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  • Pérez Martínez, Gregorio (Colombian revolutionary)

    Manuel Pérez Martínez, Spanish-born priest (defrocked) and revolutionary who for some 20 years was the leader of the National Liberation Army, the second largest rebel group in Colombia (b. May 9, 1943, Alfamén, Spain--d. Feb. 14, 1998,

  • Pérez Martínez, Manuel (Colombian revolutionary)

    Manuel Pérez Martínez, Spanish-born priest (defrocked) and revolutionary who for some 20 years was the leader of the National Liberation Army, the second largest rebel group in Colombia (b. May 9, 1943, Alfamén, Spain--d. Feb. 14, 1998,

  • Pérez Molina, Otto (president of Guatemala)

    Guatemala: Moving toward peace: …elected a retired army general, Otto Pérez Molina, of the Patriotic Party, president in November 2011. Having promised to employ an “iron fist” against Guatemala’s drug-trafficking-related crime problems, Pérez Molina brought the army into the struggle. His government also prosecuted some of those accused of genocide during the civil war…

  • Pérez Rigal, Atanasio (Cuban-born baseball player)

    Tony Pérez, Cuban-born professional baseball player in the United States for 23 years. He played with the Cincinnati Reds, Montreal Expos, and Philadelphia Phillies of the National League (NL) and the Boston Red Sox of the American League (AL). Pérez was signed by Cincinnati in 1960 after baseball

  • Pérez Rodríguez, Carlos Andrés (president of Venezuela)

    Carlos Andrés Pérez, president of Venezuela from 1974 to 1979 and from 1989 to 1993. Pérez began his political life as a member of the liberal political party Democratic Action, led by Rómulo Betancourt. When Betancourt took power as president of the junta that overthrew Pres. Isaías Medina

  • Pérez Rubio, Timoteo (Spanish artist)

    Rosa Chacel: …and her husband, the painter Timoteo Pérez Rubio, moved to Rome, where Chacel taught at the Spanish Academy and wrote her first novel, Estación, ida y vuelta (1930; “Station, Round Trip”), influenced by James Joyce’s Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. After returning to Spain in 1927, she…

  • Perez Vega, Reynaldo (Nicaraguan general)

    Nora Astorga: …of Somoza’s National Guard, General Reynaldo Perez Vega, an alleged torturer, to her house. When Perez Vega began to disrobe in her bedroom, three of her accomplices burst out of hiding, supposedly to kidnap, question, and then exchange him for prisoners. However, when he resisted, they killed him. Astorga later…

  • Pérez, Antonio (Spanish courtier)

    Antonio Pérez, Spanish courtier who was secretary to King Philip II of Spain and later became a fugitive from Philip’s court. Pérez was an illegitimate son of Gonzalo Pérez, secretary of Philip’s predecessor, the emperor Charles V. Charming and well-connected, Pérez quickly rose in Philip’s

  • Pérez, Carlos Andrés (president of Venezuela)

    Carlos Andrés Pérez, president of Venezuela from 1974 to 1979 and from 1989 to 1993. Pérez began his political life as a member of the liberal political party Democratic Action, led by Rómulo Betancourt. When Betancourt took power as president of the junta that overthrew Pres. Isaías Medina

  • Pérez, José Joaquín (president of Chile)

    Manuel Montt: …by shifting his support to José Joaquín Pérez, who was a moderate. On giving up the presidency in 1861, Montt became president of the Supreme Court, a post he held at the time of his death.

  • Pérez, Manuel Benítez (Spanish bullfighter)

    El Cordobés, (Spanish: “The Córdovan”) Spanish bullfighter, the most highly paid torero in history. The crudity of his technique was offset by his exceptional reflexes, courage (sometimes considered total indifference to his own safety), and crowd appeal. Reared in an orphanage in his native town,

  • Pérez, Tony (Cuban-born baseball player)

    Tony Pérez, Cuban-born professional baseball player in the United States for 23 years. He played with the Cincinnati Reds, Montreal Expos, and Philadelphia Phillies of the National League (NL) and the Boston Red Sox of the American League (AL). Pérez was signed by Cincinnati in 1960 after baseball

  • Perfect (film by Bridges [1985])

    James Bridges: Bridges’s next film, Perfect (1985), centred on the new subculture of health clubs. It starred Travolta as a bright but unscrupulous Rolling Stone reporter on the trail of a story and Jamie Lee Curtis as the club instructor he first exploits, then falls in love with. Perfect, which…

  • perfect binding (printing)

    bookbinding: …them by gluing (called “perfect” binding in the U.S.). Larger books, such as encyclopaedia volumes and other reference books, are usually side sewn (side-sewing machines drill holes through the books, and stitching is done through prepared holes). Other steps, many of which are often linked in automated systems, are…

  • Perfect Blue (film by Satoshi)

    animation: Contemporary developments: Kon Satoshi’s Perfect Blue (1997) suggests the early Japanese New Wave films of director Oshima Nagisa with its violent exploration of a media-damaged personality.

