Germany), won two Olympic silver medals, first for Yugoslavia (1988) and then for independent Croatia (1992), before signing on as one of the National Basketball Association’s (

  • Petrović, George (Serbian political leader)

    Karadjordje, leader of the Serbian people in their struggle for independence from the Turks and founder of the Karadjordjević (Karađorđević) dynasty. The son of a peasant, Karadjordje (“Black George”), so named because of his dark complexion and penetrating eyes, in his youth herded swine and

  • Petrovich, Aleksey (prince of Russia [1690-1718])

    Alexis, heir to the throne of Russia, who was accused of trying to overthrow his father, Peter I the Great. After his mother, Eudoxia, was forced to enter a convent (1698), Alexis was brought up by his aunts and, after 1702, was educated by the tutor Baron Heinrich von Huyssen. Although he d

  • Petrovich, Pavel (emperor of Russia)

    Paul, emperor of Russia from 1796 to 1801. Son of Peter III (reigned 1762) and Catherine the Great (reigned 1762–96), Paul was reared by his father’s aunt, the empress Elizabeth (reigned 1741–61). After 1760 he was tutored by Catherine’s close adviser, the learned diplomat Nikita Ivanovich Panin,

  • Petrovna, Yelizaveta (empress of Russia)

    Elizabeth, empress of Russia from 1741 to 1761 (1762, New Style). The daughter of Peter I the Great (reigned 1682–1725) and Catherine I (reigned 1725–27), Elizabeth grew up to be a beautiful, charming, intelligent, and vivacious young woman. Despite her talents and popularity, particularly among

  • Petrovsk (Russia)

    Kamyshin, city, Volgograd oblast (region), western Russia. The city lies along the Volga River and the Volgograd reservoir. In 1697 Peter I the Great built a fort, Petrovsk, to protect workmen attempting to construct a canal between the Volga and Don rivers. Renamed Dmitriyevsk in 1710 and Kamyshin

  • Petrovsk Port (Russia)

    Makhachkala, port and capital of Dagestan republic, southwestern Russia. The city is situated along the western shore of the Caspian Sea, at the northern end of a narrow coastal plain. Founded as the Petrovskoye fortress in 1844, it became Petrovsk Port in 1857 and was renamed in 1921 after the

  • Petrovsky Palace (palace, Moscow, Russia)

    Matvey Fyodorovich Kazakov: He built the Petrovsky Palace (1775–82) in a pseudo-Gothic style on what was at the time the outskirts of Moscow. The tsars would stop at this palace before entering the city. The emperor Napoleon stayed there in 1812 during his retreat from Moscow.

  • Petrozavodsk (Russia)

    Petrozavodsk, city and capital of Karelia, northwestern Russia, situated on the western shore of Lake Onega, south of the Shuya River outflow. The city was founded in 1703 by Peter I (the Great) as an ironworks to supply ordnance to his new capital of St. Petersburg. Its modern industries include

  • Petrucci, Ottaviano dei (Italian music printer)

    Ottaviano dei Petrucci, Italian music printer whose collection of chansons, Harmonice Musices Odhecaton A (1501), was the first polyphonic music printed from movable type. Petrucci went to Venice in 1490, holding music printing monopolies there from 1498 to 1511 and later at Fossombrone. In 1536,

  • Petrucci, Pandolfo (ruler of Siena)

    Pandolfo Petrucci, Italian merchant and politician who succeeded in gaining supreme power over Siena. Although an absolute and tyrannical ruler, he did a great deal to augment the artistic splendour of his native city. Exiled from Siena as a partisan of the noveschi, which was briefly outcast by

  • Petrucciani, Michel (French musician)

    Michel Petrucciani, French jazz pianist who overcame physical obstacles—he had a bone-destroying disease that stunted his growth—to become an outstanding improviser, forging an eclectic style that embraced a refined technique and a repertoire that featured romantic melodies; though Petrucciani

  • Petruchio (fictional character)

    Petruchio, fictional character, a gentleman of Verona who goes to Padua in search of a wife and becomes the suitor of Katharina, the shrew of the title, in William Shakespeare’s The Taming of the Shrew (written sometime in

  • Petrus Aureoli (French philosopher)

    Petrus Aureoli, French churchman, philosopher, and critical thinker, called Doctor facundus (“eloquent teacher”), who was important as a forerunner to William of Ockham. Petrus may have become a Franciscan at Gourdon before 1300; he was in Paris (1304) to study, possibly under John Duns Scotus. H

  • Petrus Aureolus (French philosopher)

    Petrus Aureoli, French churchman, philosopher, and critical thinker, called Doctor facundus (“eloquent teacher”), who was important as a forerunner to William of Ockham. Petrus may have become a Franciscan at Gourdon before 1300; he was in Paris (1304) to study, possibly under John Duns Scotus. H

  • Petrus de Vinea (Italian minister)

    Pietro Della Vigna, chief minister of the Holy Roman emperor Frederick II, distinguished as jurist, poet, and man of letters whose sudden fall from power and tragic death captured the imagination of poets and chroniclers, including Dante. Born in the mainland part of the kingdom of Sicily to a p

  • Petrus Hispanus (pope)

    John XXI, pope from 1276 to 1277, one of the most scholarly pontiffs in papal history. Educated at the University of Paris (c.. 1228–35), where he received his master’s degree c. 1240, John taught medicine at the new University of Siena, Italy. In 1272 Pope Gregory X, who made John his personal

  • Pétrus Ky (Vietnamese statesman)

    Pétrus Ky, Vietnamese scholar whose literary works served as a bridge between his civilization and that of the West. He helped popularize the romanized script of the Vietnamese language, Quoc-ngu. Pétrus Ky was born into a Roman Catholic family, and in 1848 he attended a mission college in

  • Petrus Lombardus (French bishop)

    Peter Lombard, bishop of Paris whose Four Books of Sentences (Sententiarum libri IV) was the standard theological text of the Middle Ages. After early schooling at Bologna, he went to France to study at Reims and then at Paris. From 1136 to 1150 he taught theology in the school of Notre Dame,

  • Petrus Peregrinus de Maharncuria (French scientist)

    Peter Peregrinus of Maricourt, French crusader and scholar who wrote the first extant treatise describing the properties of magnets. Almost nothing is known about Peregrinus’ life, except that he wrote his famous treatise while serving as an engineer in the army of Charles I of Anjou that was

  • Petrus Sabbatius (Byzantine emperor)

    Justinian I, Byzantine emperor (527–565), noted for his administrative reorganization of the imperial government and for his sponsorship of a codification of laws known as the Code of Justinian (Codex Justinianus; 534). Justinian was a Latin-speaking Illyrian and was born of peasant stock.

  • Pétrus, Jean-Baptiste (Vietnamese statesman)

    Pétrus Ky, Vietnamese scholar whose literary works served as a bridge between his civilization and that of the West. He helped popularize the romanized script of the Vietnamese language, Quoc-ngu. Pétrus Ky was born into a Roman Catholic family, and in 1848 he attended a mission college in

  • Petrushevych, Yevhen (Ukrainian political leader)

    Ukraine: World War I and the struggle for independence: …and the government, headed by Yevhen Petrushevych, transferred its seat to Stanyslaviv (now Ivano-Frankivsk). On January 22, 1919, an act of union of the two Ukrainian states was proclaimed in Kyiv, but actual political integration was prevented by the ongoing hostilities. These ultimately took an unfavourable turn for the Ukrainians,…

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