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  • Pensées sur l’interprétation de la nature (work by Diderot)

    Denis Diderot: The Encyclopédie: …in 1754 he published the Pensées sur l’interprétation de la nature (“Thoughts on the Interpretation of Nature”), an influential short treatise on the new experimental methods in science. Diderot published few other works in his lifetime, however. His writings, in manuscript form, were known only to his friends and the…

  • Penseroso, Il (poem by Milton)

    Il Penseroso, poem written in 1631 by John Milton, published in his Poems (1645). It was written in rhymed octosyllabics and has a 10-line prelude. In contrast to its companion poem, “L’Allegro,” which celebrates mirth, the beauties of rural scenery, and urban vitality, “Il Penseroso” invokes the

  • Pensieri politici (work by Russo)

    Italy: The Italian republics of 1796–99: …described these events in his Pensieri politici (1798; “Political Meditations”), one of the most important examples of Italian Jacobin thought.

  • Pensiero ed azione (newspaper)

    Giuseppe Mazzini: Triumvir of republican Rome.: …journal in London: this was Pensiero ed azione (“Thought and Action”), a title reflecting his view that thought is only of value when it results in action. He did not participate in the Franco-Piedmontese war against Austria in 1859, by which Cavour with the help of Napoleon III vainly sought…

  • pension (retirement benefit)

    Pension, series of periodic money payments made to a person who retires from employment because of age, disability, or the completion of an agreed span of service. The payments generally continue for the remainder of the natural life of the recipient, and sometimes to a widow or other survivor.

  • Pension Protection Act (United States [2008])

    John Boehner: House of Representatives: majority leader and minority leader: Boehner also introduced the Pension Protection Act in 2006 (signed into law in August 2008), which helped to prevent large failures in the pension system resulting from unwise investments. Boehner was elected to serve as his party’s majority leader in 2006 and served as minority leader since 2007. In…

  • pensionaris (historical Dutch official)

    Pensionary, powerful political office in the Dutch Republic (United Provinces; 1579–1795). Pensionaries, originally the secretaries and legal advisers of the town corporations, were first appointed in the 15th century. They were members of the town delegations in the provincial States

  • pensionary (historical Dutch official)

    Pensionary, powerful political office in the Dutch Republic (United Provinces; 1579–1795). Pensionaries, originally the secretaries and legal advisers of the town corporations, were first appointed in the 15th century. They were members of the town delegations in the provincial States

  • Pensions and Savings, Bank for (bank, Spain)

    Spain: Finance: …savings banks is the Barcelona-based La Caja de Ahorros y de Pensiones (the Bank for Pensions and Savings), popularly known as “La Caixa.” La Caixa is the largest shareholder in the CaixaBank financial group, proof that the boundary between savings banks and commercial banks had become somewhat blurry in the…

  • Pensive (racehorse)

    Pensive, (foaled 1941), American racehorse (Thoroughbred) who in 1944 won the Kentucky Derby and the Preakness Stakes but lost at the Belmont Stakes, ending his bid for the coveted Triple Crown of American horse racing. Pensive was bred at Calumet Farm in Lexington, Kentucky, and owned by noted

  • Penstemon (plant genus)

    Penstemon, the beard-tongue genus of the mint order (Lamiales), containing about 250 species of plants native to North America, particularly the western United States. The flowers are usually large and showy, tubular, and bilaterally symmetrical and have four fertile stamens and one sterile stamen

  • penstock (engineering)

    Hoover Dam: …into huge steel pipes called penstocks. The water, after falling some 500 feet (150 metres) through the pipes to a hydroelectric power plant in the base of the dam, turns 17 Francis-type vertical hydraulic turbines, which rotate a series of electric generators that have a total power capacity of 2,080…

  • penta (chemical compound)

    full-cell process: …creosote, oil-based chemicals such as pentachlorophenol (PCP), and aqueous solutions of compounds such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA), ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA), and copper azole (CA-B). Creosote, PCP, and CCA are used on heavy structural members such as railroad ties, utility poles, marine pilings, and bridge timbers; ACZA and…

