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  • Pelousion (ancient city, Egypt)

    Pelusium, ancient Egyptian city on the easternmost mouth of the Nile River (long silted up). The Egyptians likely called it Saʾinu and also Per-Amon (House of Amon), whence perhaps the site’s modern name, Tell Farama. It lies about 20 miles (32 km) southeast of Port Said, in the Sinai Peninsula. I

  • Pelouze, Théophile-Jules (French chemist)

    nitrocellulose: Chronology of development and use: In 1838 another French chemist, Théophile-Jules Pelouze, discovered that paper or cardboard could be made violently flammable by dipping it in concentrated nitric acid; Pelouze named his new material “pyroxyline.” Christian Friedrich Schönbein, a Swiss chemist, was able to increase the degree of nitration, and therefore the flammability of the…

  • pelt (fur)

    fur: The pelts of fur-bearing animals are called true furs when they consist of two elements: a dense undercoat, called ground hair, and longer hairs, extending beyond that layer, called guard hair. The principal function of ground hair is to maintain the animal’s body temperature; that of…

  • Peltier coefficient (electronics)

    thermoelectric power generator: Thomson effect: …πI, where π is the Peltier coefficient. Through thermodynamic analysis, Thomson also showed the direct relation between the Seebeck and Peltier effects, namely that π = αT, where T is the temperature of the junction. Furthermore, on the basis of thermodynamic considerations, he predicted what came to be known as…

  • Peltier effect (physics)

    Peltier effect, the cooling of one junction and the heating of the other when electric current is maintained in a circuit of material consisting of two dissimilar conductors; the effect is even stronger in circuits containing dissimilar semiconductors. In a circuit consisting of a battery joined by

  • Peltier heat (electronics)

    thermoelectric power generator: Thomson effect: He showed that the Peltier heat or power (Qp) at a junction was proportional to the junction current (I) through the relationship Qp = πI, where π is the Peltier coefficient. Through thermodynamic analysis, Thomson also showed the direct relation between the Seebeck and Peltier effects, namely that π…

  • Peltier, Jean-Charles-Athanase (French physicist)

    Jean-Charles-Athanase Peltier, French physicist who discovered (1834) that at the junction of two dissimilar metals an electric current will produce heat or cold, depending on the direction of current flow. The effect, known by his name, is used in devices for measuring temperature and, with the

  • Peltier, Leonard (American Indian activist)

    Leonard Peltier, American Indian (mostly Ojibwa) activist who, after becoming one of the best-known indigenous rights activists in North America, was convicted in 1977 of having murdered two Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agents. His case became a cause célèbre after the irregularities in

  • Peltier-Seebeck effect (physics)

    Thermoelectricity, direct conversion of heat into electricity or electricity into heat through two related mechanisms, the Seebeck effect and the Peltier effect. When two metals are placed in electric contact, electrons flow out of the one in which the electrons are less bound and into the other.

  • Peltigera canina (biology)

    Dog lichen, (species Peltigera canina), foliose (leafy) lichen usually found in patches 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 inches) in diameter on heaths, sand dunes, walls, or grassy ground. The dull brown thallus with rounded lobes is soft when moist and papery when dry. Because its reproductive bodies resemble

  • Peltigera polydactyla (biology)

    lichen: In at least one case, Peltigera polydactyla, the exchange occurs within two minutes. The phycobionts also produce vitamins that the fungi need. Fungi contribute to the symbiosis by absorbing water vapour from the air and by providing much-needed shade for the light-sensitive algae beneath.

  • Peltigerales (order of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Peltigerales Forms lichens; thallus may be large and lobate; apothecia may be lecanorine or lecideine (darkened margin sometimes lacking a thalline margin); includes dog lichens; included in subclass Lecanoromycetidae; example genera include Coccocarpia, Collema, Nephroma, Pannaria, and Peltigera. Order Teloschistales

  • Peltiphyllum peltatum (plant)

    umbrella plant: …in the family Saxifragaceae, is Peltiphyllum peltatum; its leaves are about 25 cm (10 inches) across, with 10–15 lobes. It grows well in wet places, reaching about 2 m (6 feet) in height.

