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  • Pennies from Heaven (film by Ross [1981])

    Herbert Ross: Films of the 1980s: Pennies from Heaven (1981), an ambitious adaptation of Dennis Potter’s acclaimed British Broadcasting Corporation series, was celebrated by many critics but failed to connect with audiences. Steve Martin was daringly cast against type as the desperately unhappy sheet-music salesman whose fantasies—envisioned as glorious musical numbers…

  • Pennies from Heaven (film by McLeod [1936])

    Norman Z. McLeod: Middle years: …to Columbia, where he made Pennies from Heaven, a sentimental musical that was memorable largely for its Oscar-nominated song and the musical skills of Louis Armstrong. Mind Your Own Business (1936), another Ruggles showcase, concluded McLeod’s Paramount career on a relatively low note.

  • Penniman, Richard Wayne (American musician)

    Little Richard, flamboyant American singer and pianist whose hit songs of the mid-1950s were defining moments in the development of rock and roll. Born into a family of 12 children, Penniman learned gospel music in Pentecostal churches of the Deep South. As a teenager, he left home to perform

  • Penniman, Russell Sylvanus (American chemist)

    explosive: Ammonium nitrate: Penniman, an American, found a solution to the problem by coating the ammonium nitrate with a small percentage of paraffin, or some similar substance, prior to use. With this development a series of ammonia dynamites soon became popular. Coating was discontinued when other, safer means…

  • Pennine Alps (mountains, Europe)

    Pennine Alps, segment of the central Alps along the Italian-Swiss border, bounded by the Great St. Bernard Pass and the Mont Blanc group (southwest), by the Upper Rhône Valley (north), by Simplon Pass and the Lepontine Alps (qq.v.; northeast), and by the Dora Baltea River valley (south). The h

  • Pennine Way (trail, England, United Kingdom)

    Pennines: The Pennine Way, a footpath running along the hills of the Pennines from end to end for 250 miles (400 km), was opened in 1965.

  • Pennines (upland mass, England, United Kingdom)

    Pennines, major upland mass forming a relief “backbone,” or “spine,” in the north of England, extending southward from Northumberland into Derbyshire. The uplands have a short, steep western slope and dip gently eastward. They are surrounded on the east, west, and south by the Vale of York, the

  • Penning trap (electromagnetic device)

    Hans Georg Dehmelt: …for his development of the Penning trap, an electromagnetic device that can hold small numbers of ions (electrically charged atoms) and electrons for periods of time long enough to allow their properties to be studied with unprecedented accuracy.

  • Pennisetum (plant genus)

    Pennisetum, genus of the grass family (Poaceae), containing about 80 species of annual and perennial plants native to tropical and subtropical areas. Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), an annual species, is cultivated in tropical areas for its edible grain. Several varieties of feathertop (P.

  • Pennisetum americanum (plant)

    Pennisetum: Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), an annual species, is cultivated in tropical areas for its edible grain. Several varieties of feathertop (P. villosum), native to Ethiopia, are cultivated as ornamentals for their arching form and feathery coloured flower clusters.

  • Pennisetum clandestinum (plant)

    weed: Biological control: Kikuyu grass, which was introduced into California to prevent soil erosion on hillsides and roadways, soon spread into orchards, turf, and crop areas, where it became a serious weed.

  • Pennisetum glaucum (plant)

    Pennisetum: Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), an annual species, is cultivated in tropical areas for its edible grain. Several varieties of feathertop (P. villosum), native to Ethiopia, are cultivated as ornamentals for their arching form and feathery coloured flower clusters.

  • Pennisetum purpureum

    Africa: Lowland rainforest: Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) can grow abundantly in areas where the vegetation has been disturbed, providing good fodder for grazing animals when young but quickly becoming rank, coarse, and a refuge for insects. Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) is a troublesome grass on depleted and fire-seared…

  • Pennisetum ruppelii (plant)
  • Pennisetum setaceum (plant)
  • Pennisetum villosum (plant)

    Pennisetum: Several varieties of feathertop (P. villosum), native to Ethiopia, are cultivated as ornamentals for their arching form and feathery coloured flower clusters.