  • Pentaceratops (dinosaur genus)

    Pentaceratops, (genus Pentaceratops), five-horned herbivorous dinosaur found as fossils in North America and possibly eastern Asia dating from the Late Cretaceous Period (about 100 million to 65.5 million years ago). Pentaceratops was about 6 metres (20 feet) long and had one horn on its snout, one

  • Pentacerotidae (fish family)

    perciform: Annotated classification: Family Pentacerotidae (pelagic armorheads) Resemble Chaetodontidae but with higher dorsal fin and much larger dorsal, anal, and pelvic spines; dorsal fin usually strongly elevated; head rough with exposed bony plates; snout usually elongated bearing small mouth at its end; lips with “hairy” skin. About 12 species,…

  • pentachlorophenol (chemical compound)

    full-cell process: …creosote, oil-based chemicals such as pentachlorophenol (PCP), and aqueous solutions of compounds such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA), ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA), and copper azole (CA-B). Creosote, PCP, and CCA are used on heavy structural members such as railroad ties, utility poles, marine pilings, and bridge timbers; ACZA and…

  • Pentadaktylos Mountains (mountains, Cyprus)

    Kyrenia Mountains, mountain range in northern Cyprus extending east to west for about 100 miles (160 km) from Cape Andreas, on the Karpas Peninsula, to Cape Kormakiti. Rising from the coast a short distance inland, the range flanks a narrow coastal plain and reaches a maximum height of 3,360 feet

  • Pentadesma butyracea (tree)

    tallow tree: …tree of Sierra Leone is Pentadesma butyracea, of the family Guttiferae (also called Clusiaceae).

  • Pentadiplandraceae (plant family)

    Brassicales: The Resedaceae group: Pentadiplandraceae is a small family (one genus with one or two species) of shrubs or lianas from Western Africa. The expanded petal bases are concave and coherent, forming a cavity, and each petal has a thin, free, more conventional-looking petal lobe with a very narrow…

  • pentaerythritol tetranitrate (chemical compound)

    PETN, a highly explosive organic compound belonging to the same chemical family as nitroglycerin and nitrocellulose. PETN has the chemical formula C5H8N4O12. It is prepared by reacting pentaerythritol (C5H12O4), an alcohol traditionally used in paints and varnishes, with nitric acid (HNO2). The

  • Pentaglottis sempervirens (plant)

    alkanet: …white-eyed blue flowers characterize the evergreen alkanet, or evergreen bugloss (Pentaglottis sempervirens), which reaches 1 metre (3.3 feet). All three species grow in fields and roadside waste spaces in Europe, and true alkanet has become naturalized in some areas of eastern North America.

  • Pentagon (building, Arlington, Virginia, United States)

    Pentagon, large five-sided building in Arlington county, Virginia, near Washington, D.C., that serves as the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense, including all three military services—Army, Navy, and Air Force. Constructed during 1941–43, the Pentagon was intended to consolidate the

  • Pentagon Papers (United States history)

    Pentagon Papers, papers that contain a history of the U.S. role in Indochina from World War II until May 1968 and that were commissioned in 1967 by U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara. They were turned over (without authorization) to The New York Times by Daniel Ellsberg, a senior research

  • Pentagon system

    Military-industrial complex, network of individuals and institutions involved in the production of weapons and military technologies. The military-industrial complex in a country typically attempts to marshal political support for continued or increased military spending by the national government.

