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  • Pepper, Virginia (British explorer)

    Sir Ranulph Fiennes: …left the military and married Virginia (“Ginny”) Pepper, whom he had met as a child and who, until her death in 2004, would be the collaborator on many of his subsequent expeditions and adventures. A trip to Jostedals Glacier in Norway (1970) was followed by the first north-south traverse of…

  • pepper, white (spice)

    black pepper: White pepper is obtained by removing the dark outer part of the pericarp, and the flavour is less pungent than that of black pepper. The outer coating is softened either by keeping the berries in moist heaps for 2 or 3 days or by keeping…

  • pepper-shrike (bird)

    Peppershrike, (family Cyclarhidae), either of two species of stout-billed tropical American songbirds (order Passeriformes). (They are included by some authorities in the vireo family, Vireonidae.) Both peppershrikes are olive green above and yellow and white below; they are about 15 centimetres (6

  • PepperBall (weapon)

    police: Nonlethal tactics and instruments: The less-harmful PepperBall, which combines a compressed-air launcher and a projectile filled with capsicum oleoresin, was developed in the 1990s. Because the projectiles break upon impact, they usually do not cause permanent injury, even when fired at close range. The so-called “beanbag” projectile, which can be fired…

  • Pepperberg, Irene (American animal behaviourist and psychologist)

    African gray parrot: Intelligence tests: American animal behaviourist and psychologist Irene Pepperberg vindicated those observations with her studies of the cognitive abilities of African grays, using a bird named Alex and, later, additional specimens. Alex, who had been purchased from a pet store in Chicago in 1977, proved receptive to Pepperberg’s attempts to train him…

  • peppercress (plant genus)

    Peppergrass, (genus Lepidium), genus of some 230 species of herbs of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). Peppergrass species are distributed throughout the world, and many are common lawn and field weeds. Some, such as garden cress (Lepidium sativum), are cultivated as salad plants for their

  • Pepperdine University (university, Malibu, California, United States)

    Ken Starr: …later served as dean of Pepperdine University’s law school (2004–10) before becoming president of Baylor University in 2010; he also became chancellor in 2013. During his tenure at Baylor, the school drew criticism for its response to a series of alleged sexual assaults, a number of which were reportedly committed…

  • peppered corydoras (fish)

    corydoras: …numerous small spots; and the peppered corydoras (C. paleatus), a pale, yellowish brown fish marked with dark spots and streaks.

  • peppered moth (insect)

    Peppered moth, (Biston betularia), species of European moth in the family Geometridae (order Lepidoptera) that has speckled black-and-white wings. It is of significance in exemplifying natural selection through industrial melanism because the population consists of two genetically controlled

  • Peppered Moth, The (novel by Drabble)

    Margaret Drabble: In The Peppered Moth (2000) Drabble detailed four generations of mothers and daughters in a Yorkshire family. The Sea Lady (2007) traces the relationship of a man and a woman who met as children before either became famous—he as a marine biologist and she as a…

  • Pepperell, William (British soldier)

    Sir William Pepperrell, Baronet, colonial American merchant, politician, and soldier who in 1745 commanded land forces that, with a British fleet, captured the French fortress of Louisbourg (in present-day Nova Scotia). For this exploit in King George’s War, he was created a baronet (1746), the

  • Pepperellboro (Maine, United States)

    Saco, city, York county, southwestern Maine, U.S., at the mouth of the Saco River opposite Biddeford. Founded with Biddeford in 1631 as a single plantation, it was the seat of Sir Ferdinando Gorges’ government (1636–53) before passing to Massachusetts. It was called Saco until 1718 and Biddeford

  • peppergrass (plant)

    cress: Common garden cress, or peppergrass (Lepidium sativum), a fast-growing, often weedy native of western Asia, is widely grown, especially in its curl-leaved form, and the seedlings are used as a garnish.