  • pennon (heraldry)

    flag: Forms and functions: The pennon, a small triangular flag, was carried by each knight on his lance. One purpose of the pennon was to obviate accidents in much the same way as does a red flag tied to a long pole or rod that extends beyond the tailboard of…

  • Pennsylvania (United States ship)

    naval ship: Armament: …shell guns in the three-decker Pennsylvania, along with 104 32-pounder solid-shot guns. The British made similar installations. There was good reason for navies to proceed cautiously, as the production of shell guns at first encountered many manufacturing problems. (Indeed, in a gala demonstration of the 12-inch shell guns on the…

  • Pennsylvania (state, United States)

    Pennsylvania, constituent state of the United States of America, one of the original 13 American colonies. The state is approximately rectangular in shape and stretches about 300 miles (480 km) from east to west and 150 miles (240 km) from north to south. It is bounded to the north by Lake Erie and

  • Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (academy and museum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is the oldest art academy and museum in the United States, founded 1805. Specializing in American painting and sculpture of the 18th to the 20th century, the Academy’s Art Museum was built between 1872 and 1876 according to

  • Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal (canal, United States)

    Akron: … in 1827 and of the Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal in 1840, linking it with Pittsburgh. Waterpower and transportation supplied by these canals led to Akron’s early development as an industrial centre. The abundant water supply and the arrival of the railroads prompted Benjamin F. Goodrich to move a small rubber…

  • Pennsylvania Avenue (avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    Pennsylvania Avenue, major thoroughfare of Washington, D.C. It runs for 7 miles (11 km) in a northwesterly direction from the District of Columbia–Maryland line over the Anacostia River (John Philip Sousa Bridge) and through Washington’s well-known central section lined with government buildings

  • Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon (law case)

    property law: Constitutional limitations on government regulation of property: …are basically the facts of Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon [1922].)

  • Pennsylvania College of Gettysburg (college, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Gettysburg College, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, U.S. Though it is affiliated with the Lutheran church, the college maintains a policy of nonsectarian instruction. The college offers a liberal arts curriculum and awards bachelor’s degrees only.

  • Pennsylvania colonial style (architecture)

    Western architecture: Colonial architecture in North America: (4) The Pennsylvania colonial style was late in origin (the colony was not founded until 1681) and rapidly developed into a sophisticated Georgian mode, based on English precedents. A local variant, often called Pennsylvania Dutch, evolved in the southeastern counties where Germans settled in large numbers after…

  • Pennsylvania Dutch (people)

    Pennsylvania German, 17th- and 18th-century German-speaking settlers in Pennsylvania and their descendants. Emigrating from southern Germany (Palatinate, Bavaria, Saxony, etc.) and Switzerland, they settled primarily in the southeastern section of Pennsylvania, where they practiced any of several

  • Pennsylvania Emancipation Act (United States history [1781])

    Pennsylvania: Early years as a state: Pennsylvania Emancipation Act of 1781 had pledged the gradual abolition of slavery in the state. The southern boundary of Pennsylvania, ratified in 1769, was the Mason and Dixon Line, which became the dividing line between the slave and the free states before the American Civil…

  • Pennsylvania fireplace (engineering)

    Franklin stove, type of wood-burning stove, invented by Benjamin Franklin (c. 1740), that was used to warm frontier dwellings, farmhouses, and urban homes for more than 200 years. See

  • Pennsylvania Gazette (American newspaper)

    Benjamin Franklin: Achievement of security and fame (1726–53): Other moneymaking ventures included the Pennsylvania Gazette, published by Franklin from 1729 and generally acknowledged as among the best of the colonial newspapers, and Poor Richard’s almanac, printed annually from 1732 to 1757. Despite some failures, Franklin prospered. Indeed, he made enough to lend money with interest and to invest…

  • Pennsylvania German (people)

    Pennsylvania German, 17th- and 18th-century German-speaking settlers in Pennsylvania and their descendants. Emigrating from southern Germany (Palatinate, Bavaria, Saxony, etc.) and Switzerland, they settled primarily in the southeastern section of Pennsylvania, where they practiced any of several

  • Pennsylvania Hospital (hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States)

    hospital: History of hospitals: …hospital in America was the Pennsylvania Hospital, in Philadelphia, which obtained a charter from the crown in 1751.

