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  • Perry, Fred (British athlete)

    Frederick John Perry, ("FRED"), British tennis player (born May 18, 1909, Stockport, Cheshire, England—died Feb. 2, 1995, Melbourne, Australia), during the period 1933-36 led England to victory in four consecutive Davis Cup finals and won eight Grand Slam singles titles: three straight A

  • Perry, Frederick John (British athlete)

    Frederick John Perry, ("FRED"), British tennis player (born May 18, 1909, Stockport, Cheshire, England—died Feb. 2, 1995, Melbourne, Australia), during the period 1933-36 led England to victory in four consecutive Davis Cup finals and won eight Grand Slam singles titles: three straight A

  • Perry, Gaylord (American baseball player)

    San Diego Padres: …Famer members Dave Winfield and Gaylord Perry, the latter of whom won the 1978 NL Cy Young Award (at age 39) for outstanding pitching. The winning was short-lived, however, as the Padres posted losing records in each of the following three seasons.

  • Perry, Grayson (British potter)

    Grayson Perry, British potter who embedded in his work images of violence and other disturbing social issues. Perry was born into a working-class family, and his interest in ceramics was kindled during childhood. By age 13 he had confided his transvestism to his diary. He studied at the Braintree

  • Perry, James (English inventor)

    pen: …years later the English inventor James Perry sought to produce more-flexible steel points by cutting a centre hole at the top of a central slit and then making additional slits on either side.

  • Perry, James Richard (American politician)

    Rick Perry, American politician who was the longest-serving governor of Texas (2000–15) and who later was secretary of energy (2017– ) in the administration of U.S. Pres. Donald Trump. Perry sought the Republican nomination for president in 2012 and 2016. Perry was the second of two children born

  • Perry, Joe (American football player)

    Joe Perry, (Fletcher Joseph Perry; “The Jet”), American football player (born Jan. 22, 1927, Stephens, Ark.—died April 25, 2011, Tempe, Ariz.), possessed tremendous speed and an uncanny ability to find holes in the defensive line as the powerful fullback (1948–60 and 1963) for the San Francisco

  • Perry, Joe (American musician)

    Aerosmith: ), lead guitarist Joe Perry (b. September 10, 1950, Boston, Massachusetts), guitarist Brad Whitford (b. February 23, 1952, Winchester, Massachusetts), bassist Tom Hamilton (b. December 31, 1951, Colorado Springs, Colorado), and drummer Joey Kramer (b. June 21, 1950, New York City).

  • Perry, Katy (American singer)

    Katy Perry, American pop singer who gained fame for a string of anthemic and often sexually suggestive hit songs, as well as for a playfully cartoonish sense of style. Katy Hudson was raised in southern California, the middle child of two itinerant born-again Christian ministers. Nonreligious music

  • Perry, Lee Scratch (Jamaican musician)

    Lee “Scratch” Perry, Jamaican producer, songwriter, singer, and disc jockey who helped reshape reggae music. He was among the first Jamaican producer-musicians to use the studio as an instrument, and he pioneered the reggae instrumental form known as dub, in which sections of a rhythm track were

  • Perry, Lilla Cabot (American artist)

    Lilla Cabot Perry, American artist who emulated the innovations of French Impressionism in her own art. She was also a major promoter of Impressionism in the United States. Lilla Cabot was a descendant not only of the Boston Brahmin Cabot family but also of the equally distinguished Lowells. In

  • Perry, Mary Antoinette (American actress and director)

    Antoinette Perry, American actress and director in whose honour the American theatre’s Tony Awards are named. Perry frequently traveled in the summer with an aunt and uncle who were touring actors. She made her theatrical debut in Mrs. Temple’s Telegram in Chicago in June 1905; later that year she

  • Perry, Matthew (American actor)

    Friends: …confides in Chandler Bing (Matthew Perry), a well-off statistics and data analyst who has terrible luck with women and in time develops an eye for Monica. Throughout the series, the friends live together or apart in different combinations.