  • peppergrass (plant genus)

    Peppergrass, (genus Lepidium), genus of some 230 species of herbs of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). Peppergrass species are distributed throughout the world, and many are common lawn and field weeds. Some, such as garden cress (Lepidium sativum), are cultivated as salad plants for their

  • pepperidge tree (tree)

    Black gum, (Nyssa sylvatica), tupelo tree (family Nyssaceae) prized for its brilliant scarlet autumnal foliage. It is found in moist areas of the eastern United States from Maine south to the Gulf Coast and westward to Oklahoma. Its wood is light and soft but tough, and the tree is sometimes grown

  • peppermint (plant)

    Peppermint, (Mentha ×piperita), strongly aromatic perennial herb of the mint family (Lamiaceae). Peppermint has a strong sweetish odour and a warm pungent taste with a cooling aftertaste. The leaves are typically used fresh as a culinary herb, and the flowers are dried and used to flavour candy,

  • peppermint camphor (chemical compound)

    Menthol, terpene alcohol with a strong minty, cooling odour and taste. It is obtained from peppermint oil or is produced synthetically by hydrogenation of thymol. Menthol is used medicinally in ointments, cough drops, and nasal inhalers. It is also used as flavouring in foods, cigarettes, liqueurs,

  • peppermint oil (essential oil)

    peppermint: Oil of peppermint, a volatile essential oil distilled with steam from the herb, is widely used for flavouring confectionery, chewing gum, dentifrices, and medicines. Pure oil of peppermint is nearly colourless. It consists principally of menthol and menthone. Menthol, also called mint camphor or peppermint…

  • Peppermint Patty (comic strip character)

    Peanuts: …Beethoven-obsessed object of Lucy’s desire; Peppermint Patty, a freckled and frequently bewildered tomboy who referred to Charlie Brown as “Chuck”; Marcie, Peppermint Patty’s wisecracking sidekick; and Woodstock, a yellow bird who, in spite of his inexpert flying skills, accompanied Snoopy on his many adventures.

  • Pepperrell, Sir William, Baronet (British soldier)

    Sir William Pepperrell, Baronet, colonial American merchant, politician, and soldier who in 1745 commanded land forces that, with a British fleet, captured the French fortress of Louisbourg (in present-day Nova Scotia). For this exploit in King George’s War, he was created a baronet (1746), the

  • Peppers, Julius (American football player)

    Carolina Panthers: …2002 they chose defensive end Julius Peppers with the draft’s second overall selection. In addition, the Panthers signed quarterback Jake Delhomme before the 2003 season, and the team’s revamped core led Carolina to an 11–5 record and a divisional championship the following season. In the play-offs, the Panthers beat the…

  • peppershrike (bird)

    Peppershrike, (family Cyclarhidae), either of two species of stout-billed tropical American songbirds (order Passeriformes). (They are included by some authorities in the vireo family, Vireonidae.) Both peppershrikes are olive green above and yellow and white below; they are about 15 centimetres (6

  • pepperwood (plant, Zanthoxylum clava-herculis)

    prickly ash: clava-herculis, variously called the Hercules’-club, the sea ash, or the pepperwood. West Indian satinwood, or yellowheart (Z. flavum), produces shiny golden brown timber for cabinetwork. Some species are cultivated as bonsai.

  • pepperwort (herb, Lepidium campestre)

    peppergrass: Pepperwort, or field pepper (L. campestre), is a widespread weed originally native to Europe. It has hairy arrowlike stem leaves and once was marketed as an antidote to poisons under the name of mithridate pepperwort. Maca, or Peruvian ginseng (L. meyenii), is native to the…

  • pepperwort (plant species)
  • pepperwort (plant genus)

    Peppergrass, (genus Lepidium), genus of some 230 species of herbs of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). Peppergrass species are distributed throughout the world, and many are common lawn and field weeds. Some, such as garden cress (Lepidium sativum), are cultivated as salad plants for their

  • Pepple dynasty (African history)

    Bonny: …in the reign of the Pepple dynasty in the 18th and early 19th centuries, its economy (and the kingdom’s) was based on the sale of slaves to European traders. It was one of the largest slave-exporting depots of West Africa—in 1790 about 20,000 people (most of them Igbo and other…

  • Peprilus alepidotus (fish)

    butterfish: Among these are the harvest fish (Peprilus alepidotus), an Atlantic species that usually grows to about 20 cm (8 inches) long; the Pacific pompano (Peprilus simillimus), a silvery Californian fish; and Pampus argenteus, a black-spotted, Oriental fish.

  • Peprilus simillimus (fish)

    butterfish: …cm (8 inches) long; the Pacific pompano (Peprilus simillimus), a silvery Californian fish; and Pampus argenteus, a black-spotted, Oriental fish.

  • Pepsi-Cola Company (American company)

    PepsiCo, Inc.: …name in 1965 when the Pepsi-Cola Company merged with Frito-Lay, Inc. The company’s headquarters are in Purchase, New York.

