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  • penance (religion)

    absolution: In Roman Catholicism, penance is a sacrament and the power to absolve lies with the priest, who can grant release from the guilt of sin to the sinner who is truly contrite, confesses his sin, and promises to perform satisfaction to God. In the New Testament the grace…

  • Penance of Hugo, The (work by Monti)

    Vincenzo Monti: …morte di Ugo Bassville (1793; The Penance of Hugo), usually known as Bassvilliana, also praises the pope and warns of the dangers of the French Revolution. Then Napoleon invaded Italy, and his successes converted Monti, who moved to Milan, turned on the papacy, sang the praises of the conqueror, and…

  • Penang (island, Malaysia)

    Penang, island of Malaysia, lying in the Strait of Malacca off the northwest coast of peninsular Malaya, from which it is separated by a narrow strait whose smallest width is 2.5 miles (4 km). Penang Island is roughly oval in shape. It has a granitic, mountainous interior—reaching a high point of

  • Penang (Malaysia)

    George Town, leading port of Malaysia, situated on a triangular promontory in the northeastern sector of the island of Penang (Pinang). Its sheltered harbour is separated from the west coast of Peninsular (West) Malaysia by a 3-mile (5-km) channel through which international shipping approaches

  • penang (plant)

    Betel, either of two different plants whose leaves and seeds are used in combination for chewing purposes throughout wide areas of southern Asia and the East Indies. The betel nut is the seed of the areca, or betel, palm (Areca catechu), family Arecaceae, and the betel leaf is from the betel

  • penannular brooch

    brooch: The penannular brooch, in the form of a ring with a small break in the circumference, was characteristic of Irish production; generally of great size and probably worn on the shoulder with the pin pointing upward, it was richly decorated with interlaced patterns. The finest example…

  • Peñaranda, Enrique (president of Bolivia)

    Bolivia: The rise of new political groups and the Bolivian National Revolution: …1943 the civilian president General Enrique Peñaranda was overthrown by a secret military group, Reason for the Fatherland (Razón de Patria; RADEPA). RADEPA allied itself with the MNR and tried to create a new-style government under Colonel Gualberto Villaroel (1943–46), but little was accomplished except for the MNR’s political mobilization…

  • Peñarroya-Pueblonuevo (town, Spain)

    Peñarroya-Pueblonuevo, town, Córdoba provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Andalusia, southern Spain. A railway junction in the Sierra Morena, it lies about 50 miles (80 km) northwest of Córdoba city. Peñarroya was settled in the 13th century. Pueblonuevo was

  • Penarth (Wales, United Kingdom)

    Vale of Glamorgan: …resort, and the town of Penarth functions as both a resort and a residential area for workers who commute to Cardiff. The Turner House Art Gallery in Penarth is part of the National Museum of Wales. Area 128 square miles (331 square km). Pop. (2001) 119,292; (2011) 126,336.

  • Peñas, Golfo de (inlet, Chile)

    Gulf of Peñas, inlet of the southeast Pacific Ocean, southwestern Chile. It extends inland for 55 miles (89 km) and stretches about 50 miles (80 km) south from Taitao Peninsula to the Guayaneco

  • Peñas, Gulf of (inlet, Chile)

    Gulf of Peñas, inlet of the southeast Pacific Ocean, southwestern Chile. It extends inland for 55 miles (89 km) and stretches about 50 miles (80 km) south from Taitao Peninsula to the Guayaneco

  • Penateka (people)

    Comanche: …Root] Eaters”), Kotsoteka (“Buffalo Eaters”), Penateka (“Honey Eaters”), Nokoni (“Wanderers” or “Those Who Turn Back”), and Quahadis (“Antelopes”). One of the best-known Comanche leaders, Quanah Parker, belonged to the Quahadi band. In the mid-19th century the Penateka, a southern band, were settled on a reservation in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma).…

  • Penates (Roman deities)

    Penates, household gods of the Romans and other Latin peoples. In the narrow sense, they were gods of the penus (“household provision”), but by extension their protection reached the entire household. They are associated with other deities of the house, such as Vesta, and the name was sometimes

  • Pénaud Planophore (aircraft model)