  • Perry, Matthew C. (United States naval officer)

    Matthew C. Perry, U.S. naval officer who headed an expedition that forced Japan in 1853–54 to enter into trade and diplomatic relations with the West after more than two centuries of isolation. Through his efforts the United States became an equal power with Britain, France, and Russia in the

  • Perry, Matthew Calbraith (United States naval officer)

    Matthew C. Perry, U.S. naval officer who headed an expedition that forced Japan in 1853–54 to enter into trade and diplomatic relations with the West after more than two centuries of isolation. Through his efforts the United States became an equal power with Britain, France, and Russia in the

  • Perry, Matthew James, Jr. (American lawyer and judge)

    Matthew James Perry, Jr., American lawyer and judge (born Aug. 3, 1921, Columbia, S.C.—died July 29, 2011, Columbia), worked tirelessly to advance the legal status of African Americans during the civil rights movement. Perry argued several cases before the U.S. Supreme Court, which overturned more

  • Perry, Nora (American journalist and poet)

    Nora Perry, American journalist, poet, and children’s author whose sentimental works were favourites in her day. Perry grew up in Dudley and in Providence, Rhode Island. From childhood she composed stories and poems, and at age 18 she had her first story published in Harper’s Magazine. She served

  • Perry, Oliver Hazard (United States naval officer)

    Oliver Hazard Perry, U.S. naval officer who became a national hero when he defeated a British squadron in the Battle of Lake Erie in the War of 1812. Appointed a midshipman at 14, Perry served in both the West Indies and the Mediterranean until February 1813, when he was sent to Erie, Pennsylvania,

  • Perry, Rainford Hugh (Jamaican musician)

    Lee “Scratch” Perry, Jamaican producer, songwriter, singer, and disc jockey who helped reshape reggae music. He was among the first Jamaican producer-musicians to use the studio as an instrument, and he pioneered the reggae instrumental form known as dub, in which sections of a rhythm track were

  • Perry, Ralph Barton (American philosopher)

    Ralph Barton Perry, American educator and philosopher noted as the founder of the school of new realism in American pragmatic philosophy. Educated at a private school in Philadelphia and at Princeton (A.B., 1896) and Harvard (M.A., 1897; Ph.D., 1899) universities, Perry began a teaching career that

  • Perry, Rick (American politician)

    Rick Perry, American politician who was the longest-serving governor of Texas (2000–15) and who later was secretary of energy (2017– ) in the administration of U.S. Pres. Donald Trump. Perry sought the Republican nomination for president in 2012 and 2016. Perry was the second of two children born

  • Perry, Scratch (Jamaican musician)

    Lee “Scratch” Perry, Jamaican producer, songwriter, singer, and disc jockey who helped reshape reggae music. He was among the first Jamaican producer-musicians to use the studio as an instrument, and he pioneered the reggae instrumental form known as dub, in which sections of a rhythm track were

  • Perry, Troy (American religious leader and activist)

    Troy Perry, American religious leader, gay rights and human rights activist, and founder of the Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches (UFMCC), better known as Metropolitan Community Churches (MCC). Open to all individuals regardless of sexual orientation, MCC focuses its outreach

  • Perry, Troy Deroy (American religious leader and activist)

    Troy Perry, American religious leader, gay rights and human rights activist, and founder of the Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches (UFMCC), better known as Metropolitan Community Churches (MCC). Open to all individuals regardless of sexual orientation, MCC focuses its outreach

  • Perry, Tyler (American playwright, actor, screenwriter, producer, and director)

    Tyler Perry, American playwright, actor, screenwriter, producer, and director whose works—in which he often portrayed the character Mabel (“Madea”) Simmons, an outspoken grandmother—combined humour, religious wisdom, and personal triumph. Perry had a difficult childhood. He grew up with a

  • Perry, W. J. (British geographer and anthropologist)

    W.J. Perry, British geographer and anthropologist noted for his diffusionist theory of cultural development. Perry believed that Egypt of 4000 bc was the original and sole source of agriculture, pottery, basketry, domestic animals, houses, and towns and that these then spread throughout the world.