  • pentagram (symbol)

    number symbolism: 5: …was the five-pointed star, or pentagram. In England a knot tied in the form of the pentagram is called a lover’s knot because of this association with the goddess of love. In Manichaeism 5 has a central position: the first man had five sons; there are five elements of light…

  • pentakosiomedimnoi (Greek social class)

    ancient Greek civilization: The rejection of Cimon: …top two “Solonian” groups, the pentakosiomedimnoi and the cavalry class who were bracketed together on the one hand (as by Thucydides in one military context), while the zeugitai and thētes tended to be bracketed together on the other. No built-in class cleavage existed between the hoplite or zeugite class and…

  • Pentamerida (brachiopods)

    Silurian Period: Pentamerid communities: The Pentamerus community was an early Silurian community dominated by the large-shelled brachiopod (lamp shell) of the species Pentamerus oblongus. The community often included 5 to 20 associated species, although enormous populations of only one species sometimes are found preserved in growth position.…

  • Pentamerista (plant genus)

    Tetrameristaceae: …and the single species of Pentamerista grows in the Guiana Highlands of Venezuela. Both genera have spiral short-stalked leaves with indistinct venation and marginal glands and bear fleshy fruits that are presumably dispersed by animals. Tetramerista has glistening dots on the inner surfaces of the petals and sepals.

  • Pentameron (work by Landor)

    nonfictional prose: Dialogues: …his Imaginary Conversations (1824) and Pentameron (1837).

  • pentamerone, Il (work by Basile)

    Giambattista Basile: Basile’s collection, Lo cunto de li cunti (1634; “The Story of Stories”; best Italian translation B. Croce, 1925; best English translation N.B. Penzer, The Pentamerone, 2 vol., 1932), was published posthumously under the anagrammatic pseudonym Gian Alesio Abbattutis and referred to by its first editor as Il…

  • Pentamerone, The (work by Basile)

    Giambattista Basile: Basile’s collection, Lo cunto de li cunti (1634; “The Story of Stories”; best Italian translation B. Croce, 1925; best English translation N.B. Penzer, The Pentamerone, 2 vol., 1932), was published posthumously under the anagrammatic pseudonym Gian Alesio Abbattutis and referred to by its first editor as Il…

  • Pentamerus oblongus (brachiopod)

    Silurian Period: Pentamerid communities: … (lamp shell) of the species Pentamerus oblongus. The community often included 5 to 20 associated species, although enormous populations of only one species sometimes are found preserved in growth position. The Pentamerus community and its slightly older and younger equivalents dominated by similar pentamerid species in the genera Virgiana, Borealis,…

  • pentameter (prosody)

    Pentameter, in poetry, a line of verse containing five metrical feet. In English verse, in which pentameter has been the predominant metre since the 16th century, the preferred foot is the iamb—i.e., an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed one, represented in scansion as ˘ ´. Geoffrey Chaucer

  • pentamide isethionate (drug)

    antiprotozoal drug: …treatment of these diseases is pentamidine isethionate, which probably affects the parasite by binding to DNA.

  • pentane (chemical compound)

    natural gas: Hydrocarbon content: butane, pentane, and hexane. In natural gas reservoirs even the heavier hydrocarbons occur for the most part in gaseous form because of the higher pressures. They usually liquefy at the surface (at atmospheric pressure) and are produced separately as natural gas liquids (NGLs), either in field…

  • Pentangle (British musical group)

    Devendra Banhart: …Incredible String Band, Vashti Bunyan, Pentangle, Fairport Convention, Bert Jansch, Nick Drake, and Syd Barrett of Pink Floyd.

  • Pentaphragmataceae (plant family)

    Asterales: Other families: Members of Pentaphragmataceae are found from Southeast Asia to New Guinea and constitute a single genus of 30 species of herbs. Alseuosmiaceae features five genera with 10 species of shrubs native to Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, and New Caledonia. The two genera of Argophyllaceae have a…

  • Pentaphylacaceae (plant family)

    Pentaphylacaceae, flowering plant family of the order Ericales, composed of some 12 genera. The family is characterized by small flowers borne singly in the leaf axils (where the leaf stem and the branch meet) and curved embryos. Restructured by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III (APG III)

  • Pentaphylax euryoides (tree)

    Pentaphylacaceae: …a single tree species (P. euryoides) that is scattered from Sumatra to China. It has spirally arranged evergreen leaves with entire margins (smooth, without teeth). The pollen sacs appear to be borne transversely on the stout filaments, and they open by flaps. There are only two ovules in each…