  • perfect cadence (music)

    cadence: …of authentic cadence, called the perfect cadence, the upper voice proceeds stepwise either upward from the leading tone (seventh degree of the scale) or downward from the second degree to the tonic note, while the lowest voice skips from the dominant note upward a fourth or downward a fifth to…

  • perfect competition (economics)

    economics: Law and economics: …welfare economics had promoted “perfect competition” as the best of all possible economic worlds. This theoretical market structure comprised a world of many small firms whose product prices were determined by the sum of all their output decisions in relation to the independent demand of consumers. This perfect condition,…

  • perfect cosmological principle (cosmology)

    Sir Fred Hoyle: …and Gold called it the perfect cosmological principle.

  • Perfect Day for Bananafish, A (work by Salinger)

    J.D. Salinger: …with two British children; “A Perfect Day for Bananafish” (1948) concerns the suicide of the sensitive, despairing veteran Seymour Glass.

  • perfect difference set (mathematics)

    combinatorics: BIB (balanced incomplete block) designs: …said to form a perfect difference set mod υ, if among the k(k − 1) differences di − dj, i ≠ j, i, j = 0, 1, · · ·, k, reduced mod υ, each nonzero positive integer less than υ occurs exactly the same number of times λ. For…

  • perfect digital invariant (mathematics)

    number game: Number patterns and curiosities: … + 33) is called a perfect digital invariant. On the other hand, a recurring digital invariant is illustrated by:

  • perfect flower (plant anatomy)

    flower: Form and types: …flower is said to be perfect, or bisexual, regardless of a lack of any other part that renders it incomplete (see photograph). A flower that lacks stamens is pistillate, or female, while one that lacks pistils is said to be staminate, or male. When the same plant bears unisexual flowers…

  • perfect fluid (physics)

    fluid: The simplest model, called a perfect, or ideal, fluid, is one that is unable to conduct heat or to offer drag on the walls of a tube or internal resistance to one portion flowing over another. Thus, a perfect fluid, even while flowing, cannot sustain a tangential force; that is,…

  • perfect game (baseball)

    Cy Young: …1904, he registered the first perfect game (no player reaching first base) of the modern era, for the Red Sox against the Philadelphia Athletics.

  • perfect gas (chemistry and physics)

    Perfect gas, a gas that conforms, in physical behaviour, to a particular, idealized relation between pressure, volume, and temperature called the general gas law. This law is a generalization containing both Boyle’s law and Charles’s law as special cases and states that for a specified quantity of

  • perfect gas equation of state (chemistry and physics)

    absolute zero: Therefore, the ideal gas law is only an approximation to real gas behaviour. As such, however, it is extremely useful.

  • perfect gas law (chemistry and physics)

    absolute zero: Therefore, the ideal gas law is only an approximation to real gas behaviour. As such, however, it is extremely useful.

  • perfect information (mathematics)

    game theory: Games of perfect information: The simplest game of any real theoretical interest is a two-person constant-sum game of perfect information. Examples of such games include chess, checkers, and the Japanese game of go. In 1912 the German mathematician Ernst Zermelo proved that such games are strictly determined;…

  • Perfect Knowledge (religious knowledge)

    Saint Clement of Alexandria: Clement’s view of the roles of faith and knowledge: …was also the basis of gnōsis, a spiritual and mystical knowledge. By distinguishing between two levels of believers—i.e., the pistic Christian, who responds through discipline and lives on the level of the law, and the Christian Gnostic, who responds through discipline and love and lives on the level of the…

  • Perfect Liberty Church (Japanese religion)

    PL Kyōdan, religious group or church (Japanese: kyōdan) founded in Japan in 1946 by Miki Tokuchika. The movement, unique for the use of English words in its name, is based on the earlier Hito-no-michi sect. It is not affiliated, however, with any of the major religious traditions of Japan. In the l

  • Perfect Liberty Kyōdan (Japanese religion)

    PL Kyōdan, religious group or church (Japanese: kyōdan) founded in Japan in 1946 by Miki Tokuchika. The movement, unique for the use of English words in its name, is based on the earlier Hito-no-michi sect. It is not affiliated, however, with any of the major religious traditions of Japan. In the l

  • perfect man (mysticism)

    al-Jīlī: …whose doctrines of the “perfect man” became popular throughout the Islamic world.

