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  • Persica (work by Ctesias)

    Ctesias: …398 and began writing his Persica, a history of Assyria-Babylonia in 23 books. Books I–VI included a history of Assyria and the Medes, and the last 10 books were a more detailed account from the death of Xerxes (465) to 398. Although Ctesias claimed that his history was based on…

  • Persica (work by Choerilus)

    Choerilus: …a lost verse chronicle, the Persica, which probably related the story of the Persian wars as narrated in prose by the historian Herodotus. Because Choerilus’s work treated recent historical events, it represented a notable innovation in epic poetry; earlier epics derived their subject matter from Greek mythology. According to the…

  • Persichetti, Vincent (American composer)

    Vincent Persichetti, American composer noted for his succinct polyphonic style (based on interwoven melodic lines), forceful rhythms, and generally diatonic melodies (moving stepwise; not atonal or highly chromatic). Persichetti began piano lessons at the age of 5, studied theory at 8, and produced

  • Persico, Joseph Edward (American speechwriter, historian, and author)

    Joseph Edward Persico, American speechwriter, historian, and author (born July 19, 1930, Gloversville, N.Y.—died Aug. 30, 2014, Albany, N.Y.), was noted for his scrupulously researched biographies and historical accounts. Persico worked as a representative of the U.S. Information Agency and as

  • Persigny, Jean-Gilbert-Victor Fialin, duc de (French statesman)

    Jean-Gilbert-Victor Fialin, duke de Persigny, French statesman who helped pave the way for Louis-Napoléon’s rise to power as the emperor Napoleon III. Born of a petty noble family, he served in the hussars from 1825 to 1831, when he was dismissed for participation in a political rebellion.

  • persimmon (plant)

    Persimmon, either of two trees of the genus Diospyros (family Ebenaceae) and their edible fruits. Persimmons are eaten fresh as a dessert fruit, often with sugar or liqueur, or are stewed or cooked as jam. The Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki), an important and extensively grown fruit in China

  • Persis (ancient region, Iran)

    Persis, ancient country in the southwestern part of Iran, roughly coextensive with the modern region of Fārs. Its name was derived from the Iranian tribe of the Parsua (Parsuash; Parsumash; Persians), who settled there in the 7th century bc. Herodotus lists the leading Persian tribes as the

  • persistence (meteorology)

    weather forecasting: Techniques: Persistence (warm summers follow warm springs) or anti-persistence (cold springs follow warm winters) also were used, even though, strictly speaking, most forecasters consider persistence forecasts “no-skill” forecasts. Yet, they too have had limited success.

  • persistence of force, law of (philosophy)

    Herbert Spencer: The synthetic philosophy in outline: …called the law of the persistence of force, from which it follows that nothing homogeneous can remain as such if it is acted upon, because any external force must affect some part of it differently from other parts and cause difference and variety to arise. From that, he continued, it…

  • Persistence of Memory, The (painting by Dalí)

    Salvador Dalí: …of those enigmatic images is The Persistence of Memory (1931), in which limp melting watches rest in an eerily calm landscape. With the Spanish director Luis Buñuel, Dalí made two Surrealistic films—Un Chien andalou (1929; An Andalusian Dog) and L’Âge d’or (1930; The Golden Age)—that are similarly filled with grotesque…

  • persistence of vision (physiology)

    animation: Early history: …entertainment, discovered the principle of persistence of vision. If drawings of the stages of an action were shown in fast succession, the human eye would perceive them as a continuous movement. One of the first commercially successful devices, invented by the Belgian Joseph Plateau in 1832, was the phenakistoscope, a…

  • persistent depressive disorder (psychology)

    diagnosis: Mental examination: Minor depression, or dysthymia, is the presence of a depressed mood for most of the day. This disorder is diagnosed clinically if symptoms have persisted for two years with no more than two months’ freedom from symptoms. Other symptoms that occur concurrently with this form of depression include…

  • persistent ductus arteriosus (pathology)

    Patent ductus arteriosus, congenital heart defect characterized by the persistence of the ductus arteriosus, a channel that shunts blood between the pulmonary artery and the aorta. Normally, after birth the pulmonary artery carries blood depleted of oxygen and laden with carbon dioxide from the

  • Persistent Economic Slump, The

    In 2010, two years after the Financial meltdown of 2008, the Great Recession continued to reverberate throughout the world. One by one, many European Union countries faced possible bankruptcy. There were indications that a currency war might have begun, with the U.S. and China the key combatants.