  • Pentapolis (Roman province and North African city group)

    North Africa: The Greeks in Cyrenaica: …while Barce declined; the term Pentapolis came to be used for the five cities Apollonia, Cyrene, Ptolemais, Taucheira, and Berenice. In 96 bc Ptolemy Apion bequeathed Cyrenaica to Rome, which annexed the royal estates but left the cities free. Disorders led Rome to create a regular province out of Cyrenaica…

  • Pentapora (genus of moss animal)

    moss animal: Size range and diversity of structure: Colonies of the European Pentapora, however, can reach one metre (3.3 feet) or more in circumference; a warm-water gymnolaemate genus, Zoobotryon, which hangs from harbour pilings, and the freshwater phylactolaemate Pectinatella each produce masses that may be one-half metre across. Colonies that form crusts generally cover only a few…

  • pentarchy (Christianity)

    Pentarchy, in early Byzantine Christianity, the proposed government of universal Christendom by five patriarchal sees under the auspices of a single universal empire. Formulated in the legislation of the emperor Justinian I (527–565), especially in his Novella 131, the theory received formal

  • pentastomid (animal)

    Pentastomid, any of about 100 species of tiny parasites belonging to the Pentastomida, now generally considered a subclass of the phylum Arthropoda. Pentastomids range from a few millimetres to 14 cm (about 6 inches) in length and lack respiratory, circulatory, and excretory organs. Pentastomids

  • Pentastomida (animal)

    Pentastomid, any of about 100 species of tiny parasites belonging to the Pentastomida, now generally considered a subclass of the phylum Arthropoda. Pentastomids range from a few millimetres to 14 cm (about 6 inches) in length and lack respiratory, circulatory, and excretory organs. Pentastomids

  • Pentateuch (sacred text)

    Torah, in Judaism, in the broadest sense, the substance of divine revelation to Israel, the Jewish people: God’s revealed teaching or guidance for humankind. The meaning of “Torah” is often restricted to signify the first five books of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament), also called the Law (or the

  • Pentateuch and Book of Joshua Critically Examined (work by Colenso)

    John Colenso: …this position, presented in his Pentateuch and Book of Joshua Critically Examined (1862–79), for his opposition to the doctrine of eternal punishment for sinners, and for his toleration of polygamy among the Zulus, Colenso was summoned in 1863 by his superior, Bishop Robert Gray of Cape Town, to appear before…

  • Pentateuch and Haftorahs, The (work by Hertz)

    biblical literature: The modern period: …Joseph Herman Hertz’s commentary on The Pentateuch and Haftorahs (1929–36) and in the Soncino Books of the Bible (1946–51). Martin Buber (1878–1965), the great modern Jewish philosopher, imparted to his many studies in biblical literature and religion—including his revolutionary German translation of the Bible (1926 and following), partly executed in…

  • pentathlon (athletic contest)

    Pentathlon, athletic contest entailing five distinct types of competition. In the ancient Greek Olympics, the pentathlon included a race the length of the stadium (about 183 metres [200 yards]), the long jump, the discus throw, the javelin throw, and a wrestling match between the two athletes who

  • Pentatomidae (insect family)

    Stinkbug, (family Pentatomidae), any of about 5,000 species of insects in the true bug order, Heteroptera, that are named for the foul-smelling secretions they produce. These odours may be transferred to the resting place of the insect, such as plants, fruits, or leaves, giving them a disagreeable

  • pentatonic scale (music)

    Pentatonic scale, musical scale containing five different tones. It is thought that the pentatonic scale represents an early stage of musical development, because it is found, in different forms, in most of the world’s music. The most widely known form is anhemitonic (without semitones; e.g.,

