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  • Perspex (chemical compound)

    Lucite, trademark name of polymethyl methacrylate, a synthetic organic compound of high molecular weight made by combination of many simple molecules of the ester methyl methacrylate (monomer) into long chains (polymer); this process (polymerization) may be effected by light or heat, although

  • perspiration (physiology)

    Perspiration, in most mammals, water given off by the intact skin, either as vapour by simple evaporation from the epidermis (insensible perspiration) or as sweat, a form of cooling in which liquid actively secreted from sweat glands evaporates from the body surface. Sweat glands, although found in

  • Persse, Isabella Augusta (Irish writer)

    Augusta, Lady Gregory, Irish writer and playwright who, by her translations of Irish legends, her peasant comedies and fantasies based on folklore, and her work for the Abbey Theatre, played a considerable part in the late 19th-century Irish literary renascence. In 1880 she married Sir William

  • Persson, Göran (prime minister of Sweden)

    Göran Persson, Swedish politician who was prime minister of Sweden from 1996 to 2006. He also was leader (1996–2007) of the Swedish Social Democratic Party (Sveriges Socialdemokratiska Arbetarepartiet; SAP), which was the dominant political party in Sweden for most of the 20th century. Persson

  • Persson, Jöran (Swedish royal adviser)

    Erik XIV: His adviser, Jöran Persson, was imprisoned for the crime.

  • Persson, Jörgen (Swedish cinematographer)
  • Persson, Stefan (Swedish business executive)

    Stefan Persson, Swedish business executive who served as chairman (1998– ) and CEO (1982–98) of Hennes & Mauritz AB (H&M) retail clothing store. Persson learned fashion retailing from his father, Erling Persson, who founded a women’s clothing store, Hennes (“Hers”) in Västerås, Sweden, in 1947. The

  • persuasion (psychology)

    Persuasion, the process by which a person’s attitudes or behaviour are, without duress, influenced by communications from other people. One’s attitudes and behaviour are also affected by other factors (for example, verbal threats, physical coercion, one’s physiological states). Not all

  • Persuasion (novel by Austen)

    Persuasion, novel by Jane Austen, published posthumously in 1817. Unlike her novel Northanger Abbey, with which it was published, Persuasion (written 1815–16) is a work of Austen’s maturity. Like Mansfield Park and Emma, it contains subdued satire and develops the comedy of character and manners.

  • persulfurane (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Sulfuranes: hypervalent organosulfur compounds: …SR6, with six ligands, called persulfuranes, have a square bipyramidal structure and are classified as (12-S-6). The σ-sulfuranes, sulfurane S-oxides, and persulfuranes are termed hypervalent compounds because their valences are expanded beyond eight. Because of this fact, these types of compounds are relatively unstable, with the central atom seeking to…

  • PERT (industrial engineering)

    research and development: PERT and CPM: PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) was first used in the development of submarines capable of firing Polaris missiles. CPM (the Critical Path Method) was used to manage the annual maintenance work in an oil and chemical refinery. Many variations and extensions of the two original…

  • Pertamina (Indonesian corporation)

    Indonesia: Economic development: …of foreign companies operating through Pertamina, the monolithic state oil corporation. (Pertamina’s position as the centrepiece of Indonesia’s economic expansion ended in 1975, however, when the government rescued the company from its indebtedness.) Military entrepreneurs played a significant part in these developments. In the mid-1980s the decline in oil prices…

  • Perth (Western Australia, Australia)

    Perth, city and capital, Western Australia. Perth lies along the estuary of the Swan River, 12 miles (19 km) above that river’s mouth, which forms the inner harbour of neighbouring Fremantle. The city, the fourth largest in Australia, is the centre of a metropolitan area containing about

  • Perth (Ontario, Canada)

    Perth, town, seat of Lanark county, southeastern Ontario, Canada, on the Tay River, 45 miles (70 km) southwest of Ottawa. Named after the town in Scotland, it was founded in 1816 by Scottish immigrants who were later joined by British-Canadian veterans of the War of 1812. The town became an

  • Perth (Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Perth, city and royal burgh, Perth and Kinross council area, historic county of Perthshire, Scotland. Perth lies on the right bank of the River Tay. Its name is probably Celtic. Perth was well established by the 12th century, a burgh (town) in 1106 and a royal burgh in 1210. Until about 1452 it