  • Perry, William James (British geographer and anthropologist)

    W.J. Perry, British geographer and anthropologist noted for his diffusionist theory of cultural development. Perry believed that Egypt of 4000 bc was the original and sole source of agriculture, pottery, basketry, domestic animals, houses, and towns and that these then spread throughout the world.

  • Perryville Battlefield State Shrine (monument, Danville, Kentucky, United States)

    Danville: Perryville Battlefield State Historic Site, scene of Kentucky’s bloodiest battle (October 8, 1862) of the American Civil War, is located 10 miles (16 km) west of the city. Inc. town, 1789; city, 1836. Pop. (2000) 15,477; (2010) 16,218.

  • Perryville, Battle of (United States history)

    Battle of Perryville, (October 8, 1862), in the American Civil War, engagement of Union and Confederate troops as General Braxton Bragg was leading the Confederates in an advance on Louisville, Kentucky, from Chattanooga, Tennessee. Union troops, under General Don Carlos Buell, were marching from

  • Persaeus (Greek philosopher)

    Antigonus II Gonatas: …sent two of his students, Persaeus and the Theban Philonides. Persaeus wrote a treatise on kingship, was the mentor of Halcyoneus, the son of Antigonus, and became commandant of Corinth in 244. When Zeno died in 263 the King lamented that he had lost the only man whose judgment of…

  • Persai (play by Aeschylus)

    Persians, one of a trilogy of unconnected tragedies presented in 472 bce by Aeschylus. Persians is unique among surviving ancient Greek tragedies in that it dramatizes recent history rather than events from the distant age of mythical heroes. The play treats the decisive repulse of the Persians

  • Persarmenia (historical region, Armenia)

    Armenia: The Arsacids: …two sections, Byzantine Armenia and Persarmenia (c. 390). The former, comprising about one-fifth of Armenia, was rapidly absorbed into the Byzantine state, to which the Armenians came to contribute many emperors and generals. Persarmenia continued to be ruled by an Arsacid in Dvin, the capital after the reign of Khosrow…

  • Persatuan Perdjuangan (Indonesian coalition)

    Ibrahim Datuk Tan Malaka: …creating a coalition, called the Persatuan Perdjuangan (United Struggle), to oppose any negotiated settlement with the Dutch, which Sjahrir favoured. When Sjahrir resigned in February 1946, Tan Malaka was asked to form a Cabinet. The members of the coalition failed to reach accord, however, and Sjahrir was recalled. Tan Malaka…

  • Perse, Saint-John (French poet)

    Saint-John Perse, French poet and diplomat who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1960 “for the soaring flight and evocative imagery of his poetry.” He studied at the universities of Bordeaux and Paris and in 1914 entered the diplomatic service. He went to China and was successively c

  • Persea (plant genus)

    Laurales: Distribution and abundance: …contain about 350 species each; Persea (including the avocado plant) has about 200 species; and Beilschmiedia contains about 250 species throughout many tropical regions as well as Australia and New Zealand. Persea and Cryptocarya are found in many tropical regions, and Cinnamomum is widely distributed in all the major tropical…

  • Persea americana (fruit and tree)

    Avocado, fruit of Persea americana of the family Lauraceae, a tree native to the Western Hemisphere from Mexico south to the Andean regions. Avocado fruits have greenish or yellowish flesh with a buttery consistency and a rich, nutty flavour. They are often eaten in salads, and in many parts of the

  • Persea americana variety americana (fruit)

    avocado: West Indian (P. americana variety americana), and Guatemalan (P. americana variety guatemalensis) races, with more than 1,000 cultivars between them. The Mexican race is native to Mexico and is characterized by the aniselike odour of the leaves and by small (weighing 90–240 grams [3–8 ounces]),…