  • Perfect Marriage, The (film by Allen [1946])

    Lewis Allen: …during World War II, while The Perfect Marriage (1946) was a lightweight marital comedy (based on a Broadway play) starring a perpetually feuding couple portrayed by David Niven and Loretta Young. In 1947 Allen directed The Imperfect Lady, a period drama about a politician (Ray Milland) who falls for a…

  • Perfect Married Woman, The (work by León)

    Luis de León: …books of the Bible and La perfecta casada (1583; “The Perfect Married Woman”), a commentary in Spanish on Proverbs 31, incorporating elements of the medieval ascetic tradition of misogyny interspersed with picturesque glimpses of feminine customs of the day.

  • Perfect Murder, A (film by Davis [1998])

    Dial M for Murder: …was released in 1998 as A Perfect Murder.

  • perfect number (mathematics)

    Perfect number, a positive integer that is equal to the sum of its proper divisors. The smallest perfect number is 6, which is the sum of 1, 2, and 3. Other perfect numbers are 28, 496, and 8,128. The discovery of such numbers is lost in prehistory. It is known, however, that the Pythagoreans

  • perfect pitch (music)

    pitch: Absolute, or perfect, pitch is the ability to identify by ear any note at some standard pitch or to sing a specified note, say G♯, at will. Fully developed absolute pitch is rare. It appears early in childhood and is apparently an acute form of memory of…

  • Perfect Prince, the (king of Portugal)

    John II, king of Portugal from 1481 to 1495, regarded as one of the greatest Portuguese rulers, chiefly because of his ruthless assertion of royal authority over the great nobles and his resumption of the exploration of Africa and the quest for India. John was the great-grandson of the founder of t

  • Perfect Realization (Daoist sect)

    Daoism: Internal developments: …Liu Deren (1142); and the Quanzhen (“Perfect Realization”) sect, founded in 1163 by Wang Chongyang (Wang Zhe). This last sect came to the favourable attention of the Mongols, who had taken over in the North, and its second patriarch, Qiu Changqun, was invited into Central Asia to preach to Genghis…

  • perfect rectangle (geometry)

    number game: Geometric dissections: …rectangle is said to be perfect. The order of a squared rectangle is the number of constituent squares. It is known that there are no perfect rectangles of orders less than 9, and that there are exactly two perfect rectangles of order 9. (One of these is shown as Figure…

  • Perfect Storm, The (film by Petersen [2000])

    Mark Wahlberg: Russell’s Three Kings (1999); The Perfect Storm (2000), a drama about an ill-fated fishing boat; Planet of the Apes (2001), a remake of the 1968 sci-fi classic; and The Italian Job (2003), which was based on the 1969 British cult hit. In 2006 Wahlberg appeared as a tough Boston…

  • Perfect Strangers (film by Korda [1945])
  • Perfect World, A (film by Eastwood [1993])

    Clint Eastwood: Films of the 1990s: In the quiet drama A Perfect World (1993), an escaped convict (Kevin Costner) takes a boy (T.J. Lowther) hostage, and an unlikely bond forms between them. Eastwood played a Texas Ranger tracking them down. He made a rare appearance in another director’s film when he played a U.S. Secret…

  • Perfect, Christine (British musician)

    Fleetwood Mac: June 8, 2018, London), Christine McVie (original name Christine Perfect; b. July 12, 1943, Birmingham, West Midlands, England), Bob Welch (b. August 31, 1945, Los Angeles, California, U.S.—d. June 7, 2012, Nashville, Tennessee), Stevie Nicks (b. May 26, 1948, Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.), and Lindsey Buckingham (b. October 3, 1947,…

  • Perfect, Josephine Holt (American financier)

    Josephine Holt Perfect Bay, American financier, the first woman to head a member firm of the New York Stock Exchange. Josephine Perfect grew up in Brooklyn, New York. After graduating from Brooklyn Heights Seminary and attending Colorado College from 1918 to 1919, she became active in various civic