  • PepsiCo, Inc. (American company)

    PepsiCo, Inc., American food and beverage company that is one of the largest in the world, with products available in more than 200 countries. It took its name in 1965 when the Pepsi-Cola Company merged with Frito-Lay, Inc. The company’s headquarters are in Purchase, New York. The first Pepsi-Cola

  • pepsin (biochemistry)

    Pepsin, the powerful enzyme in gastric juice that digests proteins such as those in meat, eggs, seeds, or dairy products. Pepsin was first recognized in 1836 by the German physiologist Theodor Schwann. In 1929 its crystallization and protein nature were reported by American biochemist John Howard

  • pepsinogen (biochemistry)

    pepsin: …store an inactive protein called pepsinogen. Impulses from the vagus nerve and the hormonal secretions of gastrin and secretin stimulate the release of pepsinogen into the stomach, where it is mixed with hydrochloric acid and rapidly converted to the active enzyme pepsin. The digestive power of pepsin is greatest at…

  • Pepsis (insect)

    spider wasp: …best-known spider wasps are the tarantula hawks (Pepsis), steel-blue-bodied insects with orange wings; some of the largest members of the family belong to this genus. Especially common in the southwestern United States, they provision their nests with trapdoor spiders and tarantulas and often attack spiders many times their own size.

  • PEPSU (Indian history)

    Punjab: History: …enlarged through incorporation of the Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU), an amalgamation of the preindependence princely territories of Patiala, Jind, Nabha, Faridkot, Kapurthala, Kalsia, Malerkotla (Maler Kotla), and Nalagarh. Political and administrative leadership for the enlarged Punjab was provided by Sardar Partap Singh Kairon

  • peptic cell (biology)

    gastric gland: …of three major cell types: zymogenic, parietal, and mucous neck cells. At the base of the gland are the zymogenic (chief) cells, which are thought to produce the enzymes pepsin and rennin. (Pepsin digests proteins, and rennin curdles milk.) Parietal, or oxyntic, cells occur throughout the length of the gland…

  • peptic ulcer (pathology)

    Peptic ulcer, lesion that occurs primarily in the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum (the upper segment of the small intestine); it is produced when external factors reduce the ability of the mucosal lining to resist the acidic effects of gastric juice (a mixture of digestive enzymes and

  • peptidase (enzyme)

    Proteolytic enzyme, any of a group of enzymes that break the long chainlike molecules of proteins into shorter fragments (peptides) and eventually into their components, amino acids. Proteolytic enzymes are present in bacteria, archaea, certain types of algae, some viruses, and plants; they are

  • peptide (chemical compound)

    Peptide, any organic substance of which the molecules are structurally like those of proteins, but smaller. The class of peptides includes many hormones, antibiotics, and other compounds that participate in the metabolic functions of living organisms. Peptide molecules are composed of two or more

  • peptide bond (chemistry)

    amino acid: Peptide bond: Amino acids can be linked by a condensation reaction in which an ―OH is lost from the carboxyl group of one amino acid along with a hydrogen from the amino group of a second, forming a molecule of water and leaving the two…

  • peptide bridge (biology)

    bacteria: The cell envelope: …linked to one another by peptide bridges that confer rigid stability. The nature of the peptide bridges differs considerably between species of bacteria but in general consists of four amino acids: l-alanine linked to d-glutamic acid, linked to either diaminopimelic acid in gram-negative bacteria or l-lysine, l-ornithine, or

  • peptide link (chemistry)

    amino acid: Peptide bond: Amino acids can be linked by a condensation reaction in which an ―OH is lost from the carboxyl group of one amino acid along with a hydrogen from the amino group of a second, forming a molecule of water and leaving the two…

  • peptidoglycan (biology)

    bacteria: The cell envelope: …of a huge molecule called peptidoglycan (or murein). In gram-positive bacteria the peptidoglycan forms a thick meshlike layer that retains the blue dye of the Gram stain by trapping it in the cell. In contrast, in gram-negative bacteria the peptidoglycan layer is very thin (only one or two molecules deep),…

  • peptidyl transferase (enzyme)

    metabolism: Synthesis of proteins: The enzyme peptidyl transferase, which is part of the larger of the two ribosomal subunits, catalyzes the transfer of formylmethionine from the tRNA to which it is attached (designated tRNAf-Met) to the second amino acid; for example, if the second amino acid were leucine, step 5 would…

  • peptidyl-donor site (biochemistry)

    metabolism: Synthesis of proteins: …to another site, called a peptidyl-donor (P) site.