    Pénaud Planophore, model aircraft designed, built, and first flown by the French aeronautical pioneer Alphonse Pénaud in 1871. Pénaud flew the small hand-launched model airplane, or planophore, as he preferred to call it, on Aug. 18, 1871, before a large group of invited witnesses at the Jardin des

  • Pénaud, Alphonse (French aeronautical pioneer)

    Alphonse Pénaud, French aeronautical pioneer. Pénaud was the son of an admiral but suffered from a degenerative hip condition that prevented his following a family tradition of service in the French navy. As early as 1870 he began to demonstrate the discoveries that would eventually establish his

  • Penbritin (drug)

    Ampicillin, drug used in the treatment of various infections, including otitis media (middle ear infection), sinusitis, and acute bacterial cystitis. Ampicillin (or alpha-aminobenzylpenicillin) is a semisynthetic penicillin, one of the first such antibiotics developed. Similar in action to

  • Pencao kangmu (work by Li Shizhen)

    Li Shizhen: …highly influential materia medica, the Bencao gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica), which described 1,892 drugs and presented directions for preparing some 11,000 prescriptions. Completed in 1578, the book was in part a compilation of other smaller works of the same kind. It contained descriptions of 1,094 herbs and 444 animal…

  • pence (Anglo-Saxon coin)

    coin: Anglo-Saxon penny coinages: English coinage proper began with the silver penny of Offa, king of Mercia (757–796). It was first struck at around the weight of the sceat, from about 790, and its weight increased to about 22 12 grains (equal to 240 to the Tower…

  • Pence, Michael Richard (vice president of the United States)

    Mike Pence, 48th vice president of the United States (2017– ) in the Republican administration of Pres. Donald Trump. He previously served as governor of Indiana (2013–17). Pence was raised in an Irish Catholic family; his parents owned several gas stations. While studying history at Hanover

  • Pence, Mike (vice president of the United States)

    Mike Pence, 48th vice president of the United States (2017– ) in the Republican administration of Pres. Donald Trump. He previously served as governor of Indiana (2013–17). Pence was raised in an Irish Catholic family; his parents owned several gas stations. While studying history at Hanover

  • Pencer, Gerald Norman (Canadian entrepreneur)

    Gerald Norman Pencer, Canadian businessman who expanded his father’s bottling business from a regional company into the Cott Corp., the world’s fourth largest maker of soft drinks (b. April 26, 1945, Montreal, Que.--d. Feb. 3, 1998, Toronto,

  • pencerdd (Welsh literary office)

    Celtic literature: The Middle Ages: …of the order was the pencerdd (“chief of song or craft”), the ruler’s chief poet, whose duty was to sing the praise of God, the ruler, and his family. Next came the bardd teulu, who was the poet of the ruler’s war band although he seems to have been poet…

  • pencil (geometry)

    Pencil, in projective geometry, all the lines in a plane passing through a point, or in three dimensions, all the planes passing through a given line. This line is known as the axis of the pencil. In the duality of solid geometry, the duality being a kind of symmetry between points and planes, the

  • pencil (writing implement)

    Pencil, slender rod of a solid marking substance, such as graphite, enclosed in a cylinder of wood, metal, or plastic; used as an implement for writing, drawing, or marking. In 1565 the German-Swiss naturalist Conrad Gesner first described a writing instrument in which graphite, then thought to be

  • pencil beam (physics)

    radar: Antennas: …a symmetrical beam called a pencil beam. A fan beam, one with a narrow beamwidth in azimuth and a broad beamwidth in elevation, can be obtained by illuminating an asymmetrical section of the paraboloid. An example of an antenna that produces a fan beam is shown in the photograph.