  • Pelton turbine

    turbine: Impulse turbines: …1889 by the American engineer Lester Allen Pelton. The free water jet strikes the turbine buckets tangentially. Each bucket has a high centre ridge so that the flow is divided to leave the runner at both sides. Pelton wheels are suitable for high heads, typically above about 450 metres with…

  • Pelton wheel

    turbine: Impulse turbines: …1889 by the American engineer Lester Allen Pelton. The free water jet strikes the turbine buckets tangentially. Each bucket has a high centre ridge so that the flow is divided to leave the runner at both sides. Pelton wheels are suitable for high heads, typically above about 450 metres with…

  • Peltonen, Vihtori (Finnish author)

    Johannes Linnankoski, novelist, orator, and champion of Finnish independence from Russia; his works were instrumental in forming Finnish national consciousness in the early 20th century. Linnankoski was of peasant origin and largely self-taught. His finest novel, Pakolaiset (1908; “The Fugitives”),

  • Peltzer, Otto (German athlete)

    Doug Lowe: …went to Berlin to race Otto Peltzer, who had beaten him at London in 1926 while setting a world record of 51.6 sec; in Berlin he defeated Peltzer. With Arthur Porritt (later Lord Porritt), he wrote Athletics (1929), which had training hints and described attitudes toward running in their day.…

  • Pelucón (Chilean history)

    Pipiolo and Pelucón: Pelucón, (Spanish: “novice” or “greenhorn,” and “bigwig,” respectively), members of the two political partisan groups active in Chilean politics for about a century after national independence was achieved in the 1820s. The Pipiolos were liberals and the Pelucónes conservatives. Between 1830 and 1861 the Pelucónes…

  • peludo (mammal genus)

    armadillo: Natural history: The peludos, or hairy armadillos (three species of genus Chaetophractus), make snarling sounds. The mulita (D. hybridus) repeatedly utters a guttural monosyllabic sound similar to the rapid fluttering of a human tongue.

  • Pelusium (ancient city, Egypt)

    Pelusium, ancient Egyptian city on the easternmost mouth of the Nile River (long silted up). The Egyptians likely called it Saʾinu and also Per-Amon (House of Amon), whence perhaps the site’s modern name, Tell Farama. It lies about 20 miles (32 km) southeast of Port Said, in the Sinai Peninsula. I

  • Pelusium, battles of (Persian history)

    Artaxerxes III: …and naval force and, at Pelusium in the Nile River delta, defeated the pharaoh Nectanebo II (343). A Persian satrap was placed over Egypt, the walls of its cities were destroyed, its temples were plundered, and Artaxerxes was said to have killed the Apis bull with his own hand.

  • pelvic bone (anatomy)

    Pelvis, in human anatomy, basin-shaped complex of bones that connects the trunk and the legs, supports and balances the trunk, and contains and supports the intestines, the urinary bladder, and the internal sex organs. The pelvis consists of paired hipbones, connected in front at the pubic

  • pelvic colon (anatomy)

    human digestive system: Anatomy: The pelvic colon lies in the true pelvis (lower part of the pelvis) and forms one or two loops, reaching across to the right side of the pelvis and then bending back and, at the midline, turning sharply downward to the point where it becomes the…

  • pelvic diaphragm (anatomy)

    rectum: A muscular sheet called the pelvic diaphragm runs perpendicular to the juncture of the rectum and anal canal and maintains a constriction between these two segments of the large intestine. The internal cavity of the rectum is divided into three or four chambers; each chamber is partly segmented from the…

  • pelvic exenteration (surgery)

    history of medicine: Support from other technologies: Pelvic exenteration (surgical removal of the pelvic organs and nearby structures) in two stages was devised by Allen Whipple of New York City, in 1935, and in one stage by Alexander Brunschwig of Chicago, in 1937. Then, in 1960, Charles S. Kennedy of Detroit, after…

  • pelvic fascia (anatomy)

    renal system: General description: …the visceral layer of the pelvic fascia. This fascial layer is a sheet of connective tissue that sheaths the organs, blood vessels, and nerves of the pelvic cavity. The fascia forms, in front and to the side, ligaments, called pubovesical ligaments, that act as a kind of hammock under the…

