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  • Petite Kabylie (region, Algeria)

    Atlas Mountains: Climate: …of Mount Babor in the Little Kabylie region are covered with snow for four or five months, while the Moroccan High Atlas retains its snows until the height of summer. Winter in the Atlas is hard, imposing severe conditions upon the inhabitants.

  • Petite Paroisse, La (work by Daudet)

    Alphonse Daudet: Legacy: …struggling against religious fanaticism; and La Petite Paroisse (1895), the contrarieties of jealousy. In Sapho (1884), underlying the moral issue, there is Daudet’s evaluation of a whole generation of young men, together with a statement of the age-old dilemma of the lover who must choose between freedom and pity for…

  • Petite poèmes en prose (work by Baudelaire)

    Charles Baudelaire: Prose poems: Baudelaire’s Petits poèmes en prose was published posthumously in 1869 and was later, as intended by the author, entitled Le Spleen de Paris (translated as The Parisian Prowler). He did not live long enough to bring these poems together in a single volume, but it is…

  • Petite Rivière Noire, Piton de la (mountain, Mauritius)

    Mauritius: Relief and drainage: …(2,717 feet [828 metres]) is Piton de la Petite Rivière Noire in the southwest. The two major rivers, the Grand River South East and the Black River, are the primary sources of hydroelectric power. Lake Vacoas, one of the main reservoirs, is the chief source of water.

  • petitio principii (logic)

    fallacy: Material fallacies: (4) The fallacy of circular argument, known as petitio principii (“begging the question”), occurs when the premises presume, openly or covertly, the very conclusion that is to be demonstrated (example: “Gregory always votes wisely.” “But how do you know?” “Because he always votes Libertarian.”). A special form…

  • petition (form of prayer)

    prayer: Petition: The role of the request in religion has played such a central part that by metonymy (using a word for another expected word) it has given its name to prayer. However contestable this may sometimes be, it is impossible to refuse to recognize the…

  • petition (law)

    Petition, written instrument directed to some individual, official, legislative body, or court in order to redress a grievance or to request the granting of a favour. Petitions are also used to collect signatures to enable a candidate to get on a ballot or to put an issue before the electorate.

  • Petition crown (English coin)

    coin: Modern coinage: It was the “Petition” crown made by Thomas Simon, engraver at the mint under the Commonwealth, and bears on the edge a petition to the king that he might be given the same office under the restored monarchy. For the great recoinage under William III, provincial mints were…

  • petition mill (fraud)
  • Petition of Right (British history [1628])

    Petition of Right, (1628) petition sent by the English Parliament to King Charles I complaining of a series of breaches of law. The petition sought recognition of four principles: no taxation without the consent of Parliament, no imprisonment without cause, no quartering of soldiers on subjects,

  • petition, right to (law)

    First Amendment: Freedoms of speech, of the press, of assembly, and to petition: …press, of assembly, and to petition—discussed here together as “freedom of expression”—broadly protect expression from governmental restrictions. Thus, for instance, the government may not outlaw antiwar speech, speech praising violence, racist speech, pro-communist speech, and the like. Nor may the government impose special taxes on speech on certain

  • Petitot, Jean (Swiss painter)

    Jean Petitot, Swiss painter who was the first great miniature portraitist in enamel. The son of the sculptor Faulle Petitot, he was apprenticed to a Swiss jeweler from 1622 to 1626. About 1633 he went to France, where he probably became the pupil of Jean and Henri Toutin, the originators of the art

  • Petits Enfants du siècle, Les (work by Rochefort)

    French literature: Feminist writers: Josyane and the Welfare) and Claire Etcherelli’s Élise; ou, la vraie vie (1967; Elise; or, The Real Life). But an equally significant impact was made by writers looking for ways of transforming masculine language for women-generated versions of feminine subjectivity. The texts of James Joyce…

  • Petits poèmes en prose (work by Baudelaire)