  • pencil cedar (plant)

    Eastern red cedar, (Juniperus virginiana), an evergreen ornamental and timber tree of the cypress family (Cupressaceae), native to poor or limestone soils of eastern North America. An eastern red cedar can grow to 12 to 15 metres (about 40 to 50 feet) tall and 30 to 60 cm (about 1 to 2 feet) in

  • pencil drawing

    Pencil drawing, drawing executed with an instrument composed of graphite enclosed in a wood casing and intended either as a sketch for a more elaborate work in another medium, an exercise in visual expression, or a finished work. The cylindrical graphite pencil, because of its usefulness in easily

  • pencil fish (fish grouping)

    Pencil fish, any of several slender South American fishes belonging to three groups of characins, treated by some authorities as three separate families and by others as a single family, Characidae. Pencil fish pick animal food from the bottom or from plant surfaces. Most species inhabit

  • pencil gneiss (petrology)

    gneiss: Pencil gneiss contains rod-shaped individual minerals or segregations of minerals, and augen gneiss contains stubby lenses of feldspar and quartz having the appearance of eyes scattered through the rock. The identification of gneiss as a product of metamorphism is usually clear, but some primary gneiss…

  • Pencil of Nature, The (work by Talbot)

    William Henry Fox Talbot: Talbot’s The Pencil of Nature (1844–46), published in six installments, was the first book with photographic illustrations. Its 24 (of a proposed 50) plates document the beginnings of photography primarily through studies of art objects and architecture. In 1851 Talbot discovered a way of taking instantaneous…

  • Penck, A. R. (German artist and musician)

    A.R. Penck, Neo-Expressionist painter, printmaker, draftsman, sculptor, filmmaker, and musician known for his use of stick-figure imagery reminiscent of cave paintings. Having attempted unsuccessfully to gain entry into one of several art schools in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR; East

  • Penck, Albrecht (geographer)

    Albrecht Penck, geographer, who exercised a major influence on the development of modern German geography, and geologist, who founded Pleistocene stratigraphy (the study of Ice Age Earth strata, deposited 11,700 to 2,600,000 years ago), a favoured starting place for the study of man’s prehistory.

  • Penck, Walther (German geomorphologist)

    Walther Penck, German geomorphologist noted for his theories of landform evolution. He was the son of the geographer Albrecht Penck. His ideas of the dependence of landform evolution upon the mobility of the Earth’s crust were a direct challenge to the accepted ideas of geomorphology of his time.

  • Pencz, Georg (German engraver)

    Hans Sebald Beham: …brother, Barthel Beham (1502–40), and Georg Pencz (c. 1500–50). All three artists, noted for their brilliant work on extremely small copper plates, grew up under the influence of Albrecht Dürer’s late classical style. It is likely that they worked in Dürer’s studio. In 1525 the trio was banned from Nürnberg…

  • Pend d’Oreille (people)

    Plateau Indian: Language: Spokan, Kalispel, Pend d’Oreille, Coeur d’Alene, and Flathead peoples. Some early works incorrectly denote all Salishan groups as “Flathead.”

  • Pend Oreille River (river, United States)

    Clark Fork: …River, it is called the Pend Oreille River. Major tributaries are the Blackfoot, Bitterroot, St. Regis, and Flathead rivers.

  • Pend Oreille, Lake (lake, Idaho, United States)

    Lake Pend Oreille, lake in Kaniksu National Forest, northwestern Idaho, U.S. The largest lake in Idaho, it is about 40 miles (65 km) long and 4 miles (6.5 km) wide and covers an area of some 125 square miles (325 square km). It is about 1,150 feet (350 metres) deep and is noted for the highly

  • Penda (Anglo-Saxon king)

    Penda, Anglo-Saxon king of Mercia from about 632 until 655, who made Mercia one of the most powerful kingdoms in England and temporarily delayed the rise of Northumbria. In 628 Penda defeated a West Saxon people known as the Hwicce at the Battle of Cirencester (in present-day Gloucestershire) and

  • pendant (heraldry)

    flag: Forms and functions: …known as a pendant, or pennant) was a long tapering flag, 60 to 18 feet (18 to 5.5 metres) long and about 24 feet (7 metres) broad at the hoist, ending in two points. Because of its great length, almost its only use was at sea. In the 15th century…

  • pendant (jewelry)

    Pendant, in jewelry, ornament suspended from a bracelet, earring, or, especially, a necklace. Pendants are derived from the primitive practice of wearing amulets or talismans around the neck. The practice dates from the Stone Age, when pendants consisted of such objects as teeth, stones, and

  • pendant (architecture)

    Pendant, in architecture, sculpted ornament or elongated boss terminating the fan, or pendant, vaulting, associated with late English Gothic architecture of the Perpendicular period (15th century). Such devices are also to be found hanging from the framing of open timber roofs of this as well as