  • perfecta (gambling)

    horse racing: Wagers: …of the first two races), perfecta (win and place winners in order in one race), quiniela (as in the perfecta but not in order), and trifecta (win, place, and show winners in order in one race). Other specialty wagers, sometimes offering extremely high payouts, require the bettor to select multiple…

  • perfecta casada, La (work by León)

    Luis de León: …books of the Bible and La perfecta casada (1583; “The Perfect Married Woman”), a commentary in Spanish on Proverbs 31, incorporating elements of the medieval ascetic tradition of misogyny interspersed with picturesque glimpses of feminine customs of the day.

  • perfection (religion)

    Christianity: Monasticism: …on the Christian ideal of perfection, have traditionally been traced to the first apostolic community in Jerusalem—which is described in the Acts of the Apostles—and to Jesus’ sojourn in the wilderness. In the early church, monasticism was based on the identification of perfection with world-denying asceticism and on the view…

  • Perfectionism (religion)

    John Humphrey Noyes: …first enunciated his belief in perfectionism, the idea that it is possible for an individual to become free of sin in this life through religious conversion and will power. Noyes declared himself free of sin and in a state of perfection. Because his views were in direct opposition to the…

  • Perfectionists (utopian religious community)

    Oneida Community, utopian religious community that developed out of a Society of Inquiry established by John Humphrey Noyes and some of his disciples in Putney, Vt., U.S., in 1841. As new recruits arrived, the society turned into a socialized community. Noyes had experienced a religious conversion

  • perfective aspect (linguistics)

    Indo-European languages: Verbal inflection: ’ The perfective aspect, traditionally called “aorist,” expressed a single, completed occurrence of an action or process—e.g., *steH2- ‘stand up, come to a stop,’ *men- ‘think of, bring to mind.’ The stative aspect, traditionally called “perfect,” described states of the subject—e.g., *ste-stóH2- ‘be in a standing position,’…

  • Perfidia (novel by Ellroy)

    James Ellroy: Perfidia (2014) was the first volume in his second L.A. Quartet. The novel, which chronologically precedes the events of the earlier series, features many of the same characters and evokes a similarly penumbral view of Los Angeles. The story continues in This Storm (2019), the…

  • perfluorocarbon (chemical compound)

    global warming: The UN Framework Convention and the Kyoto Protocol: nitrous oxide (N2O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Under the Kyoto Protocol, Annex I countries are required to reduce their aggregate emissions of greenhouse gases to 5.2 percent below their 1990 levels by no later than 2012. Toward this goal, the protocol sets individual reduction…

  • perfluorooctanoic acid (chemical compound)

    DuPont Company: …water in West Virginia of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; also known as C8), which is known to cause developmental problems in laboratory animals. The company also faced litigation and an investigation by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in connection with that incident. In 2006 DuPont and seven other companies agreed…

  • perfoliate honeysuckle (plant)

    honeysuckle: Major species: Perfoliate, or sweet, honeysuckle (Lonicera caprifolium) is native to Eurasia but has become established in North America. Its clustered night-blooming purple-white flowers are pollinated mostly by night-feeding hawk moths, because the flower tubes are too long for most other insects to reach the nectar. The fruit is…

  • perforated film (photography)

    technology of photography: Perforated film: Some film is perforated along its edges and rolled up on its own inside a light-tight cartridge, which can be loaded into the camera in daylight. Once the camera is closed, a transport sprocket engaging the edge perforations draws the film from the…

  • perforated Saint-John’s-wort (plant)

    weed: Biological control: …the western United States, where Saint-John’s-wort, or Klamath weed (Hypericum perforatum), was subjected to depredation by three insect species, beginning in California in 1945. The release of two insects of the genus Chrysolina and one of the genus Agrilus continued for a number of years, and the effort was carried…

  • perforation plate (botany)

    angiosperm: Organization of the vascular tissue: …end walls are modified into perforation plates, an area or areas in which there is no shared wall material or membrane. Vessel elements join to form continuous vessels. The perforations are much larger than those of the bordered pits of tracheids and are of four types: scalariform (slitlike), foraminate (circular),…

  • performance (arts)

    theatrical production: Elements of theatrical production: …there are types of theatrical performance that entail ritual and magic, but theatre is far more frequently rooted in attempts to structure emotion and experience.