    Charles Baudelaire: Prose poems: Baudelaire’s Petits poèmes en prose was published posthumously in 1869 and was later, as intended by the author, entitled Le Spleen de Paris (translated as The Parisian Prowler). He did not live long enough to bring these poems together in a single volume, but it is…

  • Petkoff, Teodoro (Venezuelan political leader)

    Movement Toward Socialism: …the dismissal of its leader, Teodoro Petkoff, for remarks criticizing the Soviet Union’s invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 and his rejection of Eurocommunism and the Soviet model. The MAS quickly won the support of most members of the Communist Party and a majority of communist trade union leaders. In the…

  • Petkov, Nikola (Bulgarian officer)

    Bulgaria: Consolidation of power: …in November, the Agrarian leader, Nikola Petkov, emerged as the opposition’s principal spokesman. However, he was charged with plotting to overthrow the government and was expelled from the Grand National Assembly along with most of his associates. In June 1947 Petkov was arrested, and on September 23 he was executed.…

  • Petkova, Maria (Bulgarian athlete)

    Evelin Schlaak: …soon broken by a Bulgarian, Maria Petkova, but at the 1980 Olympics in Moscow, Jahl achieved the four longest throws of the competition, easily defeating Petkova to become the first woman to win consecutive Olympic gold medals in that event. Jahl’s other successes included six East German championships, European championships…

  • Petliura, Symon (Ukrainian social leader)

    Symon Petlyura, socialist leader of Ukraine’s unsuccessful fight for independence following the Russian revolutions of 1917. One of the founders of the Ukrainian Social-Democratic Workers’ Party in 1905, Petlyura published two socialist weekly newspapers before the onset of World War I, when he

  • Petlyura, Symon (Ukrainian social leader)

    Symon Petlyura, socialist leader of Ukraine’s unsuccessful fight for independence following the Russian revolutions of 1917. One of the founders of the Ukrainian Social-Democratic Workers’ Party in 1905, Petlyura published two socialist weekly newspapers before the onset of World War I, when he

  • Petlyura, Symon Vasylevych (Ukrainian social leader)

    Symon Petlyura, socialist leader of Ukraine’s unsuccessful fight for independence following the Russian revolutions of 1917. One of the founders of the Ukrainian Social-Democratic Workers’ Party in 1905, Petlyura published two socialist weekly newspapers before the onset of World War I, when he

  • PETM

    Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), a short interval of maximum temperature lasting approximately 100,000 years during the late Paleocene and early Eocene epochs (roughly 55 million years ago). The interval was characterized by the highest global temperatures of the Cenozoic Era (65 million

  • PETN (chemical compound)

    PETN, a highly explosive organic compound belonging to the same chemical family as nitroglycerin and nitrocellulose. PETN has the chemical formula C5H8N4O12. It is prepared by reacting pentaerythritol (C5H12O4), an alcohol traditionally used in paints and varnishes, with nitric acid (HNO2). The

  • Peto Sjarif (Minangkabau leader)

    Imam Bondjol, Minangkabau religious leader, key member of the Padri faction in the religious Padri War, which divided the Minangkabau people of Sumatra in the 19th century. When in about 1803 three pilgrims inspired by the ideas of the puritan Wahhābī sect returned from Mecca and launched a

  • Peto, John Frederick (American painter)

    John Frederick Peto, American still-life painter who, though influenced by the style and subject matter of the better-known trompe l’oeil (“fool-the-eye”) still-life painter William Harnett, developed a distinctive mode of expression. Biographical information on Peto is meagre, and few of his works

  • Petőfi Sándor (Hungarian poet)

    Sándor Petőfi, one of the greatest Hungarian poets and a revolutionary who symbolized the Hungarian desire for freedom. Petőfi had an eventful youth; he studied at eight different schools, joined for a short time a group of strolling players, and enlisted as a private soldier, but because of ill

  • Petőfi, Sándor (Hungarian poet)