  • Pende (people)

    African art: Lower Congo (Kongo) cultural area: Pende masks, made in a realistic style, are among the most dramatic works of all African art. Like the Yaka, small Pende masks fit over the head, helmet-style. Representing the mysterious powers to which boys are introduced at initiation, Pende masks are worn in comic…

  • Pendeen (village, England, United Kingdom)

    Penwith: The village of Pendeen, at the northwestern tip of Penwith district, was the site of a small tin mine still operating in the 1980s, exemplifying an industry that was until the late 19th century an economic mainstay of both the district and the county. Pilchard and mackerel are…

  • Pendéli Óros (mountains, Greece)

    Mount Pentelicus, mountain range enclosing the Attic plain on its northeast but within the nomós (department) of Attica (Modern Greek: Attikí), in Greece. The chief summit, about 10 miles (16 km) northeast of Athens (Athína), is Kokkinarás (3,632 feet [1,107 m]), which yields white Pentelic marble

  • pendeloque (gem cut)

    drop cut: A pendeloque, a shape credited to Louis de Berquem in the 15th century, is a pear-shaped modification of the round brilliant cut used for diamonds. A briolette is an elongated pear-shaped stone covered with bands of triangular or rectangular facets, usually with a pointed end and…

  • Pendennis (novel by Thackeray)

    Pendennis, semiautobiographical novel by William Makepeace Thackeray, published in monthly installments from 1848 to 1850 and published in book form in two volumes in 1849–50. The novel traces the youthful career of Arthur Pendennis: his first love affair, his experiences at “Oxbridge University,”

  • pendent (architecture)

    Pendant, in architecture, sculpted ornament or elongated boss terminating the fan, or pendant, vaulting, associated with late English Gothic architecture of the Perpendicular period (15th century). Such devices are also to be found hanging from the framing of open timber roofs of this as well as

  • pendentive (architecture)

    Pendentive, in architecture, a triangular segment of a spherical surface, filling in the upper corners of a room, in order to form, at the top, a circular support for a dome. The challenge of supporting a dome over an enclosed square or polygonal space assumed growing importance to the Roman

  • Pender, Paul (American boxer)

    Carmen Basilio: …lost a 15-round decision to Paul Pender. Three days later Basilio announced his retirement. His career record was 56 wins (27 by knockout) and 16 losses. Basilio was inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1990.

  • Penderecki, Krzysztof (Polish composer)

    Krzysztof Penderecki, outstanding Polish composer of his generation whose novel and masterful treatment of orchestration won worldwide acclaim. Penderecki studied composition at the Superior School of Music in Kraków (graduated 1958) and subsequently became a professor there. He first drew

  • Pendergast, Thomas J. (American politician)

    Thomas J. Pendergast, U.S. politician who created a powerful political machine in Missouri. Critics of Pres. Harry S. Truman frequently linked his name with Pendergast, a former associate. Pendergast went to Kansas City in 1893, where he learned the rudiments of municipal politics from precinct

  • Pendergast, Thomas Joseph (American politician)

    Thomas J. Pendergast, U.S. politician who created a powerful political machine in Missouri. Critics of Pres. Harry S. Truman frequently linked his name with Pendergast, a former associate. Pendergast went to Kansas City in 1893, where he learned the rudiments of municipal politics from precinct

  • Pendergrass, Teddy (American singer)

    Teddy Pendergrass, American rhythm-and-blues singer who embodied the smooth, Philly soul sound of the 1970s as lead vocalist for Harold Melvin and the Blue Notes before embarking on a successful solo career. Beginning as a gospel singer in Philadelphia churches, Pendergrass taught himself to play

  • Pendergrass, Theodore DeReese (American singer)

    Teddy Pendergrass, American rhythm-and-blues singer who embodied the smooth, Philly soul sound of the 1970s as lead vocalist for Harold Melvin and the Blue Notes before embarking on a successful solo career. Beginning as a gospel singer in Philadelphia churches, Pendergrass taught himself to play

  • Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia (political group)

    Sutan Sjahrir: …1931 and helped establish the Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia, a rival group to Partindo, the nationalist organization formed from remnants of the suppressed Partai Nasional Indonesia (“Indonesian Nationalist Party”), founded by Sukarno, the foremost Indonesian nationalist leader. The groups differed on the goals and means appropriate to nationalists, with Pendidikan opposed…

  • Pendjari National Park (national park, Benin)

    Benin: Plant and animal life: The Pendjari National Park (1,062 square miles) borders on Burkina Faso.