  • penteconter (ship)

    naval ship: Greece: The so-called long penteconter, mentioned by Herodotus, was employed in exploring, raiding, and communicating with outlying colonies. Light and fast, with 25 oars to a side, it played an important role in the early spread of Grecian influence throughout the Mediterranean. As the Greek maritime city-states sped the…

  • Pentecost (Judaism)

    Shavuot, (“Festival of the Weeks”), second of the three Pilgrim Festivals of the Jewish religious calendar. It was originally an agricultural festival, marking the beginning of the wheat harvest. During the Temple period, the first fruits of the harvest were brought to the Temple, and two loaves of

  • Pentecost (Christianity)

    Pentecost, (Pentecost from Greek pentecostē, “50th day”), major festival in the Christian church, celebrated on the Sunday that falls on the 50th day of Easter. It commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit on the Apostles and other disciples following the Crucifixion, Resurrection, and Ascension

  • Pentecost (island, Vanuatu)

    Pentecost, island of Vanuatu, in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, about 60 miles (100 km) southeast of Espiritu Santo island. Volcanic in origin, it occupies 169 square miles (438 square km) and has a central mountain ridge that rises to 3,104 feet (946 metres) at Mount Vulmat. Many permanent

  • Pentecostal Assemblies of Jesus Christ

    United Pentecostal Church, Inc.: …1945 by merger of the Pentecostal Assemblies of Jesus Christ and the Pentecostal Church, Inc. It is the largest of the Jesus Only groups (a movement for which the sacrament of baptism is given in the name of Jesus only, rather than in the name of the Trinity), and it…

  • Pentecostal Assemblies of the U.S.A. (Christianity)

    Pentecostal Church of God of America, Inc., Protestant denomination organized in Chicago in 1919 as the Pentecostal Assemblies of the U.S.A. by a group of ministers who had earlier refused affiliation in the General Council of the Assemblies of God (1914); the present name was adopted in 1922.

  • Pentecostal Assemblies of the World, Inc.

    Pentecostal Assemblies of the World, Inc., Protestant denomination organized in the United States in 1916 after many members withdrew from the Assemblies of God during the Jesus Only controversy, a movement that denied the standard Pentecostal belief in the Trinity—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

  • Pentecostal church

    Pentecostalism, charismatic religious movement that gave rise to a number of Protestant churches in the United States in the 20th century and that is unique in its belief that all Christians should seek a postconversion religious experience called baptism with the Holy Spirit. Recalling the Holy

  • Pentecostal Church of God of America, Inc. (Christianity)

    Pentecostal Church of God of America, Inc., Protestant denomination organized in Chicago in 1919 as the Pentecostal Assemblies of the U.S.A. by a group of ministers who had earlier refused affiliation in the General Council of the Assemblies of God (1914); the present name was adopted in 1922.

  • Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene (American Protestant church)

    Church of the Nazarene, American Protestant denomination, the product of several mergers stemming from the 19th-century Holiness movement. The first major merger occurred in 1907, uniting the Church of the Nazarene (organized in California in 1895) with the Association of Pentecostal Churches of

  • Pentecostal Church, Inc.

    United Pentecostal Church, Inc.: …of Jesus Christ and the Pentecostal Church, Inc. It is the largest of the Jesus Only groups (a movement for which the sacrament of baptism is given in the name of Jesus only, rather than in the name of the Trinity), and it emphasizes justification and baptism of the Holy…

  • Pentecostal Churches of America, Association of (American Protestant church)

    Church of the Nazarene, American Protestant denomination, the product of several mergers stemming from the 19th-century Holiness movement. The first major merger occurred in 1907, uniting the Church of the Nazarene (organized in California in 1895) with the Association of Pentecostal Churches of

  • Pentecostal Fellowship of North America

    Pentecostal Fellowship of North America (PFNA), cooperative organization established in Chicago in 1948 by eight Pentecostal denominations for the purpose of “interdenominational Pentecostal cooperation and fellowship.” Several Canadian and U.S. Pentecostal bodies are members of the organization.