  • persistent organic pollutant (chemical compound)

    toxic waste: Types: …and environmentalists, are categorized as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Several POPs are pesticides: aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, mirex, and toxaphene. Other POPs are produced during the combustion process. For example, dioxins and furans are by-products of chemical production and the burning of chlorinated substances, and polychlorinated biphenyls

  • persistent seed bank (botany)

    soil seed bank: The role of seed dormancy: Persistent seed banks are common in annual plants and some woody plants, in which the failure of seed to establish the next generation would mean the collapse of the population. Scientists sometimes further classify persistent seed banks based on the extent or pattern of dormancy.

  • Persius (Roman poet)

    Persius, Stoic poet whose Latin satires reached a higher moral tone than those of other classical Latin poets (excepting Juvenal). A pupil and friend of the Stoic philosopher Lucius Annaeus Cornutus and a fellow student of the poet Lucan, who admired all he wrote, Persius discovered his vocation a

  • Perske, Betty Joan (American actress)

    Lauren Bacall, American actress known for her portrayals of provocative women who hid their soft core underneath a layer of hard-edged pragmatism. Bacall started modeling in 1941 and supplemented her income with jobs as a theatre usher and as a hostess at the Stage Door Canteen, which kept her next

  • Perski, Shimon (prime minister and president of Israel)

    Shimon Peres, Polish-born Israeli statesman, who served as both prime minister (1984–86 and 1995–96) and president (2007–14) of Israel and as leader of the Israel Labour Party (1977–92, 1995–97, and 2003–05). In 1993, in his role as Israeli foreign minister, Peres helped negotiate a peace accord

  • person (society)

    kinship: Personhood, cohesion, and the matrilineal puzzle: The differences between matrilineal and patrilineal systems nonetheless drew the nature of personhood to the attention of descent theorists. Studies of matrilineal systems suggested that a particular nexus of problems might arise regarding political continuity in a context where…

  • Person and Place of Jesus Christ, The (work by Forsyth)

    Peter Taylor Forsyth: Forsyth’s most famous book, The Person and Place of Jesus Christ (1909), attempted “to moralize dogma,” to express in terms of modern personal experience the meaning of the doctrine of Christ’s divinity. In Christ on Parnassus (1911), dealing with theology and the arts, and in The Justification of God…

  • person of the forest (primate)

    Orangutan, (Malaysian: “person of the forest”) (genus Pongo), any of three species of Asian great apes found in rainforests on the Southeast Asian islands of Sumatra and Borneo. The Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) inhabits large portions of Borneo, whereas the Sumatran orangutan (P. abelii) and

  • Person to Person (American television program)

    Franklin J. Schaffner: …other notable television credits include Person to Person, a weekly show in which Edward R. Murrow interviewed various news makers; in the 1950s Schaffner helmed nearly 250 episodes of the program. In 1962 he directed A Tour of the White House, a TV documentary that featured Jacqueline Kennedy as the…

  • person-centred psychotherapy

    Nondirective psychotherapy, an approach to the treatment of mental disorders that aims primarily toward fostering personality growth by helping individuals gain insight into and acceptance of their feelings, values, and behaviour. The function of the therapist is to extend consistent, warm,

  • person-rem (physics)

    radiation: Units for measuring ionizing radiation: …a population, the person-Sv and person-rem are the units used. These units represent the product of the average dose per person times the number of people exposed (e.g., 1 Sv to each of 100 persons = 100 person-Sv = 10,000 person-rem).

  • person-Sv (physics)

    radiation: Units for measuring ionizing radiation: …dose to a population, the person-Sv and person-rem are the units used. These units represent the product of the average dose per person times the number of people exposed (e.g., 1 Sv to each of 100 persons = 100 person-Sv = 10,000 person-rem).