  • Pendle (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Pendle, borough (district), administrative county of Lancashire, northwestern England, on the eastern boundary of the county. Most of the borough—including its largest towns Burnley, Nelson, and Colne—lies in the historic county of Lancashire, but an area in the northeast, including the towns of

  • Pendle Hill (hill, England, United Kingdom)

    Pendle: …borough takes its name from Pendle Hill, with an elevation of 1,831 feet (707 metres), and Pendle Forest, famous for their association with Lancashire witches in the 17th century. In the early 18th century woolen textiles were an important domestic industry, but they were replaced by cotton by the end…

  • Pendleton (Oregon, United States)

    Pendleton, city, seat (1868) of Umatilla county, northeastern Oregon, U.S., on the Umatilla River, adjacent to the Umatilla Indian Reservation. Situated on the Oregon Trail, it was founded in 1869 by G.W. Bailey and named for George Hunt Pendleton, a prominent Ohio senator. It became a wheat and

  • Pendleton Civil Service Act (United States [1883])

    Pendleton Civil Service Act, (Jan. 16, 1883), landmark U.S. legislation establishing the tradition and mechanism of permanent federal employment based on merit rather than on political party affiliation (the spoils system). Widespread public demand for civil service reform was stirred after the

  • Pendleton, Clarence M. (American government official)

    Clarence M. Pendleton, American government official and first African American to occupy the position of chairman of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. Pendleton aroused controversy with his conservative opinions, including his disdain for affirmative action, his opposition to desegregation

  • Pendleton, Clarence McClane (American government official)

    Clarence M. Pendleton, American government official and first African American to occupy the position of chairman of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. Pendleton aroused controversy with his conservative opinions, including his disdain for affirmative action, his opposition to desegregation

  • Pendleton, Edmund (United States politician and military leader)

    Edmund Pendleton, Virginia patriot during the American Revolution. Pendleton’s father and grandfather died the year of his birth, and the young man grew up without paternal care. Apprenticed at the age of 14 to the clerk of the Caroline County court, Pendleton acquired a legal education, and in

  • Pendleton, Ellen Fitz (American educator)

    Ellen Fitz Pendleton, American educator who served as president of Wellesley (Massachusetts) College for a quarter of a century. Pendleton graduated from Wellesley College in 1886. She remained at Wellesley as a tutor in mathematics, Latin, and Greek until 1888, when she received an appointment as

  • Pendleton, George (American politician)

    George Pendleton, American lawyer and legislator, an advocate of civil service reform and sponsor of the Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883), which created the modern civil service system. Admitted to the bar in 1847, Pendleton, a Democrat, practiced law in Cincinnati and in 1853 was elected to the

  • Pendleton, George Hunt (American politician)

    George Pendleton, American lawyer and legislator, an advocate of civil service reform and sponsor of the Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883), which created the modern civil service system. Admitted to the bar in 1847, Pendleton, a Democrat, practiced law in Cincinnati and in 1853 was elected to the

  • Pendletons, the (American music group)

    The Beach Boys, American rock group whose dulcet melodies and distinctive vocal mesh defined the 1960s youthful idyll of sun-drenched southern California. The original members were Brian Wilson (b. June 20, 1942, Inglewood, California, U.S.), Dennis Wilson (b. December 4, 1944, Inglewood—d.