  • Persea americana variety drymifolia (fruit)

    avocado: …avocados are divided into the Mexican (Persea americana variety drymifolia), West Indian (P. americana variety americana), and Guatemalan (P. americana variety guatemalensis) races, with more than 1,000 cultivars between them. The Mexican race is native to Mexico and is characterized by the aniselike odour of the leaves and

  • Persea americana variety guatemalensis (fruit)

    avocado: americana variety americana), and Guatemalan (P. americana variety guatemalensis) races, with more than 1,000 cultivars between them. The Mexican race is native to Mexico and is characterized by the aniselike odour of the leaves and by small (weighing 90–240 grams [3–8 ounces]), thin-skinned fruits of rich flavour and excellent…

  • Persea drymifolia (fruit)

    avocado: …avocados are divided into the Mexican (Persea americana variety drymifolia), West Indian (P. americana variety americana), and Guatemalan (P. americana variety guatemalensis) races, with more than 1,000 cultivars between them. The Mexican race is native to Mexico and is characterized by the aniselike odour of the leaves and

  • persecution

    Egypt: Religious life: …rulers of Egypt had seldom interfered with the lives of their Christian and Jewish subjects so long as these groups paid the special taxes (known as jizyah) levied on them in exchange for state protection. Indeed, both Copts and Jews had always served in the Muslim bureaucracy, sometimes in the…

  • Persecution and Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat as Performed by the Inmates of the Asylum of Charenton Under the Direction of the Marquis de Sade (play by Weiss)

    Marat/Sade, play in two acts by German dramatist Peter Weiss, published and performed in West Berlin (now part of Berlin) in 1964 under the title Die Verfolgung und Ermordung Jean Paul Marats, dargestellt durch die Schauspielgruppe des Hospizes zu Charenton unter Anleitung des Herrn de Sade (The

  • Persecution and the Art of Writing (work by Strauss)

    Leo Strauss: In Persecution and the Art of Writing, Strauss argued that, since the time of Plato, philosophers have often been forced to conceal to most readers the most controversial elements of their discourse for fear of censorship and persecution. Strauss advocated a close exegesis of those texts…

  • perseguidor, El (short story by Cortázar)

    Julio Cortázar: The main character of “El perseguidor” (“The Pursuer”), one of the stories in Las armas secretas, embodies many of the traits of Cortázar’s later characters. The metaphysical anguish that he feels in his search for artistic perfection and in his failure to come to grips with the passage of…

  • Perseid meteor shower (astronomy)

    Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli: …particular, he calculated that the Perseid meteors are remnants of Comet 1862 III and the Leonids of Comet 1866 I. He also observed double stars and made extensive studies of Mercury, Venus, and Mars.

  • Persephone (work by Stravinsky)

    Igor Stravinsky: Life and career: …Apollon musagète (1928) and in Persephone (1934). The Russian element in Stravinsky’s music occasionally reemerged during this period: the ballet The Fairy’s Kiss (1928) is based on music by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, and the Symphony of Psalms has some of the antique austerity of Russian Orthodox chant, despite its Latin…

  • Persephone (Greek goddess)

    Persephone, in Greek religion, daughter of Zeus, the chief god, and Demeter, the goddess of agriculture; she was the wife of Hades, king of the underworld. In the Homeric “Hymn to Demeter,” the story is told of how Persephone was gathering flowers in the Vale of Nysa when she was seized by Hades

  • Persephone, sanctuary of (ancient site, Italy)

    Locri Epizephyrii: …disclosed a Doric temple, a sanctuary of Persephone, and numerous 5th-century-bc terra-cotta native plaques (pinakes). The discovery of prehistoric objects confirmed the accounts by Thucydides and Polybius that the Greeks were not the first settlers.