  • Pennsylvania Insurrection (United States history)

    Whiskey Rebellion, (1794), in American history, uprising that afforded the new U.S. government its first opportunity to establish federal authority by military means within state boundaries, as officials moved into western Pennsylvania to quell an uprising of settlers rebelling against the liquor

  • Pennsylvania Military Academy (university, Chester, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Widener University, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Chester, Pennsylvania, U.S. It comprises schools of arts and sciences; law; education, innovation, and continuing studies; hospitality management; human service professions; engineering; nursing; and business

  • Pennsylvania Morton College (university, Chester, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Widener University, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Chester, Pennsylvania, U.S. It comprises schools of arts and sciences; law; education, innovation, and continuing studies; hospitality management; human service professions; engineering; nursing; and business

  • Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art (museum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Philadelphia Museum of Art, art museum of international renown located in Fairmount Park in Philadelphia. Its collection of approximately 227,000 objects spans all of art history and is particularly strong in American, European (medieval to the present), and Asian art. Also included under the

  • Pennsylvania Railroad Company (American railway)

    Pennsylvania Railroad Company, largest of the trunkline railroads that connected the East Coast of the United States with the interior. It was chartered in 1846 by the Pennsylvania legislature to build a line between Harrisburg and Pittsburgh. Its first passenger train ran in 1848 between

  • Pennsylvania State College (university system, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Pennsylvania State University, coeducational state-supported system of higher education in Pennsylvania, U.S. The main campus, at University Park, is the system’s largest branch and is the focus of its graduate and four-year undergraduate education. The system also includes the four-year school

  • Pennsylvania State University (university system, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Pennsylvania State University, coeducational state-supported system of higher education in Pennsylvania, U.S. The main campus, at University Park, is the system’s largest branch and is the focus of its graduate and four-year undergraduate education. The system also includes the four-year school

  • Pennsylvania Station (historical site, New York City, New York, United States)

    Western architecture: United States: …New York City (1894–98), and Pennsylvania Station, New York City (1902–11; demolished in 1963); the last is a mighty adaptation of the Baths of Caracalla and a reminder that the Roman baths exercised a powerful influence on the imagination of architects from at least the time of Donato Bramante.

  • Pennsylvania Study of the Relation of Secondary and Higher Education, The (educational study)

    The Pennsylvania Study, educational study conducted between 1925 and 1938 that intended to shift the definition of academic progress from the passing of time (the Carnegie unit as “the package method of academic advancement”) to a student’s demonstration of knowledge as ascertained by innovative

  • Pennsylvania Study, The (educational study)

    The Pennsylvania Study, educational study conducted between 1925 and 1938 that intended to shift the definition of academic progress from the passing of time (the Carnegie unit as “the package method of academic advancement”) to a student’s demonstration of knowledge as ascertained by innovative

  • Pennsylvania system (penology)

    Pennsylvania system, penal method based on the principle that solitary confinement fosters penitence and encourages reformation. The idea was advocated by the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons, whose most active members were Quakers. In 1829 the Eastern State

  • Pennsylvania Training School for Feeble-Minded Children (training school, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Isaac Newton Kerlin: …Children (later known as the Elwyn Institute), located outside Philadelphia. He became its superintendent in 1863 and remained in the position for the following three decades, until his death. As superintendent, Kerlin developed new treatments and advocated for the wider establishment of specialized institutions to prevent developmentally disabled individuals from…

  • Pennsylvania Turnpike (highway, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Pennsylvania Turnpike, one of the earliest major limited-access express highways in the United States, opened in 1940 as a state-run toll road running through the Allegheny Mountains and connecting Harrisburg in the east to Pittsburgh in the west. The highway was later extended 100 miles (160 km)

  • Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission (Pennsylvanian government)

    roads and highways: The freeway: The Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission, established in 1937 to raise funds and build a toll road across the Appalachian Mountains, found an unusually favourable situation in the form of an abandoned railroad right-of-way, with many tunnels and excellent grades over much of the route that allowed the…

  • Pennsylvania v. Muniz (law case)

    confession: Confession in contemporary U.S. law: In Pennsylvania v. Muniz (1990), the court further limited Miranda by holding that when police pull over suspected drunken drivers, they can ask routine questions of the suspects and videotape the questioning without issuing Miranda warnings.