  • Perth (historical region, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Perthshire, historic county of central Scotland, including a section of the Grampian Mountains in the southern Highlands and a portion of the northern Scottish Lowlands, centred on the city of Perth. Most of Perthshire lies within the council area of Perth and Kinross. The southwestern portion of

  • Perth Amboy (New Jersey, United States)

    Perth Amboy, city and port of entry, Middlesex county, east-central New Jersey, U.S. It lies at the mouth of the Raritan River, on Raritan Bay, at the southern end of Arthur Kill (channel), there bridged to Tottenville, Staten Island, New York City. Settled in the late 17th century, it was the

  • Perth and Kinross (council area, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Perth and Kinross, council area, central Scotland. It encompasses the historic county of Kinross-shire (Kinross, which covers a small area in the southeast), a very small portion of the historic county of Angus (south of Coupar Angus), and most of the historic county of Perthshire (or Perth, which

  • Perthes, Jacques Boucher de (French archaeologist)

    Jacques Boucher de Perthes, French archaeologist and writer who was one of the first to develop the idea that prehistory could be measured on the basis of periods of geologic time. From 1825 Boucher de Perthes was director of the customhouse at Abbeville, near the mouth of the Somme River, and

  • perthite (mineralogy)

    Perthite, any member of a class of alkali feldspars in which tiny crystals of sodium-rich feldspar (albite; NaAlSi3O8) are intimately intergrown with, but distinct from, tiny crystals of potassium-rich feldspar (orthoclase or, less commonly, microcline; KAlSi3O8). Slow cooling of a homogeneous,

  • Perthshire (historical region, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Perthshire, historic county of central Scotland, including a section of the Grampian Mountains in the southern Highlands and a portion of the northern Scottish Lowlands, centred on the city of Perth. Most of Perthshire lies within the council area of Perth and Kinross. The southwestern portion of

  • Pertinax, Publius Helvius (Roman emperor)

    Publius Helvius Pertinax, Roman emperor from January to March 193. The son of a freed slave, Pertinax taught school, then entered the army, commanding units in Syria, in Britain, and on the Danube and the Rhine. He earned distinction during the great invasion by German tribes in 169. Given

  • Pertini, Alessandro (president of Italy)

    Alessandro Pertini, politician and president of Italy (1978–85), distinguished by his statesmanship amid political and social upheaval. Pertini, trained as a lawyer, served in World War I and became a founding member of Italy’s Socialist Party in 1918. He was imprisoned several times for

  • Perto do coração selvagem (novel by Lispector)

    Clarice Lispector: …Perto do coração selvagem (1944; Near to the Wild Heart), published when she was 24 years old, won critical acclaim for its sensitive interpretation of adolescence. In her later works, such as A maçã no escuro (1961; The Apple in the Dark), A paixão segundo G.H. (1964; The Passion According…

  • perturbation (astronomy)

    Perturbation, in astronomy, deviation in the motion of a celestial object caused either by the gravitational force of a passing object or by a collision with it. For example, predicting the Earth’s orbit around the Sun would be rather straightforward were it not for the slight perturbations in its

  • perturbation (mathematics)

    Perturbation, in mathematics, method for solving a problem by comparing it with a similar one for which the solution is known. Usually the solution found in this way is only approximate. Perturbation is used to find the roots of an algebraic equation that differs slightly from one for which the

  • perturbation (chemistry)

    relaxation phenomenon: Creation of the disturbance: …competition, methods and direct, or perturbation, methods. In the indirect approach, the relaxing system is continuously disturbed. The competition between the disturbance and the relaxation process results in the establishment of a stationary state, from which information about the relaxation process must be inferred. Ultrasonic absorption is an example of…

  • perturbation theory (physics)

    quantum electrodynamics: QED is often called a perturbation theory because of the smallness of the fine-structure constant and the resultant decreasing size of higher-order contributions. This relative simplicity and the success of QED have made it a model for other quantum field theories. Finally, the picture of electromagnetic interactions as the exchange…

  • Pertusariales (order of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Pertusariales Forms lichens; grows on rocks, mosses, and barks; primary thallus may be crustose, squamulose, or foliose; clustered or solitary apothecia; ascospores may be colourless; ascocarps may be absent; includes peppermint drop lichen; included in subclass Ostropomycetidae; examples of genera include Coccotrema, Icmadophila, Ochrolechia, and…