  • Pendred’s syndrome (pathology)

    Pendred’s syndrome, hereditary metabolic condition that is characterized by deafness and defective incorporation of iodine into thyroid hormone, resulting in goitre or enlargement of the thyroid gland. Pendred’s syndrome is a major cause of congenital deafness. It does not produce symptoms of

  • pendular nystagmus (physiology)

    nystagmus: One type of nystagmus, called pendular nystagmus, is characterized by even, smooth eye movements, whereas in the type referred to as jerk nystagmus the movements are sharper and quicker in one direction than in the other. Jerk nystagmus can occur normally, such as when one is dizzy (e.g., from spinning…

  • penduline tit (bird)

    Remizidae: The penduline tit (Remiz pendulinus) is irregularly distributed in river scrub and marshes across Eurasia. An 11-cm- (4.5-inch-) long brownish bird with a black mask on its whitish head, it is named for its two-chambered nest (built by the male), which consists of a finely felted…

  • pendulum (device)

    Pendulum, body suspended from a fixed point so that it can swing back and forth under the influence of gravity. Pendulums are used to regulate the movement of clocks because the interval of time for each complete oscillation, called the period, is constant. The Italian scientist Galileo first noted

  • Pendzhikent (archaeological site, Turkistan)

    Central Asian arts: Sogdiana: …in murals of Varakhsha and Pendzhikent.

  • penecontemporaneous sedimentary structure (geology)

    sedimentary rock: Dolomites and dolomitization: …areas suggests that even these penecontemporaneous dolomites are produced by altering calcite or aragonite almost immediately after their initial precipitation. Dolomites generated by later alteration of older limestones are known as diagenetic dolomites.

  • Penelope (Greek mythology)

    Penelope, in Greek mythology, a daughter of Icarius of Sparta and the nymph Periboea and wife of the hero Odysseus. They had one son, Telemachus. Homer’s Odyssey tells the story of how, during her husband’s long absence after the Trojan War, many chieftains of Ithaca and nearby islands become her

  • Penelope purpurascens (bird)

    curassow: …crested (miscalled purple) guan (Penelope purpurascens), from Mexico to Ecuador and Venezuela, is an important game bird, about 65 cm long and weighing about 2 kg. It is greenish brown, with white spotting below. Several species are endangered.

  • Penelopiad: The Myth of Penelope and Odysseus, The (novel by Atwood)

    Margaret Atwood: Atwood’s 2005 novel, The Penelopiad: The Myth of Penelope and Odysseus, was inspired by Homer’s Odyssey.

  • peneplain (geology)

    Peneplain, gently undulating, almost featureless plain that, in principle, would be produced by fluvial erosion that would, in the course of geologic time, reduce the land almost to baselevel (sea level), leaving so little gradient that essentially no more erosion could occur. The peneplain

  • penetrating munition (ammunition)

    Hard-target munition, ammunition capable of damaging and destroying reinforced targets such as tanks and hardened underground bunkers. Such munitions are specially designed to cause more-serious internal damage to such targets than that caused by standard conventional munitions. Hard-target

  • penetrating trauma (injury)

    traumatic brain injury: Primary injury: Penetrating injury results in different injury patterns from blunt injury. The biggest factors in the degree of damage from a penetrating injury are the velocity and mass of the projectile. Shells from high-powered rifles and other high-velocity projectiles can cause an enormous pressure wave that…

  • penetration (particle radiation)

    electromagnetic radiation: Gamma rays: The great penetrating power of gamma rays stems from the fact that they have no electric charge and thus do not interact with matter as strongly as do charged particles. Because of their penetrating power gamma rays can be used for radiographing holes and defects in metal…

  • penetration depth, electromagnetic (physics)

    superconductivity: Discovery: …predicted the existence of an electromagnetic penetration depth, which was first confirmed experimentally in 1939. In 1950 it was clearly shown for the first time that a theory of superconductivity must take into account the fact that free electrons in a crystal are influenced by the vibrations of atoms that…

  • penetration macadam (road construction)
  • penetration number (physics)

    lubrication: Penetration number.: The penetration number, applied to grease, is a measure of the film characteristics of the grease. The test consists of dropping a standard cone into the sample of grease being tested. Gradations indicate the depth of penetration: the higher the number, the more…

  • penetration twin (crystallography)

    twinning: Penetration twins are complete crystals that pass through one another and often share the centre of their axial systems.