  • Persepolis (ancient city, Iran)

    Persepolis, an ancient capital of the kings of the Achaemenian dynasty of Iran (Persia), located about 30 miles (50 km) northeast of Shīrāz in the Fars region of southwestern Iran. The site lies near the confluence of the Pulvār (Sīvand) and Kor rivers. In 1979 the ruins were designated a UNESCO

  • Persepolis 2: The Story of a Return (work by Satrapi)

    Marjane Satrapi: …translated together into English as Persepolis 2: The Story of a Return in 2004. Persepolis 2 begins where Persepolis ends, with Satrapi living in Europe. The family friend with whom Satrapi was intended to live instead shuffles her to a boarding house, and her life gradually dissolves. She returns to…

  • Persepolis: The Story of a Childhood (work by Satrapi)

    Marjane Satrapi: …France; they were combined as Persepolis: The Story of a Childhood when translated into English in 2003. In Persepolis she used a stripped-down visual style that shows the influence of German Expressionism to tell the story of her childhood in Tehrān. It is a story that Western readers found at…

  • Perses (Mithraic god)

    Mithraism: Worship, practices, and institutions: >Perses, Persian; heliodromus, Courier of (and to) the Sun; pater, Father. To each rank belonged a particular mask (Raven, Persian, Lion) or dress (Bridegroom). The rising of the Mithraist in grade prefigured the ascent of the soul after death. The series of the seven initiations…

  • Perseus (sculpture by Cellini)

    Benvenuto Cellini: Later years: …best known sculpture, the bronze Perseus in Florence’s Loggia dei Lanzi, where it still stands, and for a colossal bust of the Grand Duke of Tuscany (Bargello, Florence). Fleeing to Venice in 1546 to escape charges of immorality, Cellini completed the bust by 1548. In the same period he restored…

  • Perseus (constellation)

    Perseus, constellation in the northern sky at about 4 hours right ascension and 40° north in declination. With a magnitude of 1.8, its brightest star is Mirfak (from the Arabic for “the elbow”), which is also known as Algenib (from the Arabic for “the side”). This constellation contains the notable

  • Perseus (king of Macedonia)

    Perseus, the last king of Macedonia (179–168), whose attempts to dominate Greece brought on the final defeat of Macedonia by the Romans, leading to annexation of the region. The elder son of King Philip V of Macedonia, Perseus commanded troops in his father’s wars against Rome (199) and Aetolia

  • Perseus (Greek mythology)

    Perseus, in Greek mythology, the slayer of the Gorgon Medusa and the rescuer of Andromeda from a sea monster. Perseus was the son of Zeus and Danaë, the daughter of Acrisius of Argos. As an infant he was cast into the sea in a chest with his mother by Acrisius, to whom it had been prophesied that

  • Perseus and Andromeda (painting by Titian)

    Titian: Mythological paintings: The Perseus and Andromeda was intended to be a companion to Medea and Jason, according to Titian’s letter, but for some reason the second picture was never carried out. Andromeda, bound to the rock at the left, awaits deliverance as Perseus descends from the sky to…

  • Pershing missile (weaponry)

    Wernher von Braun: Work in the United States: …the Redstone, Jupiter-C, Juno, and Pershing missiles were developed. In 1955 he became a U.S. citizen and, characteristically, accepted citizenship wholeheartedly. During the 1950s Braun became a national and international focal point for the promotion of space flight. He was the author or coauthor of popular articles and books and…

  • Pershing tank (armoured vehicle)

    tank: World War II: Army introduce a few M26 Pershing heavy tanks with a 90-mm gun comparable to that of the original German Tiger. Similarly, the British Army introduced the prototypes of the Centurion tank with a 76-mm gun comparable to that of the German Panther. Otherwise, U.S. and British tanks were well…

  • Pershing, John J. (United States general)

    John J. Pershing, U.S. Army general who commanded the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) in Europe during World War I. Pershing graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, in 1886. He was commissioned a second lieutenant and assigned to the 6th Cavalry, which was then

  • Pershing, John Joseph (United States general)

    John J. Pershing, U.S. Army general who commanded the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) in Europe during World War I. Pershing graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, in 1886. He was commissioned a second lieutenant and assigned to the 6th Cavalry, which was then

  • Pershore (England, United Kingdom)

    Wychavon: Pershore is the administrative centre.