  • performance (contract law)

    Performance, in law, act of doing that which is required by a contract. The effect of successful performance is to discharge the person bound to do the act from any future contractual liability. Each party to the contract is bound to perform promises according to the stipulated terms. In case of

  • performance (cognitive)

    human behaviour: Cognitive development: …in actual problem-solving situations, called performance. Children often possess knowledge that they do not use even when the occasion calls for it. Adapting to new challenges, according to Piaget, requires two complementary processes. The first, assimilation, is the relating of a new event or object to cognitive structures the child…

  • Performance (film by Roeg and Cammell [1970])

    Nicolas Roeg: His first film, Performance (1970), codirected with Donald Cammell, was a psychedelic drama starring Mick Jagger of the Rolling Stones as a former pop superstar who is drawn into the criminal underworld of 1960s London when he takes in a gangster on the run.

  • performance art

    Performance art, a time-based art form that typically features a live presentation to an audience or to onlookers (as on a street) and draws on such arts as acting, poetry, music, dance, and painting. It is generally an event rather than an artifact, by nature ephemeral, though it is often recorded

  • performing art

    myth: Performing arts: Myth is one of the principal roots of drama. This is particularly obvious in the earliest Western drama, the tragedies of Classical Greece, not only because of the many mythological subjects treated and the plays’ performance at the festival of Dionysus but also…

  • perfume

    Perfume, fragrant product that results from the artful blending of certain odoriferous substances in appropriate proportions. The word is derived from the Latin per fumum, meaning “through smoke.” The art of perfumery was apparently known to the ancient Chinese, Hindus, Egyptians, Israelites,

  • perfume bottle (container)

    Perfume bottle, a vessel made to hold scent. The earliest example is Egyptian and dates to around 1000 bc. The Egyptians used scents lavishly, especially in religious rites; as a result, when they invented glass, it was largely used for perfume vessels. The fashion for perfume spread to Greece,

  • perfume tree (plant)

    Ylang-ylang, (Cananga odorata), South Asian tree of the custard apple family (Annonaceae), in the order Magnoliales. A penetrating but evanescent perfume is distilled from its flowers. Ylang-ylang in Tagalog (a Philippine language) means “flower of flowers.” The slim smooth-barked evergreen reaches

  • perfusion pump (medical device)

    Charles Lindbergh: Technical work and the Lindbergh baby kidnapping: … on the development of the perfusion pump, a device that allowed organs to be kept alive outside the body. While the perfusion pump did not see widespread use, it demonstrated the feasibility of preserving organs through artificial means and acted as a precursor for the heart-lung machine.

  • perfusion scanning (medicine)

    respiratory disease: Methods of investigation: …visualization techniques, lung ventilation and perfusion scanning can also be helpful in detecting abnormalities of the lungs. In these techniques, a radioactive tracer molecule is either inhaled, in the case of ventilation scanning, or injected, in the case of perfusion scanning. The ventilation scan allows visualization of gas exchange in…

  • Perga (Turkey)

    Perga, ancient city of Pamphylia, now in Antalya il (province), Turkey. It was a centre of native culture and was a seat of the worship of “Queen” Artemis, a purely Anatolian nature goddess. In Perga St. Paul, the Apostle, and St. Barnabas began their first mission in Anatolia (Acts of the Apostles

  • Pergamino (Argentina)

    Pergamino, city of northern Buenos Aires provincia (province), eastern Argentina. Located within the Pampa, it is about 135 miles (220 km) northwest of the city of Buenos Aires. It was first mentioned in 1626 as an unpopulated spot where a group of Spaniards lost some parchment documents

  • Pergamon (ancient city, Turkey)

    Pergamum, ancient Greek city in Mysia, situated 16 miles from the Aegean Sea on a lofty isolated hill on the northern side of the broad valley of the Caicus (modern Bakır) River. The site is occupied by the modern town of Bergama, in the il (province) of İzmir, Turkey. Pergamum existed at least

  • Pergamon Museum (museum, Berlin, Germany)

    Pergamon Museum, art museum in Berlin, Germany, that contains three separate museums: the Collection of Classical Antiquities (Antikensammlung), the Museum of the Ancient Near East (Vorderasiatisches Museum), and the Museum of Islamic Art (Museum für Islamische Kunst). Built between 1910 and 1930,

  • Pergamon Press Ltd. (British company)

    Robert Maxwell: …publishing company, which he renamed Pergamon Press Ltd. in 1951. By the 1960s the company was a major publisher of trade journals and scientific and technical books and was making several minor acquisitions in the publishing industry. Maxwell also dabbled in politics, becoming a Labourite member of Parliament (1964–70).