  • pertussis (respiratory disease)

    Whooping cough, acute, highly communicable respiratory disease characterized in its typical form by paroxysms of coughing followed by a long-drawn inspiration, or “whoop.” The coughing ends with the expulsion of clear, sticky mucus and often with vomiting. Whooping cough is caused by the bacterium

  • pertussis vaccine (medicine)

    infectious disease: Pertussis vaccine: The number of cases of pertussis (whooping cough), a serious disease that is frequently fatal in infancy, can be dramatically reduced by the use of the pertussis vaccine. The pertussis immunizing agent is included in the DPT vaccine. Active immunity can be induced…

  • Pertwee, John Devon Roland (British actor)

    John Devon Roland Pertwee, ("JON"), British actor who performed on the stage, screen, and radio but was best known for his television portrayals of the time-traveling Dr. Who and the talking scarecrow Worzel Gummidge (b. July 7, 1919--d. May 20,

  • Pertwee, Jon (British actor)

    John Devon Roland Pertwee, ("JON"), British actor who performed on the stage, screen, and radio but was best known for his television portrayals of the time-traveling Dr. Who and the talking scarecrow Worzel Gummidge (b. July 7, 1919--d. May 20,

  • Pertz, Georg Heinrich (German historian)

    Monumenta Germaniae Historica: …scholarly capability and energy of Georg Heinrich Pertz (d. 1876), whom Stein enlisted as editor and put in charge of the work in 1823. Under Pertz’s half century of editorship and collaboration with leading German scholars, 20 volumes of sources were published; 100 more were to follow, the last of…

  • Peru (Indiana, United States)

    Peru, city, seat (1834) of Miami county, north-central Indiana, U.S. The city lies on the Wabash River near its juncture with the Mississinewa, midway between South Bend (70 miles [110 km] north) and Indianapolis. Founded in 1829 as Miamisport on the site of a Miami Indian village and renamed in

  • Peru

    Peru, country in western South America. Except for the Lake Titicaca basin in the southeast, its borders lie in sparsely populated zones. The boundaries with Colombia to the northeast and Brazil to the east traverse lower ranges or tropical forests, whereas the borders with Bolivia to the

  • Peru Basin (basin, Pacific Ocean)

    Easter Fracture Zone: The Peru Basin north of the lineament is about 13,000 feet (4,000 metres) deep, several thousand feet deeper than the seafloor to the south.

  • Peru Current (ocean current)

    Peru Current, cold-water current of the southeast Pacific Ocean, with a width of about 900 km (550 mi). Relatively slow and shallow, it transports only 350,000,000–700,000,000 cu ft (10,000,000–20,000,000 cu m) of water per second. It is an eastern boundary current similar to the California C

  • Perú Posible (political party, Peru)

    Alejandro Toledo: …the presidency under the centrist Perú Posible (Peru Possible) party in the 1995 elections garnered him only 3 percent of the vote, and Alberto Fujimori took the office. Toledo led the same party in the 2000 presidential race. This time, the smear tactics used by the Fujimori camp against the…

  • Peru Possible (political party, Peru)

    Alejandro Toledo: …the presidency under the centrist Perú Posible (Peru Possible) party in the 1995 elections garnered him only 3 percent of the vote, and Alberto Fujimori took the office. Toledo led the same party in the 2000 presidential race. This time, the smear tactics used by the Fujimori camp against the…

  • Peru, flag of

    vertically striped red-white-red national flag; when displayed by the government, it incorporates the national coat of arms in the centre. The flag has a width-to-length ratio of 2 to 3.The first national flag of Peru was created in 1820, when José de San Martín arrived with his Army of the Andes

  • Peru, history of

    Peru: History: Like the Aztec, the Inca came late upon the historical scene. Even their legends do not predate 1200 ce, with the supposed arrival in Cuzco of the first emperor, Manco Capac. Like Old World peoples, and unlike other aboriginal Americans, the

  • Peru, Pontifical Catholic University of (university, Lima, Peru)

    Lima: Cultural life: …San Marcos (1551), and the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru (1917)—as well as numerous other schools. Nearly all of the major academies, learned societies, and research institutes are located in metropolitan Lima, as are the national cultural institutions.