  • Persona (film by Bergman [1966])

    Ingmar Bergman: Life: …series of films that included Persona (1966), Vargtimmen (1968; Hour of the Wolf), Skammen (1968; Shame), and En passion (1969; A Passion, or The Passion of Anna), all dramas of inner conflicts involving a small, closely knit group of characters. With The Touch (1971; Beröringen), his first English-language film,

  • persona (literature)

    Persona, in literature, the person who is understood to be speaking (or thinking or writing) a particular work. The persona is almost invariably distinct from the author; it is the voice chosen by the author for a particular artistic purpose. The persona may be a character in the work or merely an

  • persona (psychology)

    Persona, in psychology, the personality that an individual projects to others, as differentiated from the authentic self. The term, coined by Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, is derived from the Latin persona, referring to the masks worn by Etruscan mimes. One of the Jungian archetypes, the persona

  • Persona non grata (work by Edwards)

    Jorge Edwards: …notoriety with the publication of Persona non grata (1973; Eng. trans. Persona non grata), a memoir of his experiences as the Chilean ambassador to Cuba in the early 1970s. Critical of the revolutionary socialist regime of Cuba’s Fidel Castro, the book created controversy among Latin American writers. In 1999 Edwards…

  • personae (theatrical costume)

    stagecraft: Classical theatrical costume: Their masks, known as personae, were decorated with hair; they were not worn by professional actors until introduced by the actor Roscius in the 1st century bce. Before the introduction of masks, wigs (galeri) were worn. Also, Italian comedians wore a flat slipper called the succus.

  • Personae (anthology of verse by Pound)

    Personae, anthology of short verse by Ezra Pound, published in 1926. The work contains many of his shorter poems, including selections from the earlier collections A lume spento (1908), A Quinzaine for This Yule (1908), Personae (1909), Exultations (1909), Canzoni (1911), Ripostes (1912), and

  • Personae: The Collected Poems of Ezra Pound (anthology of verse by Pound)

    Personae, anthology of short verse by Ezra Pound, published in 1926. The work contains many of his shorter poems, including selections from the earlier collections A lume spento (1908), A Quinzaine for This Yule (1908), Personae (1909), Exultations (1909), Canzoni (1911), Ripostes (1912), and

  • Personal Armor System for Ground Troops (body armour)

    armour: Modern body armour systems: Army developed the Personnel Armor System for Ground Troops (PASGT), which was composed of a newly designed Kevlar helmet and a Kevlar vest. Although the vest weighed 9 pounds (4 kg), slightly more than the M-1969 vest it replaced, it provided superior protection against shell fragments. In 2003,…

  • personal communication system

    telephone: Personal communication systems: In a number of countries throughout the world, a wireless service called the personal communication system (PCS) is available. In the broadest sense, PCS includes all forms of wireless communication that are interconnected with the public switched telephone network, including mobile telephone…

  • personal computer (technology)

    Personal computer (PC), a digital computer designed for use by only one person at a time. A typical personal computer assemblage consists of a central processing unit (CPU), which contains the computer’s arithmetic, logic, and control circuitry on an integrated circuit; two types of computer

  • personal data

    propaganda: Modern research and the evolution of current theories: …smartphones, collected massive amounts of personal data about the consumers who used them, generally without their informed consent. Such data potentially included consumers’ ages, genders, marital status, medical histories, employment histories and other financial information, personal and professional interests, political affiliations and opinions, and even geographic locations on a minute-by-minute…

  • personal data assistant (handheld computer)

    PDA, a handheld organizer used to store contact information, manage calendars, communicate by e-mail, and handle documents and spreadsheets, usually in communication with the user’s personal computer. The first PDAs were developed in the early 1990s as digital improvements upon the traditional

  • personal digital assistant (handheld computer)

    PDA, a handheld organizer used to store contact information, manage calendars, communicate by e-mail, and handle documents and spreadsheets, usually in communication with the user’s personal computer. The first PDAs were developed in the early 1990s as digital improvements upon the traditional

  • personal finance (economics)

    finance: …standards, and goals: business finance, personal finance, and public finance. In developed nations, an elaborate structure of financial markets and institutions exists to serve the needs of these areas jointly and separately.