  • Pentecostal Holiness Church

    Pentecostal Holiness Church, Inc., Protestant denomination organized in Falcon, N.C., in 1911 by the merger of the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church (organized in 1898 by several Pentecostal associations) and the Pentecostal Holiness Church (organized in 1900). A third group, the Tabernacle

  • Pentecostal Holiness Church, Inc.

    Pentecostal Holiness Church, Inc., Protestant denomination organized in Falcon, N.C., in 1911 by the merger of the Fire-Baptized Holiness Church (organized in 1898 by several Pentecostal associations) and the Pentecostal Holiness Church (organized in 1900). A third group, the Tabernacle

  • Pentecostal Union (American religion)

    Pillar of Fire, a white Holiness church of Methodist antecedence that was organized (1901) in Denver, Colo., U.S., as the Pentecostal Union by Alma Bridwell White, who married a Methodist minister. Her evangelistic fervour brought opposition from Methodist officials, which led to her withdrawal

  • Pentecostalism

    Pentecostalism, charismatic religious movement that gave rise to a number of Protestant churches in the United States in the 20th century and that is unique in its belief that all Christians should seek a postconversion religious experience called baptism with the Holy Spirit. Recalling the Holy

  • Pentecôte (island, Vanuatu)

    Pentecost, island of Vanuatu, in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, about 60 miles (100 km) southeast of Espiritu Santo island. Volcanic in origin, it occupies 169 square miles (438 square km) and has a central mountain ridge that rises to 3,104 feet (946 metres) at Mount Vulmat. Many permanent

  • Pentekostarion (liturgical book)

    church year: Eastern churches: …after Easter, contained in the Pentēkostarion (post-Easter liturgical service book), including the Feast of Ascension, 40 days after Easter, and concluding with the Festival of All Saints on the Sunday after Pentecost. Other special commemorations of the period are the Feast of Orthodoxy, on the first Sunday in Lent, recalling…

  • Pentelic marble

    Mount Pentelicus: …[1,107 m]), which yields white Pentelic marble on its north slope. In Classical times the peak had 25 quarries on the south slope at elevations between 2,500 and 3,300 feet (760 and 1000 m). These provided excellent marble for most of the buildings and sculptures of Athens in the 5th…

  • Pentelicus, Mount (mountains, Greece)

    Mount Pentelicus, mountain range enclosing the Attic plain on its northeast but within the nomós (department) of Attica (Modern Greek: Attikí), in Greece. The chief summit, about 10 miles (16 km) northeast of Athens (Athína), is Kokkinarás (3,632 feet [1,107 m]), which yields white Pentelic marble

  • Pentelikon (mountains, Greece)

    Mount Pentelicus, mountain range enclosing the Attic plain on its northeast but within the nomós (department) of Attica (Modern Greek: Attikí), in Greece. The chief summit, about 10 miles (16 km) northeast of Athens (Athína), is Kokkinarás (3,632 feet [1,107 m]), which yields white Pentelic marble

  • Pentelikus (mountains, Greece)

    Mount Pentelicus, mountain range enclosing the Attic plain on its northeast but within the nomós (department) of Attica (Modern Greek: Attikí), in Greece. The chief summit, about 10 miles (16 km) northeast of Athens (Athína), is Kokkinarás (3,632 feet [1,107 m]), which yields white Pentelic marble

  • Penthesilea (Greek mythology)

    Penthesilea, in Greek mythology, a queen of the Amazons, well respected for her bravery, her skill in weapons, and her wisdom. She led an army of Amazons to Troy to fight against the Greeks. She was said to have killed Achilles, but Zeus brought him back to life, and Achilles killed her. One

  • Penthesilia (work by Kleist)

    Heinrich von Kleist: …and in 1808 he published Penthesilia, a tragic drama about the passionate love of the queen of the Amazons for Achilles. Although this play received little acclaim, it is now thought to contain some of Kleist’s most powerful poetry, with the grimness of plot and intensity of feeling that have…

  • Pentheus (king of Thebes)