  • Peru, Viceroyalty of (historical area, South America)

    Viceroyalty of Peru, the second of the four viceroyalties that Spain created to govern its domains in the Americas. Established in 1543, the viceroyalty initially included all of South America under Spanish control except for the coast of what is now Venezuela. It later lost jurisdiction (with the

  • Peru-Chile Trench (trench, Pacific Ocean)

    Peru-Chile Trench, submarine trench in the eastern Pacific Ocean, about 100 miles (160 km) off the coast of Peru and Chile. It reaches a maximum depth of 26,460 feet (8,065 m) below sea level in Richards Deep and is approximately 3,666 miles (5,900 km) long; its mean width is 40 miles (64 km) and i

  • Peruano, El (Peruvian newspaper)

    Peru: Media and publishing: Lima’s El Peruano, one of the oldest dailies in the Americas, was founded in 1825. Many of these papers and several Peruvian newsweeklies are now also available on the Internet.

  • Peruggia, Vincenzo (Italian decorator)

    Mona Lisa: History: …of a trunk belonging to Vincenzo Peruggia, an Italian immigrant who had briefly worked at the Louvre fitting glass on a selection of paintings, including the Mona Lisa. He and two other workers had taken the portrait from the wall, hid with it in a closet overnight, and ran off…

  • Perugia (Italy)

    Perugia, city, seat of an archbishopric and capital of Umbria region, in central Italy, north of Rome; it lies on an irregular cluster of hills overlooking the Umbrian and central Tiber valleys and Lake Trasimeno. Founded by the Umbrians, it became one of the 12 strongholds of the Etruscan

  • Perugia, Lake of (lake, Italy)

    Lake Trasimeno, largest lake of the Italian peninsula in Umbria region, central Italy, 10 miles (16 km) west of Perugia. It has an area of 49 square miles (128 square km) and is shallow, its maximum depth being 20 feet (6 m). The lake it is fed by small streams and has an artificial subterranean

  • Perugia, Universita Degli Studi di (university, Perugia, Italy)

    University of Perugia, coeducational state institution of higher learning at Perugia, Italy. The university was founded in 1200 by a group of students seceding from the University of Bologna. It was recognized by Pope Clement V in 1308 as a studium generale, a place of study accepting scholars from

  • Perugia, University of (university, Perugia, Italy)

    University of Perugia, coeducational state institution of higher learning at Perugia, Italy. The university was founded in 1200 by a group of students seceding from the University of Bologna. It was recognized by Pope Clement V in 1308 as a studium generale, a place of study accepting scholars from

  • Perugino (Italian painter)

    Perugino, Italian Renaissance painter of the Umbria school and the teacher of Raphael. His work (e.g., Giving of the Keys to St. Peter, 1481–82, a fresco in the Sistine Chapel in Rome) anticipated High Renaissance ideals in its compositional clarity, sense of spaciousness, and economy of formal

  • peruke (wig)

    Peruke, man’s wig, especially the type popular from the 17th to the early 19th century. It was made of long hair, often with curls on the sides, and drawn back on the nape of the neck. Use of the word peruke probably became widespread in the 16th century, when the wearing of wigs became popular. T

  • Perun (Slavic deity)

    Perun, the thunder god of the ancient pagan Slavs, a fructifier, purifier, and overseer of right and order. His actions are perceived by the senses: seen in the thunderbolt, heard in the rattle of stones, the bellow of the bull, or the bleat of the he-goat (thunder), and felt in the touch of an ax

  • Peruṅkatai (work by Tiruttakkatēvar)

    South Asian arts: Epics: …and including an incomplete narrative, Peruṅkatai (“The Great Story”), the Cīvakacintāmaṇi (“The Amulet of Cīvakaṉ”) by Tiruttakkatēvar, and Cūḷāmaṇĭ (“The Crest Jewel”) by Tōlāmoḻittēvar. The last three works depict Jaina kings and their ideals of the good life, nonviolence, and the attainment of salvation through self-sacrifice. They are also characterized…

  • Perusia, Battle of (Roman history)

    Mark Antony: Civil war and triumvirate: …the rebellion, capturing and destroying Perusia (present-day Perugia). Antony had to return to Italy, leaving his general Ventidius to deal with a Parthian invasion of Asia Minor and Syria. After initial skirmishes, Antony and Octavian were reconciled at Brundisium (present-day Brindisi) and, since Fulvia had died in the meantime, Antony…

  • Perutz, Max Ferdinand (British biochemist)