  • Persia (historical region, Asia)

    Persia, historic region of southwestern Asia associated with the area that is now modern Iran. The term Persia was used for centuries and originated from a region of southern Iran formerly known as Persis, alternatively as Pārs or Parsa, modern Fārs. The use of the name was gradually extended by

  • Persian (breed of cat)

    Longhair, breed of domestic cat noted for its long, soft, flowing coat. Long-haired cats were originally known as Persians or Angoras. These names were later discarded in favour of the name longhair, although the cats are still commonly called Persians in the United States. The longhair, a

  • Persian (Mithraic god)

    Mithraism: Worship, practices, and institutions: >Perses, Persian; heliodromus, Courier of (and to) the Sun; pater, Father. To each rank belonged a particular mask (Raven, Persian, Lion) or dress (Bridegroom). The rising of the Mithraist in grade prefigured the ascent of the soul after death. The series of the seven initiations…

  • Persian (people)

    Persian, predominant ethnic group of Iran (formerly known as Persia). Although of diverse ancestry, the Persian people are united by their language, Persian (Farsi), which belongs to the Indo-Iranian group of the Indo-European language family. (Dari, a variant of the Persian language, is the lingua

  • Persian alphabet

    Pahlavi alphabet, writing system of the Persian people that dates from as early as the 2nd century bce, some scholars believe, and was in use until the advent of Islam (7th century ce). The Zoroastrian sacred book, the Avesta, is written in a variant of Pahlavi called Avestan. The Pahlavi alphabet

  • Persian archer (coin)

    ancient Iran: Artaxerxes I to Darius III: …exploitation by the famous “Persian archers,” the gold coins of the Achaemenids that depicted an archer on their obverse and that were used with considerable skill by the Persians in bribing first one Greek state and then another. Initially the Persians encouraged Athens against Sparta and from this gained…

  • Persian buttercup (plant)

    buttercup: The turban, or Persian buttercup (Ranunculus asiaticus), is the florist’s ranunculus; usually the double-flowered form R. asiaticus, cultivar Superbissimus, is grown for the winter trade. Among the many wild species are the tall meadow buttercup (R. acris), native to Eurasia but widely introduced elsewhere; the swamp…

  • Persian carpet

    ʿAbbās I: Life: …a major industry, and fine Persian rugs began to appear in the homes of wealthy European burghers. Another profitable export was textiles, which included brocades and damasks of unparalleled richness. The production and sale of silk was made a monopoly of the crown. In the illumination of manuscripts, bookbinding, and…

  • Persian Church (Christian sect)

    Nestorianism, Christian sect that originated in Asia Minor and Syria stressing the independence of the divine and human natures of Christ and, in effect, suggesting that they are two persons loosely united. The schismatic sect formed following the condemnation of Nestorius and his teachings by the

  • Persian Constitutional Revolution (Iranian history)

    Shiʿi: Shiʿi dynasties: …also motivated the early 20th-century Constitutional Revolution, which established a constitution and a parliament in Iran to check the efforts of the Qājār shahs to further aggrandize their power.