  • Pennsylvania wood cockroach (insect)

    cockroach: The Pennsylvania wood cockroach (Parcoblatta pennsylvanica) is found under logs and stones in northern latitudes. The male and female are so different in appearance that they were once considered separate species. The male, 15 to 25 mm (0.6 to 1 inch) long, has wings that extend…

  • Pennsylvania, Bank of (bank, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Benjamin Latrobe: …received the commission for his Bank of Pennsylvania, whose Ionic porticoes inspired countless imitations; the building is now considered the first monument of the Greek Revival in America. It is clear, however, that Latrobe did not feel himself confined by styles, as his Sedgeley House, Philadelphia, built about the same…

  • Pennsylvania, flag of (United States state flag)

    U.S. state flag consisting of a dark blue field (background) bearing a central coat of arms with black horses as supporters.In 1777 a seal was created bearing the coat of arms now found on the state flag. The Pennsylvania legislature authorized the use of the coat of arms on a flag for the state

  • Pennsylvania, University of (university, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States)

    University of Pennsylvania, private university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S., one of the Ivy League schools and the oldest university in the country. It was founded in 1740 as a charity school. Largely through the efforts of Benjamin Franklin and other leading Philadelphians, it

  • Pennsylvanian Subperiod (geochronology)

    Pennsylvanian Subperiod, second major interval of the Carboniferous Period, lasting from 323.2 million to 298.9 million years ago. The Pennsylvanian is recognized as a time of significant advance and retreat by shallow seas. Many nonmarine areas near the Equator became coal swamps during the

  • Pennsylvanian Subsystem (geology and stratigraphy)

    geochronology: Completion of the Phanerozoic time scale: …from Pennsylvania, were formalized as Pennsylvanian in 1891 by the paleontologist and stratigrapher Henry Shaler Williams.

  • penny (Anglo-Saxon coin)

    coin: Anglo-Saxon penny coinages: English coinage proper began with the silver penny of Offa, king of Mercia (757–796). It was first struck at around the weight of the sceat, from about 790, and its weight increased to about 22 12 grains (equal to 240 to the Tower…

  • penny dreadful (book)

    Penny dreadful, an inexpensive novel of violent adventure or crime that was especially popular in mid-to-late Victorian England. Penny dreadfuls were often issued in eight-page installments. The appellation, like dime novel and shilling shocker, usually connotes rather careless and second-rate

  • Penny Post (postal service)

    Penny Post, private postal service created by the London merchant William Dockwra in 1680. All letters and packets up to one pound in weight were delivered for one penny (1 d). The packets were also insured up to £10. Dockwra’s system consisted of several hundred receiving offices from which an

  • Penny Saving Bank (bank, Richmond, Virginia, United States)

    Maggie Lena Draper Walker: …African Americans and became the Consolidated Bank and Trust Company. Walker served thereafter as the bank’s chairman of the board. She also helped found the Richmond Council of Colored Women (1912). Serving as president, she helped raise large sums for the support of such institutions as Janie Porter Barrett’s Virginia…

  • Penny Serenade (film by Stevens [1941])

    Penny Serenade, American melodrama film, released in 1941, that highlights the difficulties of a young couple trying to raise an adopted child. The film follows Julie Adams (played by Irene Dunne) and her husband, Roger (Cary Grant), a reporter in San Francisco, from the beginning of their

  • penny theatre (history of British theatre)

    Western theatre: Rise in the number of theatres: …there were the small “penny theatres” (of which more than 80 existed in London during the 1830s), where patrons paid a penny to see short, crudely mounted productions. Some individuals began to exploit their special talents as singers, dancers, mimics, and jugglers, giving solo performances in ale houses and…

  • penny whistle (musical instrument)

    kwela: …of street bands featuring the pennywhistle, who also performed at township dances. Subsequently one or two acoustic guitars and a string bass (and sometimes other instruments) were added. The kwela repertoire came to include North American swing music, standard from the 1950s on. In the 1950s “Spokes” Mashiyane and Lemmy…

  • penny-farthing (bicycle)

    velocipede: …finally, in the ordinary, or penny-farthing, bicycle, the wheel would just go under the crotch of the rider. The penny-farthing nickname came from the smallest and largest British coins of the time, in reference to the disparity in the size of the wheels. By the second half of the 20th…

  • pennycress (plant)

    Pennycress, (genus Thlaspi), genus of plants of the mustard family (Brassicaceae), named and sometimes grown for their round seedpods. Most of the species are Eurasian, but a few are native to North and South America, mostly in mountain areas. Pennycress species can be annuals or perennials and

  • Pennypack Park (park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Philadelphia: Cultural life: …to Fairmount Park, Philadelphia has Pennypack Park in the northeast, a semiwilderness setting with bridle paths, bird-watching trails, and an abundance of deer and other wildlife. More than 100 other parks are located throughout the city.