    Sándor Petőfi, one of the greatest Hungarian poets and a revolutionary who symbolized the Hungarian desire for freedom. Petőfi had an eventful youth; he studied at eight different schools, joined for a short time a group of strolling players, and enlisted as a private soldier, but because of ill

  • Petosiris (Egyptian high priest)

    Egyptian art and architecture: Greco-Roman Egypt: …interesting is the tomb of Petosiris, high priest of Thoth in nearby Hermopolis Magna in the late 4th century bce. It is in the form of a small temple with a pillared portico, elaborate column capitals, and a large forecourt. In its mural decorations a strong Greek influence merges with…

  • Petoskey (Michigan, United States)

    Petoskey, resort city, seat (1902) of Emmet county, northwestern Lower Peninsula of Michigan, U.S. It is located on Little Traverse Bay of Lake Michigan, about 70 miles (110 km) northeast of Traverse City. Settled in 1852 and named for the Ottawa chief Pet-o-sega, it was the site of St. Francis

  • Petr Chelčický (Czech author)

    Peter Chelčický, Czech religious and political writer, the foremost thinker of the 15th-century Czech Hussite Reformation movement. A member of the south Bohemian gentry, Chelčický was much influenced by the thought of the English heretic John Wycliffe and the martyred Czech Reformer Jan Hus. An

  • Petr of Aspelt (Bohemian archbishop)

    Czechoslovak history: The Luxembourg dynasty: …of advisers, headed by Archbishop Petr of Aspelt, tried to uphold the royal authority. In the resulting conflict, a powerful aristocratic faction scored a decisive victory in 1318. Its leader, Jindřich of Lípa, virtually ruled over Bohemia until his death in 1329. Meanwhile, John found satisfaction in tournaments and military…

  • Petra (ancient city, Jordan)

    Petra, ancient city, centre of an Arab kingdom in Hellenistic and Roman times, the ruins of which are in southwest Jordan. The city was built on a terrace, pierced from east to west by the Wadi Mūsā (the Valley of Moses)—one of the places where, according to tradition, the Israelite leader Moses

  • PETRA (collider)

    DESY: …DESY completed construction of the Positron-Electron Tandem Ring Accelerator (PETRA), a larger collider capable of reaching 19 GeV per beam. In 1979 experiments with PETRA yielded the first direct evidence for the existence of gluons, the messenger particles of the strong force that bind quarks together within protons and

  • Petra Velikogo, Zaliv (inlet, Sea of Japan)

    Peter the Great Bay, inlet, Sea of Japan, northwestern Pacific Ocean, in the Maritime (Primorye) region of far eastern Russia. The bay extends for 115 miles (185 km) from the mouth of the Tumen River (on the Russian-Chinese border) northeast across to Cape Povorotny. The bay reaches inland for 55

  • Petra-Sancta system (heraldry)

    heraldry: The reading of heraldry: …as the system of Sylvester Petra-Sancta, an Italian herald, it makes use of the following equivalents: argent is denoted by a plain field, or by dots or points, gules by perpendicular lines, azure by horizontal lines, vert by lines from dexter chief to sinister base, purpure by lines from sinister…

  • Petracha (king of Ayutthaya)

    Phetracha, king of the Tai kingdom of Ayutthaya, or Siam (ruled 1688–1703), whose policies reduced European trade and influence in the country and helped preserve its independence. Phetracha was the foster brother of King Narai, whose patronage helped him rise to become head of the Elephant

  • Petraeus, David (United States commander in chief of Central Command)

    David Petraeus, U.S. army general who was appointed by Pres. George W. Bush to head multinational forces in Iraq (2007–08) and who later served as commander in chief of Central Command (Centcom; 2008–10) and as commander of U.S. and NATO forces in Afghanistan (2010–11). He later was director of the

  • Petraeus, David Howell (United States commander in chief of Central Command)

    David Petraeus, U.S. army general who was appointed by Pres. George W. Bush to head multinational forces in Iraq (2007–08) and who later served as commander in chief of Central Command (Centcom; 2008–10) and as commander of U.S. and NATO forces in Afghanistan (2010–11). He later was director of the