  • Persian Cossack Brigade (Iranian cavalry unit)

    Persian Cossack Brigade, cavalry unit founded in Iran in 1879 and modeled after Russian Cossack formations. It began as a regiment and was enlarged within a few months to a brigade and later, during World War I, into a division. The genesis of the Iranian brigade lay in the need for a reliable and

  • Persian cuisine

    Tehrān: Cultural life: Persian cuisine is characterized by the use of lime and saffron, the blend of meats with fruits and nuts, a unique way of cooking rice, and Iranian hospitality. Food is subtly spiced, delicate in flavour and appearance, and not typically hot or spicy. Many recipes…

  • Persian Cuneiform Inscription at Behistun (work by Rawlinson)

    Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson: As a result, his Persian Cuneiform Inscription at Behistun appeared (1846–51); it contained a complete translation, analysis of the grammar, and notes—altogether an achievement yielding valuable information on the history of ancient Persia and its rulers. With other scholars he succeeded in deciphering the Mesopotamian cuneiform script by 1857.…

  • Persian deer (mammal)

    Persian deer, fallow deer (Dama mesopotamica) of western Asia. The maral, an Asiatic red deer, also is often called Persian deer. See fallow

  • Persian fallow deer (mammal)

    Persian deer, fallow deer (Dama mesopotamica) of western Asia. The maral, an Asiatic red deer, also is often called Persian deer. See fallow

  • Persian Gulf (gulf, Middle East)

    Persian Gulf, shallow marginal sea of the Indian Ocean that lies between the Arabian Peninsula and southwestern Iran. The sea has an area of about 93,000 square miles (241,000 square km). Its length is some 615 miles (990 km), and its width varies from a maximum of about 210 miles (340 km) to a

  • Persian Gulf War (1990-1991)

    Persian Gulf War, (1990–91), international conflict that was triggered by Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990. Iraq’s leader, Saddam Hussein, ordered the invasion and occupation of Kuwait with the apparent aim of acquiring that nation’s large oil reserves, canceling a large debt Iraq owed

  • Persian Gulf War, Second (2003–2011)

    Iraq War, (2003–11), conflict in Iraq that consisted of two phases. The first of these was a brief, conventionally fought war in March–April 2003, in which a combined force of troops from the United States and Great Britain (with smaller contingents from several other countries) invaded Iraq and

  • Persian Iraq (ancient region, Middle East)

    Iraq: Iraq from 1055 to 1534: , Persian) Iraq (ʿIrāq ʿAjamī) and was more or less identical with ancient Media or the Umayyad and ʿAbbāsid province of Jibāl. Together these regions became known as “the Two Iraqs,” in contradistinction to the previous usage of the term in reference to the towns of…

  • Persian ironwood (plant)

    Hamamelidaceae: …also an outstanding trait of Persian ironwood (Parrotia persica), a small tree from northern Iran. Its flowers, produced before the leaves, have drooping stamens, lack petals, and have brown leaflike bracts. This tree’s close-grained wood is very strong, as are the twigs of the related Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana, which is used…

  • Persian knot (carpet-making)

    rug and carpet: Materials and technique: The Persian, or asymmetrical, knot is used principally in Iran, India, China, and Egypt. This knot was formerly known as the Senneh (Sehna) knot. The Spanish knot, used mainly in Spain, differs from the other two types in looping around only one warp yarn. After the…

  • Persian lamb (animal product)

    Karakul: …black coats and are called Persian lamb in the fur trade. The wool of mature Karakul sheep, classified as carpet wool, is a mixture of coarse and fine fibres, from 6 to 10 inches (15 to 25 cm) long, of colours varying from black to various shades of brown and…

  • Persian language

    Persian language, member of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian language family. It is the official language of Iran, and two varieties of Persian known as Dari and Tajik are official languages in Afghanistan and Tajikistan, respectively. Modern Persian is most closely related to Middle and Old

  • Persian leopard (mammal)

    leopard: Conservation status: pardus kotiya) and the Persian leopard (P. pardus saxicolor) were endangered species and the Amur leopard (P. pardus orientalis), Arabian leopard (P. pardus nimr), and Javan leopard (P. pardus melas) continued to decrease, with several of these subspecies declining to critical levels.