  • Personal Handy-Phone System (telecommunications)

    telephone: Personal communication systems: …on the DECT concepts, the Personal Handy-Phone System (PHS), was introduced to the public in 1994. The PHS became popular throughout urban areas as an alternative to cellular systems. Supporting data traffic at 32 and 64 kilobits per second, it could perform as a high-speed wireless modem for access to…

  • Personal History of David Copperfield, The (novel by Dickens)

    David Copperfield, novel by English writer Charles Dickens, published serially in 1849–50 and in book form in 1850. David Copperfield has always been among Dickens’s most popular novels and was his own “favourite child.” The work is semiautobiographical, and, although the title character differs

  • personal identification number

    computer science: Social and professional issues: …providing the proper card and personal identification number (PIN).

  • personal identity

    Personal identity, in metaphysics, the problem of the nature of the identity of persons and their persistence through time. One makes a judgment of personal identity whenever one says that a person existing at one time is the same as a person existing at another time: e.g., that the president of

  • Personal Influence (work by Lazarsfeld and Katz)

    two-step flow model of communication: …Elihu Katz in the book Personal Influence (1955). The book explains that people’s reactions to media messages are mediated by interpersonal communication with members of their social environment. A person’s membership in different social groups (family, friends, professional and religious associations, etc.) has more influence on that person’s decision-making processes…

  • personal information

    propaganda: Modern research and the evolution of current theories: …smartphones, collected massive amounts of personal data about the consumers who used them, generally without their informed consent. Such data potentially included consumers’ ages, genders, marital status, medical histories, employment histories and other financial information, personal and professional interests, political affiliations and opinions, and even geographic locations on a minute-by-minute…

  • personal information manager (handheld computer)

    PDA: Those PIMs, or personal information managers, were more user-friendly and could connect to personal computers (PCs), and they had stylus interfaces and upgrade capabilities. In addition, later versions offered e-mail access and the option to download e-books. These improved devices still faced compatibility issues, however.

  • Personal Injuries (novel by Turow)

    Scott Turow: …age in the 1960s, and Personal Injuries (1999), a story of deception and corruption. In Ordinary Heroes (2005) a crime reporter discovers papers that reveal the truth about his father’s court-martial during World War II. Innocent (2010; television film 2011) is a sequel to Presumed Innocent. Identical (2013) concerns a…

  • personal is political, the (society)

    The personal is political, political slogan expressing a common belief among feminists that the personal experiences of women are rooted in their political situation and gender inequality. Although the origin of the phrase “the personal is political” is uncertain, it became popular following the

  • personal liability insurance

    insurance: Personal liability insurance: The most common form of personal liability insurance is issued as part of the homeowner’s liability insurance policy. It is an all-risk agreement and contains relatively few exclusions. The policy covers any act of negligence of the insured or residents of the…

  • Personal Matter, A (novel by Ōe Kenzaburō)

    Ōe Kenzaburō: …finest novel, Kojinteki-na taiken (1964; A Personal Matter), a darkly humorous account of a new father’s struggle to accept the birth of his brain-damaged child. A visit to Hiroshima resulted in the work Hiroshima nōto (1965; Hiroshima Notes), which deals with the survivors of the atomic bombing of that city.…

  • Personal Memoirs (work by Grant)

    Translating Thought into Action: Grant's Personal Memoirs:

  • Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant (work by Grant)

    Translating Thought into Action: Grant's Personal Memoirs:

  • personal name

    name: Forms of personal names: There are many subdivisions and terms within the category of personal names. Originally, one name was given to a person at an early period of life—in Europe (and later in America), normally at baptism. This is called simply the name, the baptismal or…

  • Personal Narrative (work by Edwards)

    Jonathan Edwards: Early life and ministry: In his “Personal Narrative” he confesses that, from his childhood on, his mind “had been full of objections” against the doctrine of predestination—i.e., that God sovereignly chooses some to salvation but rejects others to everlasting torment; “it used to appear like a horrible doctrine to me.” Though…

  • personal property

    real and personal property: personal property, a basic division of property in English common law, roughly corresponding to the division between immovables and movables in civil law. At common law most interests in land and fixtures (such as permanent buildings) were classified as real-property interests. Leasehold interests in land,…