  • Petrakis, Harry Mark (American author)

    Harry Mark Petrakis, American novelist and short-story writer whose exuberant and sensitive works deal with the lives of Greek immigrants in urban America. Petrakis, the son of an Eastern Orthodox priest, attended the University of Illinois (1940–41) and held a variety of jobs to support himself

  • Petralona skull (hominin fossil)

    Petralona skull, an ancient human cranium discovered in 1960 in a cave near Thessaloníki, northeastern Greece. The age of this skull has been difficult to establish. At first it was believed to be contemporary with Neanderthals, perhaps no older than 120,000 years. Some methods, however, indicate

  • Petrarca, Francesco (Italian poet)

    Petrarch, Italian scholar, poet, and humanist whose poems addressed to Laura, an idealized beloved, contributed to the Renaissance flowering of lyric poetry. Petrarch’s inquiring mind and love of Classical authors led him to travel, visiting men of learning and searching monastic libraries for

  • Petrarch (Italian poet)

    Petrarch, Italian scholar, poet, and humanist whose poems addressed to Laura, an idealized beloved, contributed to the Renaissance flowering of lyric poetry. Petrarch’s inquiring mind and love of Classical authors led him to travel, visiting men of learning and searching monastic libraries for

  • Petrarch’s Secret (work by Petrarch)

    Petrarch: Moral and literary evolution (1340–46): …a common reading of the Secretum meum (1342–43). It is an autobiographical treatise consisting of three dialogues between Petrarch and St. Augustine in the presence of Truth. In it he maintains hope that, even amidst worldly preoccupations and error, even while absorbed in himself and his own affairs, a man…

  • Petrarchan conceit (literature)

    conceit: The Petrarchan conceit, which was especially popular with Renaissance writers of sonnets, is a hyperbolic comparison most often made by a suffering lover of his beautiful mistress to some physical object—e.g., a tomb, the ocean, the sun. Edmund Spenser’s Epithalamion, for instance, characterizes the beloved’s eyes…

  • Petrarchan sonnet (poetry)

    sonnet: …beloved, Laura—established and perfected the Petrarchan (or Italian) sonnet, which remains one of the two principal sonnet forms, as well as the one most widely used. The other major form is the English (or Shakespearean) sonnet.

  • Petrarchism (literature)

    Italian literature: Petrarch (1304–74): The literary phenomenon known as Petrarchism developed rapidly within the poet’s lifetime and continued to grow during the following three centuries, deeply influencing the literatures of Italy, Spain, France, and England. His followers did not merely imitate but accepted his practice of strict literary discipline and his forms, including his…

  • Petrashevsky Circle (Russian intellectual organization)

    Fyodor Dostoyevsky: Political activity and arrest: …began to participate in the Petrashevsky Circle, a group of intellectuals who discussed utopian socialism. He eventually joined a related, secret group devoted to revolution and illegal propaganda. It appears that Dostoyevsky did not sympathize (as others did) with egalitarian communism and terrorism but was motivated by his strong disapproval…

  • Petrassi, Goffredo (Italian musician)

    Goffredo Petrassi, one of the most influential Italian composers of the 20th century. He is known for incorporating various avant-garde techniques into a highly personal style. Petrassi was born to a family of modest means. He studied voice for some time at the Schola Cantorum di San Salvatore in

  • Petre (New Zealand)

    Wanganui, city (“district”) and port, southwestern North Island, New Zealand, near the mouth of the Wanganui River. The site lies within a tract bought by the New Zealand Company in 1840. The company established a settlement in 1841 and named it Petre. It was renamed in 1844, the present name

  • Petre, Sir Edward, 2nd Baronet (English Jesuit)

    Sir Edward Petre, 2nd Baronet, English Jesuit, favourite of King James II of Great Britain. Educated in France, he entered the Society of Jesus in 1652 and took orders in 1671, when he returned to England. In 1679 he succeeded to the family baronetcy and estates and was appointed vice provincial of