  • Persian Letters (work by Montesquieu)

    Montesquieu: Early life and career: …publishing his Lettres persanes (Persian Letters, 1722), in which he gave a brilliant satirical portrait of French and particularly Parisian civilization, supposedly seen through the eyes of two Persian travellers. This exceedingly successful work mocks the reign of Louis XIV, which had only recently ended; pokes fun at all…

  • Persian lilac (plant, Melia species)

    Meliaceae: The chinaberry (Melia azedarach), also called bead tree and Persian lilac, is an ornamental Asian tree with round yellow fruits, often cultivated in many tropical and warm temperate areas.

  • Persian lilac (plant, Syringa species)

    lilac: The weaker-stemmed Persian lilac (S. persica), ranging from Iran to China, droops over, reaching about 2 metres in height. Its flowers usually are pale lavender, but there are darker and even white varieties.

  • Persian literature

    Persian literature, body of writings in New Persian (also called Modern Persian), the form of the Persian language written since the 9th century with a slightly extended form of the Arabic alphabet and with many Arabic loanwords. The literary form of New Persian is known as Farsī in Iran, where it

  • Persian lynx (mammal species)

    Caracal, (Felis caracal), short-tailed cat (family Felidae) found in hills, deserts, and plains of Africa, the Middle East, and central and southwestern Asia. The caracal is a sleek, short-haired cat with a reddish brown-coat and long tufts of black hairs on the tips of its pointed ears. Long

  • Persian religion

    Ancient Iranian religion, diverse beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Hotan, China). The northern Iranians (referred

  • Persian Royal Road (ancient road, Asia)

    Persian Royal Road, ancient road running from Susa, the ancient capital of Persia, across Anatolia to the Aegean Sea, a distance of more than 1,500 miles (2,400 km). Royal messengers, who, according to the Greek historian Herodotus, were stopped by “neither snow, nor rain, nor heat, nor gloom of

  • Persian rug

    ʿAbbās I: Life: …a major industry, and fine Persian rugs began to appear in the homes of wealthy European burghers. Another profitable export was textiles, which included brocades and damasks of unparalleled richness. The production and sale of silk was made a monopoly of the crown. In the illumination of manuscripts, bookbinding, and…

  • Persian stonecress (plant)

    stonecress: Persian stonecress (Aethionema grandiflorum) is a perennial with rosy-lavender flowers and grows to over 30 cm (1 foot). Lebanon stonecress (A. cordifolium) has rose-pink flowers on 10- to 25-cm (4- to 10-inch) plants. Fragrant Persian stonecress (A. schistosum) rarely reaches more than 30 cm in…

  • Persian walnut (tree)

    walnut: …North America and English, or Persian, walnut (J. regia), native to Iran, are valuable timber trees that produce edible nuts. The butternut (J. cinerea) of eastern North America also produces an edible nut. See also butternut.

  • Persian Wars (492–449 BC)

    Greco-Persian Wars, (492–449 bce), a series of wars fought by Greek states and Persia over a period of almost half a century. The fighting was most intense during two invasions that Persia launched against mainland Greece between 490 and 479. Although the Persian empire was at the peak of its

  • Persian wheel (water-supply system)

    Sakia, mechanical device used to raise water from wells or pits. A sakia consists of buckets fastened to a vertical wheel or to a rope belt about the wheel, which is itself attached by a shaft to a horizontal wheel turned by horses, oxen, or asses. Sakias made of metal, wood, and stone are found

  • Persians, The (play by Aeschylus)

    Persians, one of a trilogy of unconnected tragedies presented in 472 bce by Aeschylus. Persians is unique among surviving ancient Greek tragedies in that it dramatizes recent history rather than events from the distant age of mythical heroes. The play treats the decisive repulse of the Persians

  • Persib Bandung (Indonesian football club)

    Michael Essien: …March 2017 he joined Indonesia’s Persib Bandung but played only one season before again being released. In 2019 he signed with Azerbaijan’s Sabail.

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