  • Personal Property (film by Van Dyke [1937])

    W.S. Van Dyke: Powell and Loy, Eddy and MacDonald: …Dyke directed Jean Harlow in Personal Property, but it was one of her weaker vehicles. The romantic comedy was perhaps most notable for being the last film the actress completed before her death. They Gave Him a Gun (1937) combined several genres, notably war drama and film noir, as Tone…

  • personal rapid transit

    mass transit: New technology: These personal rapid transit (PRT) systems function like “horizontal elevators,” coming to a station in response to a traveler’s demand and moving directly from origin to destination. Because of this service pattern and the small size of the vehicles, PRT systems indeed offer personalized service much…

  • Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc (work by Twain)

    Mark Twain: Old age: Clemens published his next novel, Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc (serialized 1895–96), anonymously in hopes that the public might take it more seriously than a book bearing the Mark Twain name. The strategy did not work, for it soon became generally known that he was the author; when the…

  • Personal Record, A (work by Conrad)

    Joseph Conrad: Early years: In A Personal Record Conrad relates that his first introduction to the English language was at the age of eight, when his father was translating the works of Shakespeare and Victor Hugo in order to support the household. In those solitary years with his father he…

  • personal reform (sociology)

    prison: Emergence of the penitentiary: …a place of punishment and personal reform) was advocated in this period by the English jurist and philosopher Jeremy Bentham, among others. The appalling conditions and official corruption in many local prisons of late 18th-century England and Wales were exposed by the English prison reformer John Howard, whose works The…

  • Personal Report to the President (United States report)

    War Refugee Board: …and his staff entitled “Report to the Secretary on the Acquiescence of This Government in the Murder of the Jews.” It charged that the State Department had used the machinery of the government to prevent the rescue of Jews and to prevent news of the Holocaust from reaching the…

  • Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act (United States [1996])

    entitlement: With passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act (PRWORA) in 1996, most needs-based assistance programs, including AFDC, were replaced by state-controlled systems funded by federal block grants. (See also social insurance; welfare.)

  • Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (United States [1996])

    entitlement: With passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act (PRWORA) in 1996, most needs-based assistance programs, including AFDC, were replaced by state-controlled systems funded by federal block grants. (See also social insurance; welfare.)

  • Personal Rule (English history [1629–1640])

    English Civil Wars: Personal Rule and the seeds of rebellion (1629–40): Compared with the chaos unleashed by the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48) on the European continent, the British Isles under Charles I enjoyed relative peace and economic prosperity during the 1630s. However, by the later 1630s, Charles’s regime…

  • personal safety (condition)

    Safety, those activities that seek either to minimize or to eliminate hazardous conditions that can cause bodily injury. Safety precautions fall under two principal headings, occupational safety and public safety. Occupational safety is concerned with risks encountered in areas where people work:

  • personal supposition (logic)

    history of logic: The theory of supposition: …of supposition were distinguished: (1) personal supposition (which, despite the name, need not have anything to do with persons), (2) simple supposition, and (3) material supposition. These types are illustrated, respectively, by the occurrences of the term horse in the statements “Every horse is an animal” (in which the term…

  • personal trust (finance)

    trust company: They distinguish between personal trusts and corporate trusts, often having separate departments for the two classes. In serving as trustee, the company usually takes legal title to property conveyed to it and manages it according to the instructions of the creator of the trust, the prescriptions of state…

  • personal-liberty laws (United States history)

    Personal-liberty laws, in U.S. history, pre-Civil War laws passed by Northern state governments to counteract the provisions of the Fugitive Slave Acts and to protect escaped slaves and free blacks settled in the North. Contravening the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, which did not provide for trial

  • personalism (philosophy)

    Personalism, a school of philosophy, usually idealist, which asserts that the real is the personal, i.e., that the basic features of personality—consciousness, free self-determination, directedness toward ends, self-identity through time, and value retentiveness—make it the pattern of all reality.