  • Petrea (plant genus)

    Verbenaceae: Outstanding among the 30 Petrea species, all tropical American, is a woody evergreen vine called purple wreath, or sandpaper vine (P. volubilis). It bears long, hanging clusters of violet-blue pansylike flowers and has oval leaves so rough as to be likened to sandpaper. The 220 species of the genus…

  • Petrea volubilis (plant)

    Verbenaceae: …a woody evergreen vine called purple wreath, or sandpaper vine (P. volubilis). It bears long, hanging clusters of violet-blue pansylike flowers and has oval leaves so rough as to be likened to sandpaper. The 220 species of the genus Lippia bear clusters of white, rose, or purplish flowers. L. canescens…

  • Petreius, Johann (German printer)

    Nicolaus Copernicus: Publication of De revolutionibus: …top printer in the city, Johann Petreius, who had published a number of ancient and modern astrological works during the 1530s. It was not uncommon for authors to participate directly in the printing of their manuscripts, sometimes even living in the printer’s home. However, Rheticus was unable to remain and…

  • petrel (bird)

    Petrel, any of a number of seabirds of the order Procellariiformes, particularly certain members of the family Procellariidae, which also includes the fulmars and the shearwaters. Members of the family Hydrobatidae are increasingly called storm petrels; those of the Pelecanoididae are usually

  • Petrenko, Kirill (Russian-born conductor)

    Bavarian State Orchestra: Kirill Petrenko succeeded Nagano in 2013.

  • Petrescu, Cezar (Romanian author)

    Romanian literature: Between the wars: …as for a number of Cezar Petrescu’s novels and even some of Ion Minulescu’s poems. Hortensia Papadat-Bengescu’s trilogy of novels (Fecioarele despletite [1926; “Disheveled Virgins”], Concert din muzică de Bach [1927; “A Bach Concert”], and Drumul ascuns [1933; “The Hidden Way”]) is a document of changing lifestyles and urbanization, similar…

  • Petrescu, Elena (wife of Nicolae Ceauşescu)

    Nicolae Ceaușescu: In 1939 he married Elena Petrescu, a Communist activist. While in prison, Ceaușescu became a protégé of his cell mate, the Communist leader Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, who would become the undisputed Communist leader of Romania beginning in 1952. Escaping prison in August 1944 shortly before the Soviet occupation of Romania,…

  • Petri, Elio (Italian filmmaker)

    Elio Petri, Italian motion-picture director and screenwriter. Petri’s formal education was limited; most of his formative experiences occurred on the streets, in his neighbourhood, and in the local cell of the Italian Communist Party, of which he was a militant member until 1956. That year, when

  • Petri, Laurentius (Swedish archbishop)

    Laurentius Petri, Lutheran churchman, a leader of the Protestant Reformation in Sweden and the first Protestant archbishop of Uppsala (1531–73). His influence was very great, although he was less dynamic and forceful than his brother Olaus. The Swedish Bible of 1541, for which he was principally

  • Petri, Olaus (Swedish church leader)

    Olaus Petri, Lutheran churchman who, with his brother Laurentius, played a decisive role in the reformation of the Swedish church. He studied at Wittenberg (1516–18) and absorbed the reformed teaching of Martin Luther and Philipp Melanchthon. When Gustavus Vasa was crowned king in 1523, Olaus had

  • Petrie, Andrew (Australian explorer)

    Maroochydore: …Maroochy River was sighted by Andrew Petrie in 1862, and Petrie took the name for the river and the district from an Aboriginal word meaning “water where the black swan lives.” The town of Maroochydore, founded in 1900 as a port serving inland districts and for timber exports from the…

  • Petrie, Sir Flinders (British archaeologist)

    Sir Flinders Petrie, British archaeologist and Egyptologist who made valuable contributions to the techniques and methods of field excavation and invented a sequence dating method that made possible the reconstruction of history from the remains of ancient cultures. He was knighted in 1923. Petrie