  • Pepusch, Johann Christoph (German composer)

    John Christopher Pepusch, composer who was an important musical figure in England when George Frideric Handel was active there. After studying theory and organ music, Pepusch at age 14 obtained a position at the Prussian court; he remained there until 1697. He traveled to the Netherlands and after

  • Pepusch, John Christopher (German composer)

    John Christopher Pepusch, composer who was an important musical figure in England when George Frideric Handel was active there. After studying theory and organ music, Pepusch at age 14 obtained a position at the Prussian court; he remained there until 1697. He traveled to the Netherlands and after

  • Pepys Library (library, Cambridge, England, United Kingdom)

    bookcase: …are all now in the Pepys Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge.

  • Pepys, Samuel (English diarist and naval administrator)

    Samuel Pepys, English diarist and naval administrator, celebrated for his Diary (first published in 1825), which gives a fascinating picture of the official and upper-class life of Restoration London from Jan. 1, 1660, to May 31, 1669. Pepys was the son of a working tailor who had come to London

  • Pequeño, Lake (lake, South America)

    Lake Titicaca: …in the southeast, is called Lake Huiñaymarca in Bolivia and Lake Pequeño in Peru; the larger, in the northwest, is called Lake Chucuito in Bolivia and Lake Grande in Peru.

  • Pequoiag (Massachusetts, United States)

    Athol, town (township), Worcester county, north-central Massachusetts, U.S. It lies on the Millers River, north of Quabbin Reservoir. Settled in 1735, it was known by the Algonquian name of Pequoiag until it was incorporated in 1762 and renamed for Blair Atholl, the Scottish home of the dukes of

  • Pequot (people)

    Pequot, any member of a group of Algonquian-speaking North American Indians who lived in the Thames valley in what is now Connecticut, U.S. Their subsistence was based on the cultivation of corn (maize), hunting, and fishing. In the 1600s their population was estimated to be 2,200 individuals. The

  • Pequot War (United States history [1636–1637])

    Pequot War, war fought in 1636–37 by the Pequot people against a coalition of English settlers from the Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, and Saybrook colonies and their Native American allies (including the Narragansett and Mohegan) that eliminated the Pequot as an impediment to English colonization

  • Pequotting (Ohio, United States)

    Milan, village, Erie and Huron counties, northern Ohio, U.S., on the Huron River, about 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Sandusky. In 1804 Moravian missionaries established an Indian village called Pequotting on the site. Settlers from Connecticut arrived a few years later, and the village was laid

  • PER (genetics)

    Jeffrey C. Hall: …of the period gene product, PER, fluctuated in the fruit fly brain, with PER building up at night and declining during the day. The oscillations, they discovered, were the result of a negative feedback loop, whereby PER was produced until it reached a specific level, at which point it then…

  • per accidens, conversio (logic)

    history of logic: Categorical forms: …to be converted “accidentally” (per accidens). Propositions of form O cannot be converted at all; from the fact that some animal is not a dog, it does not follow that some dog is not an animal. Aristotle used these laws of conversion in later chapters of the Prior Analytics…

  • Per Bastiana Tai-yang Cheng (work by Nono)

    Luigi Nono: Per Bastiana Tai-yang Cheng (1967), based on a Chinese folk song and celebrating the birth of the Nonos’ daughter, is somewhat aleatoric and calls for three instrumental groups playing in quarter tones and for magnetic tape.

  • per capita income (economics)

    economic growth: …problem of whether or not per capita income levels and their rates of growth in developed economies will eventually converge or diverge. For example, as per capita incomes of fast growers like the Italians and Japanese approach those of economies that developed earlier, such as the American and British, will…

  • per cola et commata

    punctuation: Punctuation in Greek and Latin to 1600: Jerome (died 419/420), devised punctuation per cola et commata (“by phrases”), a rhetorical system, based on manuscripts of Demosthenes and Cicero, which was especially designed to assist reading aloud. Each phrase began with a letter projecting into the margin and was in fact treated as a minute paragraph, before which…

  • Per OB 1 (astronomy)

    star cluster: OB and T associations: …of an OB association is Per OB 1, at a distance of some 7,500 light-years, which spreads out from the double cluster h and χ Persei. A large group of 20 supergiant stars of spectral type M belongs to Per OB 1. Associations with red supergiants may be in a…