    Dionysus: …Thebes Dionysus was opposed by Pentheus, his cousin, who was torn to pieces by the bacchantes when he attempted to spy on their activities. Athenians were punished with impotence for dishonouring the god’s cult. Their husbands’ resistance notwithstanding, women took to the hills, wearing fawn skins and crowns of ivy…

  • Penthièvre, Louis Joseph, Duc de (French general)

    Louis Joseph, duke of Vendôme, one of King Louis XIV’s leading generals during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14). Vendôme was the son of Louis de Vendôme, duc de Mercoeur, by his marriage to Jules Cardinal Mazarin’s niece, Laure Mancini. Vendôme entered the French Army in 1672 and had

  • Penthoraceae (plant family)

    Penthorum: …treated as its own family, Penthoraceae, or is placed in the family Saxifragaceae. Both species have underground stems, toothed leaves, and one-sided flower clusters borne at the branch tips. The ditch, or Virginian, stonecrop (Penthorum sedoides) grows to about 60 cm (2 feet) tall. It has pale greenish yellow flowers…

  • Penthorum (plant)

    Penthorum, genus of two species of perennial herbs native to East Asia and eastern North America. The genus is treated as its own family, Penthoraceae, or is placed in the family Saxifragaceae. Both species have underground stems, toothed leaves, and one-sided flower clusters borne at the branch

  • Penthorum sedoides (plant)

    Penthorum: The ditch, or Virginian, stonecrop (Penthorum sedoides) grows to about 60 cm (2 feet) tall. It has pale greenish yellow flowers and pale green leaves that turn bright orange as they mature. Ditch stonecrop is planted as an ornamental at the edges of pools or in…

  • Penthouse (film by Van Dyke [1933])

    W.S. Van Dyke: One Take Woody: Penthouse (1933) was a change of pace for Van Dyke: a snappy screwball-crime hybrid, with Warner Baxter as a lawyer who requires the help of a moll (Myrna Loy) to bring down a mobster (C. Henry Gordon). The Prizefighter and the Lady (1933) featured heavyweight…

  • penthouse (architecture)

    Penthouse, enclosed area on top of a building. Such a structure may house the top of an elevator shaft, air-conditioning equipment, or the stairs leading to the roof; it can also provide living or working accommodations. Usually a penthouse is set back from the vertical face of a building, thus

  • Penthouse (American magazine)

    Playboy: …from racier publications such as Penthouse, which featured cruder and more-explicit nude photography. Under the leadership of Hefner’s daughter, Christie Hefner, who was appointed president of the parent company in 1982 and served as chief executive officer from 1988 to 2009 (her father remained editor-in-chief), the magazine was recast as…

  • Penthouse Theater (theater, Seattle, Washington, United States)

    theatre design: The 20th century and beyond: …Washington in Seattle built the Penthouse Theater, which proved to be a more practical model for the numerous theatres-in-the-round that followed. At roughly the same time, a number of theatres designed to imitate Elizabethan theatres—such as the indoor Maddermarket Theatre (1921) in Norwich, Eng., and the open-air Old Globe Theatre…

  • Penticton (British Columbia, Canada)

    Penticton, city, southern British Columbia, Canada. It lies between Skaha and Okanagan lakes, 245 miles (394 km) east of Vancouver. The site was first settled in 1865, its name being derived from a Salish Indian word, phthauntauc (pen-hik-ton), meaning “place to stay forever.” Centred in an apple-,

  • pentimento (oil painting)

    Pentimento, (from Italian pentirsi: “to repent”), in art, the reappearance in an oil painting of original elements of drawing or painting that the artist tried to obliterate by overpainting. If the covering pigment becomes transparent, as may happen over the years, the ghostly remains of earlier

  • Pentium (microprocessor)

    Pentium, Family of microprocessors developed by Intel Corp. Introduced in 1993 as the successor to Intel’s 80486 microprocessor, the Pentium contained two processors on a single chip and about 3.3 million transistors. Using a CISC (complex instruction set computer) architecture, its main features