  • Petrie, Sir William Matthew Flinders (British archaeologist)

    Sir Flinders Petrie, British archaeologist and Egyptologist who made valuable contributions to the techniques and methods of field excavation and invented a sequence dating method that made possible the reconstruction of history from the remains of ancient cultures. He was knighted in 1923. Petrie

  • Petrified Forest National Monument (monument, Argentina)

    Santa Cruz: The northeast-central Petrified Forest National Monument (1954) covers nearly 14 square miles (35 square km). Los Glaciares National Park, which lies farther south and has an area of 1,722 square miles (4,459 square km), including Lake Argentino, was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1981. In…

  • Petrified Forest National Park (national park, Arizona, United States)

    Petrified Forest National Park, desert area containing plant and animal fossils and archaeological sites in eastern Arizona, U.S., 19 miles (30 km) east of Holbrook. It was established as a national monument in 1906 and as a national park in 1962. The area within the park proper is 146 square miles

  • Petrified Forest, The (film by Mayo [1936])

    The Petrified Forest, American crime film, released in 1936, that established Humphrey Bogart as a major talent. Although cast in a supporting role, he earned much of the film’s acclaim for his portrayal of the gangster Duke Mantee. Leslie Howard played Alan Squier, a disillusioned intellectual and

  • Petrified Forest, The (play by Sherwood)

    The Petrified Forest, drama in two acts by Robert Sherwood, published and produced in 1935. This melodramatic Depression-era tale of frustrated lives and spiritual emptiness is set in a gas station and lunchroom along an Arizona highway. Gabby, the daughter of the station’s owner, is unhappy with

  • Petrified Man, The (short story by Welty)

    Eudora Welty: …of her most anthologized stories—“The Petrified Man” and “Why I Live at the P.O.” In 1942 her short novel The Robber Bridegroom was issued, and in 1946 her first full-length novel, Delta Wedding. Her later novels include The Ponder Heart (1954), Losing Battles (1970), and The Optimist’s Daughter (1972),…

  • petrified wood

    Petrified wood, fossil formed by the invasion of minerals into cavities between and within cells of natural wood, usually by silica (silicon dioxide, SiO2) or calcite (calcium carbonate, CaCO3). The petrified forests of the western United States are silicified wood, the tree tissues having been

  • Petrik, Larissa (Soviet gymnast)
  • Petrillo, James C. (American labour leader)

    James C. Petrillo, American labour leader who served as president of the American Federation of Musicians (AFM) from 1940 to 1958. Petrillo grew up on Chicago’s West Side and, after a brief period as a trumpet player and bandleader, became active in an independent musicians’ union and served as its

  • Petrillo, James Caesar (American labour leader)

    James C. Petrillo, American labour leader who served as president of the American Federation of Musicians (AFM) from 1940 to 1958. Petrillo grew up on Chicago’s West Side and, after a brief period as a trumpet player and bandleader, became active in an independent musicians’ union and served as its

  • Petrine theory (religion)

    Petrine theory, the basis of Roman Catholic doctrine on papal primacy, resting partly on Christ’s bestowing the “keys of the Kingdom” on Peter (the first pope, according to Roman Catholic tradition) and partly on Christ’s words: “And I tell you, you are Peter [Greek: Petros], and on this rock

  • petrissage (therapeutics)

    massage: …toward the heart; compression (petrissage), which includes kneading, squeezing, and friction and is useful in stretching scar tissue, muscles, and tendons so that movement is easier; and percussion (tapotement), in which the sides of the hands are used to strike the surface of the skin in rapid succession to…

  • petro (cryptocurrency)

    Nicolás Maduro: Creation of the constituent assembly: a Bitcoin-like cryptocurrency, the petro, its value being linked to the price of one barrel of Venezuelan crude oil. Although Maduro claimed that the first-day sales of the petro totaled some $735 million, skeptics saw the digital currency’s creation as a desperate measure. Seeking to limit the opposition’s ability…

  • Petro, Gustavo (Colombian politician)

    Iván Duque: …second-place finisher, former Bogotá mayor Gustavo Petro, but well short of the 50 percent necessary to preclude a runoff. The presence of Petro, a onetime leftist guerrilla, in the runoff with Duque marked a significant change in the attitude of Colombian voters, who had long been leery of candidates from…

  • Petro-Canada (Canadian oil company)

    Canada: Domestic policies: …government created the integrated, crown-owned Petro-Canada in 1975.