  • Pergamonmuseum (museum, Berlin, Germany)

    Pergamon Museum, art museum in Berlin, Germany, that contains three separate museums: the Collection of Classical Antiquities (Antikensammlung), the Museum of the Ancient Near East (Vorderasiatisches Museum), and the Museum of Islamic Art (Museum für Islamische Kunst). Built between 1910 and 1930,

  • Pergamum (ancient city, Turkey)

    Pergamum, ancient Greek city in Mysia, situated 16 miles from the Aegean Sea on a lofty isolated hill on the northern side of the broad valley of the Caicus (modern Bakır) River. The site is occupied by the modern town of Bergama, in the il (province) of İzmir, Turkey. Pergamum existed at least

  • Pergamum school (philosophy)

    Eusebius of Myndus: …a pupil of Aedesius of Pergamum. He was distinguished from the other members of the Pergamene school by his comparative sobriety and rationality and by his contempt for the religious magic, or theurgy, to which other members of the school were addicted. He was too sober for the future emperor…

  • Pergamus (Greek mythology)

    Andromache: …Minor with her youngest son, Pergamus, who there founded a town named after himself.

  • Perge (Turkey)

    Perga, ancient city of Pamphylia, now in Antalya il (province), Turkey. It was a centre of native culture and was a seat of the worship of “Queen” Artemis, a purely Anatolian nature goddess. In Perga St. Paul, the Apostle, and St. Barnabas began their first mission in Anatolia (Acts of the Apostles

  • pergid sawfly (insect)

    sawfly: …plants of pergid sawflies (Pergidae), which occur mainly in South America and Australia, are oak, hickory, and eucalyptus. The family consists of a single genus, Acordulecera.

  • Pergidae (insect)

    sawfly: …plants of pergid sawflies (Pergidae), which occur mainly in South America and Australia, are oak, hickory, and eucalyptus. The family consists of a single genus, Acordulecera.

  • pergola (gardening)

    Pergola, garden walk or terrace, roofed with an open framework over which plants are trained. Its purpose is to provide a foundation on which climbing plants can be seen to advantage and to give shade. It was known in ancient Egypt and was a common feature of early Renaissance gardens in Italy and

  • Pergolesi, Giovanni Battista (Italian composer)

    Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, Italian composer whose intermezzo La serva padrona (“The Maid Turned Mistress”) was one of the most celebrated stage works of the 18th century. His family name was Draghi, but, having moved to Jesi from Pergola, the family was called Pergolesi, meaning “of Pergola.”

  • Perhimpunan Indonesia (political organization, Indonesia)

    Perhimpunan Indonesia, an Indonesian students’ organization in the Netherlands, formed in the early 1920s in Leiden, which provided a source of intellectual leadership for the Indonesian nationalist movement. This association originated in 1908 as the Indische Vereeniging (Indies Association),

  • Peri anastaseos nekron (work attributed to Athenagoras)

    Athenagoras: A second work, the tract Peri anastaseōs nekrōn (The Resurrection of the Dead), is cautiously attributed to Athenagoras. Rejecting the Platonic tenet that the body is the prison of the soul, and affirming matter–spirit complementarity, he accepts bodily resurrection from the dead on the basis of God’s omnipotence and purpose…

  • Peri bion dogmaton kai apophthegmaton ton en philosophia eudokimesanton (work by Diogenes)

    Diogenes Laërtius: One of its traditional titles, Peri biōn dogmatōn kai apophthegmatōn tōn en philosophia eudokimēsantōn (“Lives, Teachings, and Sayings of Famous Philosophers”), indicates its great scope. The work is a compilation, the excerpts of which range from insignificant gossip to valuable biographical and bibliographical information, competent summaries of doctrines, and reproductions…

  • Peri hippikēs (work by Xenophon)

    Xenophon: Other writings: De re equestri (“On Horsemanship”) deals with various aspects of horse ownership and riding, and Cavalry Commander is a somewhat unsystematic (but serious) discussion of how to improve the Athenian cavalry corps. Also Athenocentric is Ways and Means, a plan to alleviate the city’s financial problems (and remove…

  • Peri Hypsous (work by Longinus)

    On the Sublime, treatise on literary criticism by Longinus, dating to about the 1st century ce. The earliest surviving manuscript, from the 10th century, was first printed in 1554. On the Sublime is given a 1st-century-ce date because it was a response to a work of that period by Caecilius of

  • Peri Ktismaton (work by Procopius)

    Procopius: The Buildings contains an account of the chief public works undertaken during the reign of Justinian down to 560. If not written at the command of Justinian (as some have supposed), it is evidently grounded on official information and is a valuable source of information.