    Max Ferdinand Perutz, Austrian-born British biochemist, corecipient of the 1962 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his X-ray diffraction analysis of the structure of hemoglobin, the protein that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues via blood cells. He shared the award with British biochemist

  • Peruvian Andes (mountains, South America)

    Andes Mountains: Physiography of the Central Andes: The Peruvian Andes traditionally have been described as three cordilleras, which come together at the Vilcanota, Pasco, and Loja (Ecuador) knots. The Pasco Knot is a large, high plateau. To the west it is bounded by the Cordillera Huarochirí, on the west slope of which the…

  • Peruvian Archaeology (work by Kroeber)

    A.L. Kroeber: An important resulting work was Peruvian Archaeology in 1942 (1944). He also pioneered in dialect surveys of American Indians. His final work on California Indian languages, Yokuts Dialect Survey (1963), covered research ranging back as far as 1900.

  • Peruvian Communist Party (Peruvian revolutionary organization)

    Shining Path, Peruvian revolutionary organization that endorsed Maoism and employed guerrilla tactics and violent terrorism. The Shining Path was founded in 1970 in a multiple split in the Communist Party of Peru. It took its name from the maxim of the founder of Peru’s first communist party, José

  • Peruvian Corporation

    Peru: Peru from 1884 to 1930: The Peruvian Corporation, representing the creditors, with headquarters in London, was to control the railroads for 66 years, to mine up to three million tons of guano, and to receive 33 annual payments of £80,000 each. The plan worked satisfactorily but was hated by the Peruvian…

  • Peruvian diving petrel (bird)

    diving petrel: …long; the largest is the Peruvian diving petrel (P. garnotii), about 25 cm long, restricted to the west coast of South America from about 6° to 37° S.

  • Peruvian ginseng (plant)
  • Peruvian lily (plant)
  • Peruvian mastic (plant)

    Pepper tree, (Schinus molle), ornamental tree of the cashew family (Anacardiaceae), native to dry South America and cultivated in warm regions. Its piquant fruits, often called “pink peppercorns,” are sometimes used in beverages and medicines because of their hot taste and aroma, though the plant

  • Peruvian nutmeg (plant)

    Laurales: Other families: …family Atherospermataceae, is known as Chile laurel or Peruvian nutmeg, and its seeds are ground up and used as a spice. Laurelia novae-zelandiae is used in New Zealand for boat building and furniture making. It yields a light, hard wood that is difficult to split and that dents rather than…

  • Peruvian pepper tree (plant)

    Pepper tree, (Schinus molle), ornamental tree of the cashew family (Anacardiaceae), native to dry South America and cultivated in warm regions. Its piquant fruits, often called “pink peppercorns,” are sometimes used in beverages and medicines because of their hot taste and aroma, though the plant

  • Peruvian torch cactus (plant)

    torch cactus: The Peruvian torch cactus (E. peruviana) is native to the Peruvian Andes and features ribbed stems that can reach up to 6 metres (20 feet) in height.

  • Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation (South American history)

    Peruvian–Bolivian Confederation, transitory union of Peru and Bolivia (1836–39). Bolivia’s dictator, Andrés Santa Cruz, conquered Peru after helping to quell an army rebellion against Peruvian president Luís José de Orbegoso in 1835. Santa Cruz then divided Peru into a northern and a southern

  • Peruzzi Chapel (Florence, Italy)

    Giotto: Santa Croce frescoes: The Bardi and Peruzzi chapels contained cycles of St. Francis, St. John the Baptist, and St. John the Evangelist, but the frescoes were whitewashed and were not recovered until the mid-19th century, when they were damaged in the process of removing the whitewash and then heavily restored. Much…

  • Peruzzi family (Italian family)

    Peruzzi Family, leading family of medieval Italian financiers whose bankruptcy in the 14th century contributed to the economic depression of the late Middle Ages. An old Florentine family belonging to the “popular” (democratic) party, the Peruzzi contributed 10 gonfaloniers (chief executives) and

  • Peruzzi, Baldassarre (Italian painter and architect)

    Baldassarre Peruzzi, Sienese architect and painter, one of the earliest artists to attempt illusionist architectural painting (quadratura), the extension of real architecture into imaginary space. Peruzzi was a contemporary of Raphael and Donato Bramante. He began his career as a painter of

  • pervane (ancient Egyptian and Islamic official)