  • per pale (heraldry)

    heraldry: Other charges: …divisions of a shield are: party per pale (or, simply, per pale), division of the field into two equal parts by a perpendicular line (that resembles the impalement just mentioned but does not serve the same purpose of combining arms); party per fess, division into two equal parts by a…

  • Per qualche dollaro in più (film by Leone [1965])

    For a Few Dollars More, Italian western film, released in 1965, that was the second film in the popular Dollars series, director Sergio Leone’s “spaghetti western” trilogy that starred Clint Eastwood. The Man with No Name (played by Eastwood) teams with another bounty hunter, Col. Douglas Mortimer

  • Per Ramessu (ancient city, Egypt)

    Per Ramessu, ancient Egyptian capital in the 15th (c. 1630–c. 1523 bce), 19th (1292–1190 bce), and 20th (1190–1075 bce) dynasties. Situated in the northeastern delta about 62 miles (100 km) northeast of Cairo, the city lay in ancient times on the Bubastite branch of the Nile River. In the early

  • Per Tum (ancient city, Egypt)

    Pithom, ancient Egyptian city located near Ismailia in Al-Ismāʿīliyyah muḥāfaẓah (governorate) and mentioned in the Bible (Exodus 1:11) as one of the treasure houses built for the pharaoh by the Hebrews prior to the Exodus. Although Pithom has been identified as Tall al-Maskhūṭah, excavations at

  • Per un pugno di dollari (film by Leone [1964])

    A Fistful of Dollars, Italian western film, released in 1964, that popularized the “spaghetti western” subgenre and was a breakthrough movie for director Sergio Leone and star Clint Eastwood. A mysterious stranger (played by Eastwood) drifts into a small Mexican town only to find a virtual war

  • Per Wadjit (ancient city, Egypt)

    Wadjet: …form of the ancient Egyptian Per Wadjit (Coptic Pouto, “House of Wadjit”), the name of the capital of the 6th Lower Egyptian nome (province), present-day Tall al-Farāʿīn, of which the goddess was the local deity.

  • Per-Amon (ancient city, Egypt)

    Pelusium, ancient Egyptian city on the easternmost mouth of the Nile River (long silted up). The Egyptians likely called it Saʾinu and also Per-Amon (House of Amon), whence perhaps the site’s modern name, Tell Farama. It lies about 20 miles (32 km) southeast of Port Said, in the Sinai Peninsula. I

  • Per-Atum (ancient city, Egypt)

    Pithom, ancient Egyptian city located near Ismailia in Al-Ismāʿīliyyah muḥāfaẓah (governorate) and mentioned in the Bible (Exodus 1:11) as one of the treasure houses built for the pharaoh by the Hebrews prior to the Exodus. Although Pithom has been identified as Tall al-Maskhūṭah, excavations at

  • Per-month (ancient town, Egypt)

    Armant, ancient town in Upper Egypt, near Thebes on the west bank of the Nile River. It was the seat of a sun cult and was a crowning place of kings. The war god Mont was worshiped there in hawk-headed human form and also in his epiphany, the bull Buchis. Armant was probably the original home of

  • per-occurrence basis (liability insurance)

    insurance: Limits of liability: Limits may apply on a per-occurrence or a claims-made basis. In the former, which gives the most comprehensive coverage, the policy in force in year one covers a negligent act that took place in year one, no matter when a claim is made. If the policy is made on a…

  • Pera Librorum Juvenilium (work by Wagenseil)

    encyclopaedia: Children’s encyclopaedias: …produced an encyclopaedia for children—the Pera Librorum Juvenilium (1695; “Collection of Juvenile Books”). Larousse issued Petite Encyclopédie du jeune âge (“Small Children’s Encyclopaedia”) in 1853, but the next, Encyclopédie Larousse des enfants (“Larousse Encyclopaedia for Children”), did not appear until 1957. The first of the modern children’s encyclopaedias was, however,…

  • Peracarida (crustacean)

    crustacean: Annotated classification: Superorder Peracarida Females with a ventral brood pouch formed by plates at the bases of some of the thoracic limbs; development direct, with offspring resembling adults. Order Mysidacea (opossum shrimps) Triassic to present; carapace well-developed, covering most of thorax; 3–30 mm, with a few much larger;…

  • Peraceae (plant family)

    Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae, Peraceae, and Rafflesiaceae: …separate recognition of the family Peraceae, because it is the sister group to Rafflesiaceae and Euphorbiaceae combined.