  • Petrobelli, Francisco (Argentine businessman)

    Comodoro Rivadavia: …was founded in 1901 by Francisco Petrobelli, a businessman interested in establishing an Atlantic Ocean port to handle the products of Colonia Sarmiento, a farming centre 80 miles (130 km) west-northwest. The name honours Comodoro Martín Rivadavia (1852–1901) of the Argentine navy.

  • Petrobras (Brazilian corporation)

    Petrobras, Brazilian oil and gas company that was founded in 1953 to engage in the exploration, production, refining, and transport of domestic petroleum and petroleum products. Originally a state-owned monopoly, Petrobras became majority-owned by the state but competes against other Brazilian

  • Petrobras scandal (Brazilian political corruption scandal)

    Petrobras scandal, Brazilian political corruption scandal beginning in 2014 that involved the indictment of dozens of high-level businesspeople and politicians as part of a widespread investigation alleging that many millions of dollars had been kicked back to officials of Petrobras, Brazil’s huge

  • Petrobras Scandal, The

    After much delay and controversy, on April 22, 2015, a somber-looking team of newly appointed managers at Petrobras announced at a press conference in Rio de Janeiro that Brazil’s giant majority state-owned oil and gas company had lost $17 billion to mismanagement and graft. Moreover, they said

  • PetroCaribe (energy initiative)

    PetroCaribe, energy initiative launched by Venezuelan Pres. Hugo Chávez in 2005 to supply Venezuelan crude oil to countries in the Caribbean region at discounted prices. Members of PetroCaribe include Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Belize, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guatemala,

  • Petrochelidon pyrrhonota (bird)

    swallow: …flask-shaped mud nests, include the cliff swallow (P. pyrrhonota), the bird of San Juan Capistrano Mission, in California; as with other swallows, it has strong homing instincts.

  • petrochemical (chemical compound)

    Petrochemical, in the strictest sense, any of a large group of chemicals (as distinct from fuels) derived from petroleum and natural gas and used for a variety of commercial purposes. The definition, however, has been broadened to include the whole range of aliphatic, aromatic, and naphthenic

  • Petrodromus tetradactylus (mammal)

    elephant shrew: micus), and the four-toed elephant shrew (Petrodromus tetradactylus); those three genera are classified together in a subfamily separate from Rhynchocyon. Macroscelididae is the only family in the order Macroscelidea. There are eight extinct genera, some of which had teeth similar to antelopes’ and were probably herbivores. The evolutionary…

  • Petrodvorets (Russia)

    Peterhof, suburb of St. Petersburg, northwestern European Russia. It lies on the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, 18 miles (29 km) southwest of the city of St. Petersburg Peter I (the Great) founded Peterhof in 1709 as a country estate. After visiting the French court in 1717, he decided to

  • Petroecuador (Ecuadorian company)

    Amazon Rainforest: …2016 the state oil company Petroecuador had begun to drill and extract petroleum from the park.