    Vizier, originally the chief minister or representative of the ʿAbbāsid caliphs and later a high administrative officer in various Muslim countries, among Arabs, Persians, Turks, Mongols, and other eastern peoples. The office took shape during its tenure by the Barmakid (Barmecide) family in the

  • pervasive computing (computer science)

    computer: Ubiquitous computing: The combination of the connectedness of the Internet with the ability of new microprocessors that can handle multiple tasks in parallel has inspired new ways of programming. Programmers are developing software to divide computational tasks into subtasks that a program can assign to…

  • pervasive developmental disorder

    Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), any of a group of conditions characterized by early-childhood onset and by varying degrees of impairment of language acquisition, communication, social behaviour, and motor function. There are five types of PDDs. These include the three known autism spectrum

  • pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (neurobiological disorder)

    Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), a neurobiological disorder characterized by impairment in ability to interact with others and by abnormalities in either communication or behaviour patterns and interests. PDD-NOS is described as atypical autism, because

  • Pervigilium Veneris (Latin poetry)

    Latin literature: Later writers: The anonymous Pervigilium Veneris (“Vigil of Venus”), of uncertain date, presages the Middle Ages in its vitality and touch of stressed metre. Ausonius, though in the pagan literary tradition, was a Christian and contemporary with a truly original Christian poet, the Spaniard Prudentius. Henceforward, Christian literature overlaps…

  • Pervitin (drug)

    Methamphetamine, potent and addictive synthetic stimulant drug that affects the central nervous system (the spinal cord and brain). Methamphetamine is prescribed for the treatment of certain medical conditions, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity. In

  • Pervomaisk (eastern Ukraine)

    Pervomaysk, mining town, eastern Ukraine, on the Donets Coal Basin. The town was established by 1765 and grew with the development of mining there after 1872. It was incorporated in 1938. Besides mining, Pervomaysk has been the site of electrical-engineering and light industries. Pop. (2001)

  • Pervomaisk (southern Ukraine)

    Pervomaysk, city, southern Ukraine, at the confluence of the Synyukha (Sinyukha) and Southern Buh rivers. The city was established in 1919 by the merging of three settlements—Olviopil, Holta, and Bohopil—founded during the 15th–18th century by Lithuanians, Cossacks, and Poles, respectively. It is

  • Pervomaysk (southern Ukraine)

    Pervomaysk, city, southern Ukraine, at the confluence of the Synyukha (Sinyukha) and Southern Buh rivers. The city was established in 1919 by the merging of three settlements—Olviopil, Holta, and Bohopil—founded during the 15th–18th century by Lithuanians, Cossacks, and Poles, respectively. It is

  • Pervomaysk (eastern Ukraine)

    Pervomaysk, mining town, eastern Ukraine, on the Donets Coal Basin. The town was established by 1765 and grew with the development of mining there after 1872. It was incorporated in 1938. Besides mining, Pervomaysk has been the site of electrical-engineering and light industries. Pop. (2001)

  • Pervouralsk (Russia)

    Pervouralsk, city, Sverdlovsk oblast (region), western Russia, located on the upper Chusovaya River and on the railway from Yekaterinburg to Perm. Founded in 1732 as an ironworks, the modern city of Pervouralsk has several large steel-pipe factories. It also produces mining machinery, pipes,

  • PES

    spectroscopy: Photoelectron spectroscopy: Photoelectron spectroscopy is an extension of the photoelectric effect (see radiation: The photoelectric effect), first explained by Einstein in 1905, to atoms and molecules in all energy states. The technique involves the bombardment of a

  • pes (ancient Roman unit of measurement)

    measurement system: Greeks and Romans: …the Roman standard foot (pes). This unit was divided into 16 digits or into 12 inches. In both cases its length was the same. Metrologists have come to differing conclusions concerning its exact length, but the currently accepted modern equivalents are 296 mm or 11.65 inches. Expressed in terms…

  • PES (political party, Europe)

    Party of European Socialists, transnational political group representing the interests of allied socialist and social democratic parties in Europe, particularly in the European Parliament and other organs of the European Union (EU). Although a socialist group fostered cooperation among socialist

  • Pesach (Judaism)

    Passover, in Judaism, holiday commemorating the Hebrews’ liberation from slavery in Egypt and the “passing over” of the forces of destruction, or the sparing of the firstborn of the Israelites, when the Lord “smote the land of Egypt” on the eve of the Exodus. The festival thus marks the first and