  • Pennyrile (region, Kentucky, United States)

    Kentucky: Relief: The Pennyrile, spanning an area of some 12,000 square miles (31,000 square km), adjoins every other region of Kentucky except the Bluegrass. On the north its irregular boundaries are the Western Coalfield, the Ohio River, and the Knobs; on the east it merges with the Mountain…

  • pennyroyal (plant)

    mint: Pennyroyal, M. pulegium, has small oval obtuse leaves and flowers in axillary whorls; it is remarkable for its creeping habit and pungent odour. It has been used in folk medicine to induce perspiration and menstruation.

  • Pennyville (Illinois, United States)

    Park Ridge, city, Cook county, northeastern Illinois, U.S. A suburb of Chicago, it lies on the Des Plaines River, 17 miles (27 km) northwest of downtown. The area was first inhabited by Potawatomi Indians and used by French explorers as a portage. The site was settled in the early 1830s. In 1853

  • pennyweight (ancient Roman unit of weight and coin)

    coin: Introduction of the denarius: Adjustment of the previously fluctuating relationship between bronze and silver was first secured by the issue about 211 bc of the silver denarius (marked X—i.e., 10 bronze asses), together with fractional coins, also of silver (marked V—i.e., five; and IIS—i.e., 2 12 asses—a sesterce,…

  • Pennzoil Company (American company)

    Pennzoil Company, American petroleum corporation that became an important producer of crude oil and natural gas and a major marketer of automotive products before disappearing at the end of the 20th century in a series of mergers and acquisitions. Pennzoil’s origins can be traced to two parallel

  • Pennzoil United, Inc. (American company)

    Pennzoil Company, American petroleum corporation that became an important producer of crude oil and natural gas and a major marketer of automotive products before disappearing at the end of the 20th century in a series of mergers and acquisitions. Pennzoil’s origins can be traced to two parallel

  • Penobscot (county, Maine, United States)

    Penobscot, county, east-central Maine, U.S. Located in a highland region, the county contains many lakes, rivers, and ponds, foremost among them being the Penobscot River, the longest in the state; nearly all of the river’s 350-mile (560-km) course is through the county. Timberland is primarily

  • Penobscot (people)

    Penobscot, Algonquian-speaking North American Indians who lived on both sides of the Penobscot Bay and throughout the Penobscot River basin in what is now the state of Maine, U.S. They were members of the Abenaki confederacy. Penobscot subsistence was based on hunting, fishing, and collecting wild

  • Penobscot Bay (inlet, Maine, United States)

    Penobscot Bay, inlet of the North Atlantic Ocean, on the coast of southern Maine, U.S., at the mouth of the Penobscot River. Lying 70 miles (110 km) northeast of Portland, it extends 35 miles (55 km) inland and is 27 miles (43 km) wide at its mouth. The bay includes many islands and sheltered

  • Penobscot River (river, Maine, United States)

    Penobscot River, river in Maine, U.S., formed by several headstreams draining numerous lakes that were created by melting glaciers. It is the state’s longest river, about 350 miles (560 km) in length. Its western and eastern branches join at Medway and run in a southeasterly and then southwesterly

  • Penokean orogeny (geology)

    Hudsonian orogeny: … in South Dakota, and the Penokean orogeny in the southern part of the Lake Superior region may represent the Hudsonian event in the United States. Precambrian rocks in the Southern Province, which extends south-southwest of Lake Superior into the mid-continental United States, also are dated in the Hudsonian time span.