  • peracetic acid (chemical compound)

    germfree life: Methodology.: Germicidal vapour sterilization (2% peracetic acid) is used for plastic isolators, which cannot endure the heat of steam sterilization. Air for the isolated organism is sterilized by mechanical filtration. Eggs are surface-treated with mercuric chloride, and seeds with peracetic acid or formalin. Food and water are sterilized by steam,…

  • peracid (chemical compound)

    Peroxy acid, any of a class of chemical compounds in which the atomic group ―O―O―H replaces the ―O―H group of an oxy acid (a compound in which a hydrogen atom is attached to an oxygen atom by a covalent bond that is easily broken, producing an anion and a hydrogen ion). Examples of peroxy acids a

  • Peracini, Giovanni Coralli (French dancer)

    Jean Coralli, French dancer and choreographer who was ballet master of the Paris Opéra and who, with Jules Perrot, created the Romantic ballet Giselle. Coralli received his early training in Paris from Pierre Gardel or Jean-François Coulon and made his debut at the Paris Opéra in 1802. In 1806–07

  • Peradeniya Botanic Gardens (botanical garden, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka)

    Peradeniya Botanic Gardens, botanical garden in Peradeniya, near Kandy, Sri Lanka, noted for its rich and varied collections of tropical woody plants. Occupying 59 hectares (146 acres), it has about 4,000 species of plants. The most important specimens of the garden include palms, some of which

  • Perahia, Murray (American pianist)

    Murray Perahia, American pianist and conductor who was perhaps best known for his sensitive recordings of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s concertos, conducted from the keyboard. Perahia was trained at the Mannes College of Music in New York City. He won the Leeds International Piano Competition by

  • Perak (region, Malaysia)

    Perak, traditional region, northwestern West Malaysia (Malaya), bordering Thailand to the north and fronting the Strait of Malacca to the west. Its area includes a large portion of West Malaysia’s west-coast plains and centres upon the Perak River, which flows north-to-south between the Keledang

  • Perak War (Southeast Asian history)

    Perak War, (c. 1874–76), rebellion against the British by a group of dissident Malay chiefs that culminated in the assassination in 1875 of James Birch, the first British resident (adviser) in Perak. Although they succeeded in eliminating Birch, the Malay leaders failed in their ultimate

  • Perak, Tun (Malaysian leader)

    Tun Perak, bendahara (chief minister) of the port city of Malacca (now Melaka in Malaysia), who was kingmaker and the effective ruler of that important East Indies trade centre from 1456 until his death in 1498. A leader in the Malay defeat of a Siamese invasion in 1445–46, Tun Perak was made

  • Peralta Azurdia, Enrique (president of Guatemala)

    Enrique Peralta Azurdia, Guatemalan military dictator (1963-66) who was known for his brutal disregard for human rights (b. June 17, 1908--d. Feb. 19,

  • Peralta Barnuevo, Pedro de (Peruvian playwright and poet)

    Latin American literature: Plays: In Lima the dramas of Pedro de Peralta Barnuevo ranged from adaptations of French Neoclassical plays to librettos for operas at the viceregal palace. A mathematician, poet, attorney, accountant, and historian, Peralta dazzled European visitors to Lima. La Rodoguna (written about 1719) is a free adaptation of Pierre Corneille’s drama…

  • Peralta y Díaz Ceballos, Alejo (Mexican businessman)

    Alejo Peralta y Díaz Ceballos, Mexican entrepreneur who used his skills at both building business enterprises and forging friendships with powerful politicians in the governing Institutional Revolutionary Party to promote industrialization and to create a conglomerate comprising over 100 companies;

  • Peralta, Pedro de (Spanish colonial official)

    Pedro de Peralta, Spanish colonial official who established Santa Fe as the capital of New Mexico. Peralta arrived in Mexico City during the winter of 1608–09 following his university studies in Spain. In March 1609 the viceroy of Mexico appointed him to the post of governor of New Mexico; and,

  • Peramelemorphia (marsupial order)

    marsupial: Classification: Order Peramelemorphia (bandicoots and bilbies) 22 species in 2 families. Family Peramelidae (Australian bandicoots and bilbies) 10 terrestrial species in 4 genera resembling rodents, rat- to hare-sized. Restricted to Australia except for 1 genus (Isoodon), which extends to