  • personalismo (Latin American politics)

    Personalismo, in Latin America, the practice of glorifying a single leader, with the resulting subordination of the interests of political parties and ideologies and of constitutional government. Latin American political parties have often been constituted by the personal following of a leader

  • personality

    Personality, a characteristic way of thinking, feeling, and behaving. Personality embraces moods, attitudes, and opinions and is most clearly expressed in interactions with other people. It includes behavioral characteristics, both inherent and acquired, that distinguish one person from another and

  • Personality and Learning Theory (work by Cattell)

    Raymond B. Cattell: Personality and Learning Theory, 2 vol. (1979–80), is considered Cattell’s most important work. In it he proposed a theory of human development that integrates the intellectual, temperamental, and dynamic aspects of personality in the context of environmental and cultural influences. He was able to synthesize…

  • Personality and Psychotherapy (work by Miller and Dollard)

    Neal E. Miller: …Learning and Imitation (1941) and Personality and Psychotherapy (1950), he and Dollard presented their results, which suggested that behaviour patterns were produced through the modification of biologically or socially derived drives by conditioning and reinforcement. Miller was appointed professor of psychology at Yale in 1950, resigning the position in 1966…

  • personality assessment (psychology)

    Personality assessment, the measurement of personal characteristics. Assessment is an end result of gathering information intended to advance psychological theory and research and to increase the probability that wise decisions will be made in applied settings (e.g., in selecting the most promising

  • personality disorder

    Personality disorder, mental disorder that is marked by deeply ingrained and lasting patterns of inflexible, maladaptive, or antisocial behaviour. A personality disorder is an accentuation of one or more personality traits to the point that the trait significantly impairs an individual’s social o

  • personality inventory (psychology)

    personality assessment: Self-report tests: So-called personality inventories (see below) tend to have these characteristics, in that they are relatively restrictive, can be scored objectively, and are convenient to administer. Other techniques (such as inkblot tests) for evaluating personality possess these characteristics to a lesser degree.

  • personality test (psychology)

    Personality assessment, the measurement of personal characteristics. Assessment is an end result of gathering information intended to advance psychological theory and research and to increase the probability that wise decisions will be made in applied settings (e.g., in selecting the most promising

  • personality trait (psychology)

    personality disorder: …accentuation of one or more personality traits to the point that the trait significantly impairs an individual’s social or occupational functioning. Personality disorders are not, strictly speaking, illnesses, since they need not involve the disruption of emotional, intellectual, or perceptual functioning. In many cases, an individual with a personality disorder…

  • personality, cult of (politics)

    communism: Stalinism: …feature of Stalinism was its cult of personality. Whereas Lenin had claimed that the workers suffered from false consciousness and therefore needed a vanguard party to guide them, Stalin maintained that the Communist Party itself suffered from false consciousness (and from spies and traitors within its ranks) and therefore needed…

  • personality, principle of (law)

    business law: …law: the concept of legal personality and the theory of limited liability. Nearly all statutory rules are intended to protect either creditors or investors.

  • Personality: A Psychological Interpretation (work by Allport)

    personality: … (1937) by Ross Stagner and Personality: A Psychological Interpretation (1937) by Gordon W. Allport, followed by Henry A. Murray’s Explorations in Personality (1938), which contained a set of experimental and clinical studies, and by Gardner Murphy’s integrative and comprehensive text, Personality: A Biosocial Approach to Origins and Structure (1947). Yet…

  • personalized cancer medicine (therapeutics)

    cancer: …treatment, with notable progress toward personalized cancer medicine, in which therapy is tailored to individuals according to biological anomalies unique to their disease. Personalized cancer medicine is considered the most-promising area of progress yet for modern cancer therapy.

  • personhood (society)

    kinship: Personhood, cohesion, and the matrilineal puzzle: The differences between matrilineal and patrilineal systems nonetheless drew the nature of personhood to the attention of descent theorists. Studies of matrilineal systems suggested that a particular nexus of problems might arise regarding political continuity in a context where…

  • personification (literature)

    Personification, figure of speech in which human characteristics are attributed to an abstract quality, animal, or inanimate object. An example is “The Moon doth with delight / Look round her when the heavens are bare” (William Wordsworth, “Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of

  • personnel carrier (military vehicle)

    armoured vehicle: Armoured personnel carriers: Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are tracked armoured vehicles that are used for transporting infantry into battle. APCs first appeared in large numbers early in World War II, when the German army adopted them to carry the infantry contingents of their panzer and…