  • Perì musikē (work by Aristides Quintilianus)

    Aristides Quintilianus: …Greek author of the treatise Perì musikē (De musica, “On Music”). This three-volume work constitutes one of the principal sources of modern knowledge of ancient Greek music and its relationship to other disciplines. In the opening of book 1, the author compares music to other arts and sciences, such as…

  • Peri physeos (poem by Parmenides)

    Eleaticism: The rigorous ontologism of Parmenides and Melissus: Parmenides’ poem Peri physeōs (On Nature) is divided into three parts: (1) a proem (preface), in which his chariot ride through the heavens to the very seat of the goddess Alētheia (Truth) is described and their initial conversation is related, in which she announces that he is…

  • Peri physeos anthropou (work by Nemesius)

    Nemesius Of Emesa: …who was the author of Peri physeōs anthrōpou (Greek: “On the Nature of Man”), the first known compendium of theological anthropology with a Christian orientation. The treatise considerably influenced later Byzantine and medieval Latin philosophical theology.

  • Peri phyton historia (work by Theophrastus)

    arboriculture: … the Greek philosopher Theophrastus wrote Peri phytōn historia (“Inquiry into Plants”), in which he discussed transplanting of trees and the treatment of tree wounds. Virgil’s Georgics portrays Roman knowledge of tree culture. The English horticulturist John Evelyn, in his Sylva, or a Discourse of Forest-trees, and the Propagation of Timber…

  • Peri Rossi, Cristina (Uruguayan writer)

    Cristina Peri Rossi, short-story writer, novelist, and poet who is considered one of the leading Latin American writers to have published in the period after the “boom of the Latin American novel” (when Gabriel García Márquez, Mario Vargas Llosa, Carlos Fuentes, Julio Cortázar, and others came to

  • Peri sōphiston (work by Alcidamas)

    Alcidamas: His only extant work, Peri sōphiston (“Concerning Sophists”), stresses the superiority of extempore (though prepared) speeches over written ones. The oration attributed to him entitled Odysseus is spurious. Only fragments of his other works survive. Aristotle criticized Alcidamas for his improper and too-frequent use of adjectives and deplored his…

  • Peri syntheseos onomaton (work by Dionysius of Halicarnassus)

    Dionysius of Halicarnassus: …essay “Peri syntheseos onomaton” (“On the Arrangement of Words”; often cited by its Latin title, “De compositione verborum”) is the only extant ancient discussion of word order. Dionysius was a mediocre historian but a first-rate literary critic who examined authors’ style and historical context.

  • Peri tou me ontos e peri physeos (work by Gorgias)

    Eleaticism: The decline of Eleaticism: …in a work ironically entitled Peri tou mē ontos ē peri physeōs (On That Which Is Not, or On Nature), in which he said (1) that nothing exists; (2) that if anything exists, it is incomprehensible; and (3) that if it is comprehensible, it is incommunicable—and in so doing he…

  • Peri, Jacopo (Italian composer)

    Jacopo Peri, Italian composer noted for his contribution to the development of dramatic vocal style in early Baroque opera. Under the early sponsorship of the Florentine Cristofano Malvezzi, Peri had published by 1583 both an instrumental work and a madrigal. After early posts as an organist and

  • Péri, La (ballet by Dukas)

    Paul Dukas: The ballet La Péri (1912), on the other hand, displays mastery of Impressionist scoring; and, in his opera Ariane et Barbe-Bleue (1907), on the play of Maurice Maeterlinck, the atmosphere and musical texture make up for the lack of dramatic impact.

  • periaktoi (ancient theatrical device)

    Periaktos, (Greek: “revolving”, ) ancient theatrical device by which a scene or change of scene was indicated. It was described by Vitruvius in his De architectura (c. 14 bc) as a revolving triangular prism made of wood, bearing on each of its three sides a different pictured scene. While one scene

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