  • Petrofina SA (Belgian petroleum company)

    Petrofina SA, former Belgian petroleum conglomerate that was acquired in 1999 by Total, a French oil firm, to create Totalfina. The original company was organized in 1920 as the Compagnie Financière Belge des Pétroles (“Belgian Petroleum Finance Company”), with its initial interest in the

  • Petrogale (marsupial)

    wallaby: …species of rock wallabies (Petrogale) live among rocks, usually near water. They are prettily coloured in shades of brown and gray and are distinguished by stripes, patches, or other markings. They are extremely agile on rocky terrain. The three species of nail-tailed wallabies (Onychogalea) are named for a horny…

  • petrogenesis (geological science)

    Arie Poldervaart: …work includes investigations of the petrogenesis (composition, occurrence, and origin) of igneous and metamorphic rocks and Precambrian (older than 570,000,000 years) geology. He specialized in applying petrologic techniques to problems of Earth history. He edited Crust of the Earth (1955) and wrote Basalts (The Poldervaart Treatise on Rocks of Basaltic…

  • petrogeny (geological science)

    Arie Poldervaart: …work includes investigations of the petrogenesis (composition, occurrence, and origin) of igneous and metamorphic rocks and Precambrian (older than 570,000,000 years) geology. He specialized in applying petrologic techniques to problems of Earth history. He edited Crust of the Earth (1955) and wrote Basalts (The Poldervaart Treatise on Rocks of Basaltic…

  • petroglyph (rock carving)

    pictography: …carved on rocks are called petroglyphs.) A pictograph that stands for an individual idea or meaning may be called an ideogram; if a pictograph stands for an individual word, it is called a logogram (q.v.). Pictographs are also used as memory aids. Various North American Indian tribes used pictographs both…

  • Petroglyph National Monument (monument, New Mexico, United States)

    Petroglyph National Monument, archaeological site featuring some 25,000 prehistoric and historic petroglyphs (rock carvings), central New Mexico, U.S. It is situated on the west side of Albuquerque, near the Rio Grande. In addition to the petroglyphs, there are hundreds of archaeological sites

  • Petrograd (Russia)

    St. Petersburg, city and port, extreme northwestern Russia. A major historical and cultural centre and an important port, St. Petersburg lies about 400 miles (640 km) northwest of Moscow and only about 7° south of the Arctic Circle. It is the second largest city of Russia and one of the world’s

  • Petrograd Madonna (painting by Petrov-Vodkin)

    Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin: In his celebrated painting The Year 1918 in Petrograd, also known as the Petrograd Madonna (1920), the events of the revolution are treated as bloodless and humanitarian, as if they were somehow abstract. This form of idealization was characteristic of the mature works of Petrov-Vodkin, and it is evident…

  • Petrograd Side (area, Saint Petersburg, Russia)

    St. Petersburg: Petrograd Side: Upstream of the bifurcation of the Neva is the Petrograd Side, where the great Peter-Paul Fortress faces the Strelka across the Malaya Neva. Founded in 1703, this fortification, the city’s first structure, initially had earthen walls, but these were soon replaced by stone…

  • Petrograd Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies (Russian revolution)

    Izvestiya: …as an organ of the Petrograd Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies. After the October Revolution that year, control of Izvestiya passed from the Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries into the hands of the Bolsheviks, and the paper’s main offices were moved to Moscow. Izvestiya grew rapidly to a circulation of…

  • Petrograd Telegraph Agency (Russian news agency)

    ITAR-TASS, (Russian: “Information Telegraph Agency of Russia–Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union”), Russian news agency formed in 1992 after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. ITAR reports on domestic news, while TASS reports on world events, including news from the other countries of the

  • petrogram (drawing)

    pictography: …on rocks are known as petrograms; those that are incised or carved on rocks are called petroglyphs.) A pictograph that stands for an individual idea or meaning may be called an ideogram; if a pictograph stands for an individual word, it is called a logogram (q.v.). Pictographs are also used…

  • petrographic microscope

    Henry Clifton Sorby: …a new type of spectrum microscope for analyzing the light of organic pigments, especially minute bloodstains. His research on meteoric geology led to studies of iron and steel, and he concluded that steel is a crystallized igneous rock. His later studies included the origin of stratified rocks, weathering, and marine…

  • petrography (geology)

    optical crystallography: The science of petrography is largely based on the study of the appearance of thin, transparent sections of rocks in a microscope fitted with polarizers. In the absence of external crystalline form, as with the minerals in a rock, a mineral often may be readily identified by the…

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