  • Pentium flaw (electronics)

    Intel: Pentium microprocessor: …mistake was the so-called “Pentium flaw,” in which an obscure segment among the Pentium CPU’s 3.1 million transistors performed division incorrectly. Company engineers discovered the problem after the product’s release in 1993 but decided to keep quiet and fix the problem in updates to the chip. However, mathematician Thomas…

  • Pentland Rising, The (work by Stevenson)

    Robert Louis Stevenson: Early life: …century) led to his writing The Pentland Rising, his first printed work. During his years at the university he rebelled against his parents’ religion and set himself up as a liberal bohemian who abhorred the alleged cruelties and hypocrisies of bourgeois respectability.

  • Pentland, Barbara Lally (Canadian composer)

    Barbara Lally Pentland, Canadian composer (born Jan. 2, 1912, Winnipeg, Man.—died Feb. 5, 2000, Vancouver, B.C.), was one of Canada’s first avant-garde composers. She studied at the Juilliard School of Music in New York City and the Berkshire (Mass.) Music Center. Pentland taught composition and t

  • pentlandite (mineral)

    Pentlandite, a nickel and iron sulfide mineral, the chief source of nickel. It is nearly always found with pyrrhotite and similar minerals in silica-poor rocks such as those at Bushveld, S.Af.; Bodø, Nor.; and Sudbury, Ont., Can. It has also been found in meteorites. Pentlandite forms crystals

  • pentobarbital (pharmacology)

    sedative-hypnotic drug: …trade names), amobarbital (Amytal), and pentobarbital (Nembutal). When taken in high-enough doses, these drugs are capable of producing a deep unconsciousness that makes them useful as general anesthetics. In still higher doses, however, they depress the central nervous and respiratory systems to the point of coma, respiratory failure, and death.…

  • pentode (electronics)

    Pentode, vacuum-type electron tube with five electrodes. Besides the cathode filament, anode plate, and control grid of the triode and the added screen grid of the tetrode, there is still another grid (suppressor grid) placed between the screen grid and the anode plate and maintained at cathode

  • pentolite (explosive)

    bazooka: …8 ounces (225 grams) of pentolite, a powerful explosive that could penetrate as much as 5 inches (127 mm) of armour plate. To escape backblast, the operator held the bazooka on his shoulder with about half the tube protruding behind him. During the Korean War the M20 “Super Bazooka” was…

  • pentomino (game)

    number game: Polyominoes: Somewhat more fascinating are the pentominoes, of which there are exactly 12 forms (Figure 19B). Asymmetrical pieces, which have different shapes when they are flipped over, are counted as one.

  • penton (chemical compound)

    polyether: Penton, a chlorine-containing polyether unaffected by many chemicals, is fabricated into sheets used for lining storage tanks and the like.

  • pentosan (chemical compound)

    polysaccharide: Other homopolysaccharides include pentosans (composed of arabinose or xylose) from woods, nuts, and other plant products; and fructans (levans) composed of fructose, such as inulin from roots and tubers of the Jerusalem artichoke and dahlia. Mannose homopolysaccharides occur in ivory nuts,

  • pentose phosphate cycle (chemical reaction)

    metabolism: The phosphogluconate pathway: Many cells possess, in addition to all or part of the glycolytic pathway that comprises reactions [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11], other pathways of glucose catabolism that involve, as the first unique step, the oxidation of…

  • pentose shunt glycolytic pathway (chemical reaction)

    metabolism: The phosphogluconate pathway: Many cells possess, in addition to all or part of the glycolytic pathway that comprises reactions [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11], other pathways of glucose catabolism that involve, as the first unique step, the oxidation of…

  • pentosuria (pathology)

    Pentosuria, inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism, characterized by the excessive urinary excretion of the sugar xylitol. It is caused by a defect in the enzyme xylitol dehydrogenase, by which xylitol is normally metabolized. No disabilities are incurred, and no dietary or other measures are n

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