  • penology (sociology)

    Penology, the division of criminology that concerns itself with the philosophy and practice of society in its efforts to repress criminal activities. As the term signifies (from Latin poena, “pain,” or “suffering”), penology has stood in the past and, for the most part, still stands for the p

  • Penonomé (city, Panama)

    Penonomé, city, west-central Panama, on the Pacific coastal lowland. The original Spanish settlement was founded on the ruins of an ancient Indian town on the Zaratí River. The city is now a commercial centre through which the rubber, coffee, and cacao produced in the region are shipped; soap and

  • Penrhyn Atoll (atoll, Cook Islands, Pacific Ocean)

    Penrhyn Atoll, most northerly of the Cook Islands, a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand in the South Pacific Ocean. A coral atoll, it has a 40-mile (64-km) reef that surrounds a lagoon of 108 square miles (280 square km). Penrhyn was inhabited by Polynesians at the time of

  • Penrith (New South Wales, Australia)

    Penrith, city, east-central New South Wales, Australia. It lies on the Nepean River, a section of the Hawkesbury River. Founded in 1815, it was known as Evan and Castlereagh before being renamed for Penrith in Cumberland (now in Cumbria), England. It was declared a municipality in 1871 and a city

  • Penrith (England, United Kingdom)

    Penrith, town, Eden district, administrative county of Cumbria, historic county of Cumberland, northwestern England. It is situated on a main route to Scotland, at the foot of the 937-foot (286-metre) Penrith Beacon overlooking the mountains of the scenic Lake District. Penrith Castle was built in

  • Penrith, Henry James (Australian activist)

    Burnum Burnum, Australian Aboriginal political activist who often conducted his battle for Aboriginal rights by performing flamboyant stunts; his best-known one involved claiming England for Aborigines by planting an Aboriginal flag atop the white cliffs of Dover (b. January 1936--d. Aug. 17,

  • Penrod (novel by Tarkington)

    Penrod, comic novel by Booth Tarkington, published in 1914. Its protagonist, Penrod Schofield, a 12-year-old boy who lives in a small Midwestern city, rebels against his parents and teachers and experiences the baffling ups and downs of preadolescence. Tarkington expertly conveys the speech and

  • Penrose diagram (physics)

    Roger Penrose: …map, which is called a Penrose diagram, allows one to visualize the effects of gravitation upon an entity approaching a black hole. He also discovered Penrose tiling, in which a set of shapes can be used to cover a plane without using a repeating pattern.

  • Penrose pattern (physics)

    quasicrystal: Quasiperiodicity: …quasiperiodic translational order is the Penrose pattern, discovered by the English mathematical physicist Roger Penrose and shown in Figure 4. The diffraction pattern of such a sequence closely resembles the fivefold symmetric patterns of Figure 3. The rhombic tiles are arranged in sets of parallel rows; the shaded tiles represent…

  • Penrose Research Laboratory (laboratory, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States)

    zoo: Function and purpose: In the United States the Penrose Research Laboratory, of the Philadelphia Zoo, is particularly concerned with comparative pathology. The New York Zoological Society maintains an Institute for Research in Animal Behavior and, in Trinidad, the William Beebe Tropical Research Station. In Great Britain the Zoological Society of London maintains, in

  • Penrose square stairway

    number game: Impossible figures: One of these is the Penrose square stairway (Figure 6), which one could apparently traverse in either direction forever without getting higher or lower. Strange loops are important features of some of M.C. Escher’s lithographs, including “Ascending and Descending” (1960) and “Waterfall” (1961). The concept of the strange loop is…

  • Penrose tiling (physics)

    quasicrystal: Quasiperiodicity: …quasiperiodic translational order is the Penrose pattern, discovered by the English mathematical physicist Roger Penrose and shown in Figure 4. The diffraction pattern of such a sequence closely resembles the fivefold symmetric patterns of Figure 3. The rhombic tiles are arranged in sets of parallel rows; the shaded tiles represent…

  • Penrose, Boies (United States senator)

    Boies Penrose, American legislator and longtime party boss of Pennsylvania. He served as U.S. senator from Pennsylvania from 1897 to 1921. Penrose was a member of a socially prominent Philadelphia family. He graduated from Harvard University in 1881 and was admitted to the Pennsylvania bar in 1883.