  • Peneus River (river, Greece)

    Pineiós River, principal stream of Thessaly (Modern Greek: Thessalía), Greece, rising in the Óros (mountains) Lákmos of the Pindus (Píndos) Mountains just east of Métsovon in the nomós (department) of Tríkala; it is navigable in its lower course. In prehistoric times the Pineiós formed a great lake

  • Peneus setiferus (shrimp)

    shrimp: The shrimp Peneus setiferus feeds on small plants and animals in coastal waters from North Carolina to Mexico; it attains lengths of 18 cm (7 inches). The young live in shallow bays and then move into deeper waters. Crangon vulgaris and Peneus setiferus are commercially important, as…

  • Penfro (Wales, United Kingdom)

    Pembroke, urbanized area, historic and present county of Pembrokeshire (Sir Benfro), southwestern Wales. The Pembroke area comprises the localities of Pembroke, situated on a southeastern arm of the Milford Haven inlet (a fine natural harbour of the Celtic Sea), and, just to the northwest, Pembroke

  • Peng Dehua (Chinese military leader)

    Peng Dehuai, military leader, one of the greatest in Chinese communist history, and minister of national defense of China from 1954 until 1959, when he was removed for criticizing the military and economic policies of the party. Peng was a military commander under a local warlord and later under

  • Peng Dehuai (Chinese military leader)

    Peng Dehuai, military leader, one of the greatest in Chinese communist history, and minister of national defense of China from 1954 until 1959, when he was removed for criticizing the military and economic policies of the party. Peng was a military commander under a local warlord and later under

  • Peng Zhen (Chinese politician)

    Peng Zhen, Chinese political leader (born Oct. 12, 1902, Quwo county, Shanxi province, China—died April 26, 1997, Beijing, China), was a hard-line elder of the Communist Party and one of the "Eight Immortals," the veterans of China’s 1949 revolution who helped the Communist Party set policy well in

  • Peng-pu (China)

    Bengbu, city, north-central Anhui sheng (province), China. The area is mentioned in the early 1st millennium bce in connection with myths surrounding the cultural hero Emperor Yu. Throughout most of Chinese history, however, it was only a small market town and port on the middle course of the Huai

  • Pengar (work by Benedictsson)

    Victoria Benedictsson: …was followed by a novel, Pengar (1885; “Money”), a critical view of a society that confers status and security on women only through marriage; and another, somewhat contradictory, novel, Fru Marianne (1887; “Mrs. Marianne”), in which a doll wife outgrows her early romantic notions and finds fulfillment in sharing work…

  • Pengelly, William (British educator and geologist)

    William Pengelly, English educator, geologist, and a founder of prehistoric archaeology whose excavations in southwestern England helped earn scientific respect for the concept that early humans coexisted with extinct animals such as the woolly rhinoceros and the mammoth. Supervising excavations at

  • Penghu Islands (archipelago, Taiwan)

    P’eng-hu Islands, archipelago and hsien (county) of Taiwan. It consists of about 64 small islands that lie approximately 30 miles (50 km) west of the coast of mainland Taiwan, from which it is separated by the P’eng-hu Channel. Of volcanic origin, many of the islands consist of weathered basalt,

  • Penghu Liedao (archipelago, Taiwan)

    P’eng-hu Islands, archipelago and hsien (county) of Taiwan. It consists of about 64 small islands that lie approximately 30 miles (50 km) west of the coast of mainland Taiwan, from which it is separated by the P’eng-hu Channel. Of volcanic origin, many of the islands consist of weathered basalt,

  • Penghu Qundao (archipelago, Taiwan)

    P’eng-hu Islands, archipelago and hsien (county) of Taiwan. It consists of about 64 small islands that lie approximately 30 miles (50 km) west of the coast of mainland Taiwan, from which it is separated by the P’eng-hu Channel. Of volcanic origin, many of the islands consist of weathered basalt,

  • pengö (currency)

    forint: The forint’s predecessor was the pengö, which was replaced at a rate of 400 quintillion pengö to 1 forint.

  • Pengtoushan culture (archaeology)

    origins of agriculture: Early history: …what Chinese archaeologists call the Pengtoushan culture, whose radiocarbon dates cluster from 9500 to 8100 bp. The sites each cover about 3 hectares (7.5 acres). Bashidang has some of the earliest defensive walls and ditches found in China.

  • Penguin (fictional character)
  • penguin (bird order)

    Penguin, (order Sphenisciformes), any of 18 species of flightless marine birds that live only in the Southern Hemisphere. The majority of the 18 species live not in Antarctica but rather between latitudes 45° and 60° S, where they breed on islands. A few penguins inhabit temperate regions, and one,

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