  • personnel management (business)

    Human resources management, the management of the people in working organizations. It is also frequently called personnel management, industrial relations, employee relations, manpower management, and personnel administration. It represents a major subcategory of general management, focusing

  • Personnel Management, Office of (United States government)

    United States: Normalizing relations with Cuba, the USA FREEDOM Act, and the Office of Personnel Management data breach: …on the records of the Office of Personnel Management (OPM). Initially it was believed that data relating to some four million current and former federal employees had been put at risk. Later it was learned that personal information regarding more than 21 million people had been compromised. The data breach—first…

  • personnel security (business)

    Human resources management, the management of the people in working organizations. It is also frequently called personnel management, industrial relations, employee relations, manpower management, and personnel administration. It represents a major subcategory of general management, focusing

  • Persons and Places (work by Santayana)

    George Santayana: Santayana’s system of philosophy: …and began a three-volume autobiography, Persons and Places (1944, 1945, 1953). When Rome was liberated in 1944, the 80-year-old author found himself visited by an “avalanche” of American admirers. By now he was immersed in Dominations and Powers (1951), an analysis of man in society; and then with heroic tenacity—for…

  • Persons Case (Canadian law case)

    Persons Case, constitutional ruling that established the right of women to be appointed to the Senate of Canada. The case was initiated in 1927 by the Famous 5, a group of prominent women activists. In 1928, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that women were not “persons” according to the British

  • Persons, Robert (English Jesuit)

    Robert Parsons, Jesuit who, with Cardinal William Allen, organized Roman Catholic resistance in England to the Protestant regime of Queen Elizabeth I. He favoured armed intervention by the continental Catholic powers as a means of restoring Catholicism in England, and he probably encouraged the

  • Persons, Truman Streckfus (American author)

    Truman Capote, American novelist, short-story writer, and playwright whose early writing extended the Southern Gothic tradition, though he later developed a more journalistic approach in the novel In Cold Blood (1965; film 1967), which, together with Breakfast at Tiffany’s (1958; film 1961),

  • Perspectiva (work by Witelo)

    Witelo: analyses of space perception, the Perspectiva was incorporated into Opticae thesaurus (1572; “Thesaurus of Optics”), the principal textbook on this subject in the West until the 17th century. Witelo also did original work in the physics of light refraction. In philosophy he upheld the Neoplatonic metaphysics of light that viewed…

  • perspective (physiology)

    human eye: Monocular cues: Perspective, by which is meant the changed appearance of an object when it is viewed from different angles, is another important clue to depth. Thus, the projected retinal image of an object in space may be represented as a series of lines on a plane—e.g.,…

  • perspective (art)

    Perspective, method of graphically depicting three-dimensional objects and spatial relationships on a two-dimensional plane or on a plane that is shallower than the original (for example, in flat relief). Perceptual methods of representing space and volume, which render them as seen at a particular

  • Perspective of Nudes (work by Brandt)

    Bill Brandt: …culminating in his best-known collection, Perspective of Nudes (1961). In several of these photographs he placed his extremely wide-angle fixed-focus camera at close range to the human body; this caused distortion and transformed the human figure into a series of abstract designs. In other photographs from this time, however, Brandt…

  • perspective scenery (theatre)

    Perspective scenery, in theatre, scenery and the scene design technique that represents three-dimensional space on a flat surface, creating an illusion of reality and an impression of distance. Developed during the Italian Renaissance, perspective scenery applied the newly mastered science of

  • Perspective: A Quarterly of Literature and the Arts (American literary magazine)

    Mona Van Duyn: …husband, Jarvis Thurston, she founded Perspective: A Quarterly of Literature and the Arts, which she coedited until 1967. Her first volume of poetry, Valentines to the Wide World, was published in 1959. She won recognition following the publication of To See, to Take (1970), receiving the Bollingen Prize for achievement…

  • perspectivism (philosophy)

    Friedrich Nietzsche: Nietzsche’s mature philosophy: …that have commanded attention, especially perspectivism, the will to power, eternal recurrence, and the superman.

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