  • Pesaḥ (Judaism)

    Passover, in Judaism, holiday commemorating the Hebrews’ liberation from slavery in Egypt and the “passing over” of the forces of destruction, or the sparing of the firstborn of the Israelites, when the Lord “smote the land of Egypt” on the eve of the Exodus. The festival thus marks the first and

  • Pesaro (Italy)

    Pesaro, city, Marche regione, northern Italy. Pesaro is a seaport lying along the Adriatic Sea at the mouth of the Foglia (Pisaurum) River. Destroyed by Witigis the Ostrogoth in 536, the town was rebuilt and fortified by the Byzantine general Belisarius and was one of the five cities of the

  • Pesaro Madonna (painting by Titian)

    Titian: Religious paintings: In the Pesaro Madonna (1519–26) Titian created a new type of composition, in which the Madonna and Saints with the male members of the Pesaro family are placed within a monumental columnar portico of a church. The picture is flooded with sunlight and shadows. This work established…

  • Pesaro, Palazzo (building, Venice, Italy)

    Venice: Palaces: …and grotesques, as in the Palazzo Pesaro (1659–1710, by Baldassare Longhena). The variety of styles along the larger canals, unified by the chiaroscuro of deep-set windows, decorative paneling, and building materials, provides much of the visual excitement of the Venetian landscape.

  • Pesavento, Sandy (American musician)

    Sandy West, (Sandy Pesavento), American musician (born 1959, Los Angeles, Calif.—died Oct. 21, 2006, San Dimas, Calif.), used her powerful drumming to ignite the influential all-female rock band the Runaways, which she founded in 1975 with Joan Jett. The group became known for such hard-driving h

  • Pesayak Towne (New Jersey, United States)

    Newark, city and port, Essex county, northeastern New Jersey, U.S. It lies on the west bank of the Passaic River and on Newark Bay, 8 miles (13 km) west of lower Manhattan Island, New York City. Newark was incorporated as a city in 1836. Pop. (2000) 273,546; Newark-Union Metro Division, 2,098,843;

  • Pescadores (archipelago, Taiwan)

    P’eng-hu Islands, archipelago and hsien (county) of Taiwan. It consists of about 64 small islands that lie approximately 30 miles (50 km) west of the coast of mainland Taiwan, from which it is separated by the P’eng-hu Channel. Of volcanic origin, many of the islands consist of weathered basalt,

  • Pescara (Italy)

    Pescara, city, Abruzzi regione, central Italy. Pescara lies along the Adriatic Sea at the mouth of the Pescara River, east-northeast of Rome. The Roman Aternum, the city was almost destroyed in the barbarian invasions and arose again in the early European Middle Ages as Piscaria (i.e., abounding

  • Pescara River (river, Italy)

    Pescara River, river, south-central Italy. Rising in the Apennines 4 miles (6 km) south of Amatrice, it flows southwest past Aquila and northeast past Popoli and after a course of about 90 miles (150 km) debouches into the Adriatic at the city of Pescara. The river receives the Sagittario, Orte,

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    Fernando Francesco de Avalos, marquis di Pescara, Italian leader of the forces of Holy Roman emperor Charles V against the French king Francis I. A pupil of the soldier of fortune Prospero Colonna, Pescara commanded Spanish forces in Italy in the struggles from 1512 to 1525 between the French on

  • Pescennius Niger Justus, Gaius (Roman emperor)

    Pescennius Niger, rival Roman emperor from 193 to 194. An equestrian army officer from Italy, Niger was promoted to senatorial rank about 180. Most of his earlier service had been in the eastern provinces, but in 185–186 he commanded an expeditionary force against deserters who had seized control

  • Peschanaya (river, Russia)

    Ob River: Physiography: …first flows westward, receiving the Peschanaya, Anuy, and Charysh rivers from the left; in this reach, the river has low banks of alluvium, a bed studded with islands and shoals, and an average gradient of 1 foot per mile (20 cm per km). From the Charysh confluence the upper Ob…

  • Peschiera (Italy)

    Peschiera del Garda, port village, Verona provincia, Veneto regione, northern Italy. Situated on the southeast end of Garda Lake at the efflux of the Mincio River, Peschiera lies about 14 miles (23 km) west of Verona. It is a rail junction. The village also has a fish hatchery. During Austrian

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