  • Perameles nasuta (marsupial)

    bandicoot: The long-nosed bandicoot (Perameles, or Thylacis, nasuta), a vaguely ratlike brown animal whose rump may be black-barred, is the common form in eastern Australia. The three species of short-nosed bandicoots, Isoodon (incorrectly Thylacis), are found in New Guinea, Australia, and Tasmania. Rabbit-eared bandicoots, or bilbies, are…

  • Peramelidae (marsupial)

    Bandicoot, any of about 22 species of Australasian marsupial mammals comprising the family Peramelidae. (For Asian rodents of this name, see bandicoot rat.) Bandicoots are 30 to 80 cm (12 to 31 inches) long, including the 10- to 30-centimetre (4- to 12-inch) sparsely haired tail. The body is stout

  • Perämeri (gulf, Baltic Sea)

    Bay of Bothnia, gulf forming the northern part of the Gulf of Bothnia, the northern arm of the Baltic Sea, which lies between Finland and

  • peramivir (drug)

    influenza pandemic (H1N1) of 2009: Treatment and prevention: …intravenously administered antiviral known as peramivir, though not formally approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), was given emergency-use authorization for the treatment of hospitalized H1N1 patients who had not responded to oral or inhaled antivirals or who had life-threatening illness.

  • Peranabrus scabricollis (insect)

    shield-backed katydid: …present in sufficient numbers, the coulee cricket (Peranabrus scabricollis) is a destructive pest of plants in the Pacific Northwest. Insecticides and insecticidal baits are used to control populations and migrating bands of Mormon crickets and coulee crickets; past methods of control included the creation of ditches or the erection of…

  • Peranakan (people)

    Peranakan, in Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia, a native-born person of mixed local and foreign ancestry. There are several kinds of Peranakans, namely Peranakan Chinese, Peranakan Arabs, Peranakan Dutch, and Peranakan Indians. The Peranakan Chinese, however, form the largest and the most

  • Peranakan Chinese (people)

    Peranakan, in Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia, a native-born person of mixed local and foreign ancestry. There are several kinds of Peranakans, namely Peranakan Chinese, Peranakan Arabs, Peranakan Dutch, and Peranakan Indians. The Peranakan Chinese, however, form the largest and the most

  • Perankan (people)

    Hakka, ethnic group of China. Originally, the Hakka were North Chinese, but they migrated to South China (especially Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, and Guangxi provinces) during the fall of the Nan (Southern) Song dynasty in the 1270s. Worldwide they are thought to number about 80 million today,

  • Perath (river, Middle East)

    Euphrates River, river, Middle East. The longest river in southwest Asia, it is 1,740 miles (2,800 km) long, and it is one of the two main constituents of the Tigris-Euphrates river system. The river rises in Turkey and flows southeast across Syria and through Iraq. Formed by the confluence of the

  • Peraza, Humberto (Mexican sculptor)

    bullfighting: Bullfighting and the arts: …Mariano Benlliure (from Spain) and Humberto Peraza (from Mexico) have also been drawn to bullfighting themes. A superb example of Benlliure’s work can be seen in the graveyard at Sevilla where, depicted in bronze, are 12 life-size figures carrying the open coffin of the great Joselito, who was killed by…

  • Perburuan (novel by Pramoedya)

    Pramoedya Ananta Toer: …first published novel, Perburuan (1950; The Fugitive), during a two-year term in a Dutch prison camp (1947–49). That work describes the flight of an anti-Japanese rebel back to his home in Java.

  • Perca (fish)

    Perch, either of two species of fish, the common and the yellow perch (Perca fluviatilis and P. flavescens, sometimes considered as single species, P. fluviatilis) of the family Percidae (order Perciformes). The name also is widely, and sometimes confusingly, applied to a variety of other fishes.

  • Perca flavescens (fish)

    trophic cascade: Effects on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems: …such as bass (Micropterus) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens), to or from freshwater lakes. Those experiments showed that trophic cascades controlled biomass and production of phytoplankton, recycling rates of nutrients, the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus available to phytoplankton, activity of bacteria, and sedimentation rates. Because trophic cascades affected the…

  • Percavirus (virus genus)

    herpesvirus: Macavirus, Percavirus, and Rhadinovirus, include Epstein-Barr virus, baboon, orangutan, and gorilla herpesviruses, and herpesvirus saimiri. The replication rate of gammaherpesviruses is variable.

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