  • Penrose, L. S. (British geneticist)

    number game: Impossible figures: In 1958 L.S. Penrose, a British geneticist, and his son Roger Penrose, a mathematical physicist, introduced the undecidable figures called strange loops. One of these is the Penrose square stairway (Figure 6), which one could apparently traverse in either direction forever without getting higher or lower. Strange…

  • Penrose, Richard Alexander Fullerton, Jr. (American geologist)

    Richard Alexander Fullerton Penrose, Jr., geologist known for his explorations for manganese and iron-ore deposits. He was a member of the Arkansas Geological Survey from 1889 until 1892, when he became a faculty member at the University of Chicago. From 1917 until 1923 he served on the National

  • Penrose, Roger (British mathematician)

    Roger Penrose, British mathematician and relativist who in the 1960s calculated many of the basic features of black holes. After obtaining a Ph.D. in algebraic geometry from the University of Cambridge in 1957, Penrose held temporary posts at a number of universities in both England and the United

  • Penrose, Sir Roger (British mathematician)

    Roger Penrose, British mathematician and relativist who in the 1960s calculated many of the basic features of black holes. After obtaining a Ph.D. in algebraic geometry from the University of Cambridge in 1957, Penrose held temporary posts at a number of universities in both England and the United

  • Penrose, Sir Roland (British artist, collector, and writer)

    Sir Roland Penrose, British artist, collector, and writer known best for his curatorial work and promotion of modern and contemporary artists. Penrose attended Queens’ College, Cambridge, and earned a bachelor’s degree in architecture in 1922. He left for Paris that year and studied painting in the

  • Penryn (English Channel port, England, United Kingdom)

    Penryn, English Channel port, Cornwall unitary authority, southwestern England. It lies at the head of the River Penryn’s estuary, just northwest of Falmouth. The town owes its development to the bishops of Exeter, who granted the first charter (1265). James I (reigned 1603–25) granted and renewed

  • Pensacola (Florida, United States)

    Pensacola, city, seat (1822) of Escambia county, extreme northwestern Florida, U.S. It lies on Pensacola Bay (an arm of the Gulf of Mexico), about 35 miles (55 km) west of Fort Walton Beach and 60 miles (100 km) southeast of Mobile, Alabama. A Spanish settlement was made on the bay coast in 1559

  • Pensacola Junior College (college, Pensacola, Florida, United States)

    Pensacola: Pensacola Junior College (now Pensacola State College) opened there in 1948, and the University of West Florida opened in 1967.

  • Pensacola State College (college, Pensacola, Florida, United States)

    Pensacola: Pensacola Junior College (now Pensacola State College) opened there in 1948, and the University of West Florida opened in 1967.

  • pensador, El (Spanish literary periodical)

    José Clavijo y Fajardo: …editor of the literary periodical El pensador, he issued constant attacks against the performance of these plays, which had become little more than vulgar public spectacles. Because of his activity, the autos sacramentales were eventually banned in 1765. His love affair with Louise, sister of the French playwright Pierre-Augustin Caron…

  • Pensadora Gaditana, La (Spanish literary periodical)

    Spanish literature: Women writers: …for women increased dramatically, and La Pensadora Gaditana (1763–64), the first Spanish newspaper for women, was published by Beatriz Cienfuegos (believed by some to have been a man’s pseudonym). But the death of King Charles III in 1788 and the horror spread by the French Revolution brought an abrupt halt…

  • pensée (literature)

    Pensée, (French: literally, “thought”) a thought expressed in literary form. A pensée can be short and in a specific form, such as an aphorism or epigram, or it can be as long as a paragraph or a page. The term originated with French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal, whose Pensées (1670)

  • Pensées (work by Pascal)

    Blaise Pascal: Pensées: Pascal finally decided to write his work of Christian apologetics, Apologie de la religion chrétienne, as a consequence of his meditations on miracles and other proofs of Christianity. The work remained unfinished at his death. Between the summers of 1657 and 1658, he put…

  • Pensées philosophiques (work by Diderot)

    Denis Diderot: Mature career: Diderot’s own Pensées philosophiques (1746; Philosophic Thoughts), an original work with new and explosive anti-Christian ideas couched in a vivid prose, contains many passages directly translated from or inspired by Shaftesbury. The proceeds of this publication, as of his allegedly indecent novel Les Bijoux indiscrets (1748), were used to meet…

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