  • pelvic girdle (anatomy)

    Pelvis, in human anatomy, basin-shaped complex of bones that connects the trunk and the legs, supports and balances the trunk, and contains and supports the intestines, the urinary bladder, and the internal sex organs. The pelvis consists of paired hipbones, connected in front at the pubic

  • pelvic inflammatory disease (pathology)

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), general acute inflammation of the pelvic cavity in women, caused by bacterial infection of the cervix, uterus, ovaries, or fallopian tubes. The disease is most often transmitted by sexual intercourse and is usually the result of infection with gonorrhea or

  • pelvis (anatomy)

    Pelvis, in human anatomy, basin-shaped complex of bones that connects the trunk and the legs, supports and balances the trunk, and contains and supports the intestines, the urinary bladder, and the internal sex organs. The pelvis consists of paired hipbones, connected in front at the pubic

  • pelycosaur (fossil tetrapod order)

    Permian Period: Emergence of important reptiles: …are divided into two orders: pelycosaurs and therapsids. They show a remarkably complete transition in skeletal features from typical early reptiles (Early Permian Epoch) into true mammals (in the Middle and Late Triassic epochs) through a fossil record lasting about 80 million years. The Early Permian pelycosaurs included carnivores and…

  • Pelycosauria (fossil tetrapod order)

    Permian Period: Emergence of important reptiles: …are divided into two orders: pelycosaurs and therapsids. They show a remarkably complete transition in skeletal features from typical early reptiles (Early Permian Epoch) into true mammals (in the Middle and Late Triassic epochs) through a fossil record lasting about 80 million years. The Early Permian pelycosaurs included carnivores and…

  • PEM (pathology)

    nutritional disease: Protein-energy malnutrition: Chronic undernutrition manifests primarily as protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), which is the most common form of malnutrition worldwide. Also known as protein-calorie malnutrition, PEM is a continuum in which people—all too often children—consume too little protein, energy, or both. At one end of the continuum…

  • Pematangsiantar (Indonesia)

    Pematangsiantar, city, North Sumatra (Sumatera Utara) propinsi (or provinsi; province), Sumatra, Indonesia. It is about 50 miles (80 km) southeast of Medan, the provincial capital, with which it is connected by a major road and railway. The second most populous city in the province, after Medan,

  • Pemba (people)

    Tanzania: Ethnic groups: …Bantu groups, consisting of the Pemba in Pemba and the Hadimu and Tumbatu in Zanzibar, have absorbed the settlers who moved from Persia in the 10th century. These groups and some of the descendants of slaves call themselves Shirazi. There are also small enclaves of Comorians and Somalis. Arab

  • Pemba Dorji Sherpa (Nepalese mountaineer)

    Mount Everest: Extraordinary feats: …by two Sherpas in 2003—Pemba Dorje and Lakpa Gelu, with Lakpa summiting in just 10 hours 56 minutes. Not to be outdone, Pemba returned the next year and reached the top in 8 hours 10 minutes. Perhaps as remarkable were the achievements of Apa Sherpa. In 2000 he reached…

  • Pemba Island (island, Tanzania)

    Pemba Island, island in the Indian Ocean, lying 35 miles (56 km) off the coast of East Africa, opposite the port of Tanga, Tanzania. The island is 42 miles (67 km) long and 14 miles (22 km) wide. As the Arabic name, which means “Green Island,” suggests, it is more fertile than its sister island,

  • Pemberton, John Clifford (Confederate general)

    John Clifford Pemberton, Confederate general during the American Civil War, remembered for his tenacious but ultimately unsuccessful defense of Vicksburg. Pemberton grew up and was educated in Philadelphia, entered West Point in 1833, and graduated four years later. He fought in the Mexican War and

  • Pemberton, John S. (American pharmacologist)

    The Coca-Cola Company: …1886 by an Atlanta pharmacist, John S. Pemberton (1831–88), at his Pemberton Chemical Company. His bookkeeper, Frank Robinson, chose the name for the drink and penned it in the flowing script that became the Coca-Cola trademark. Pemberton originally touted his drink as a tonic for most common ailments, basing it…

  • Pembroke (New Zealand)

    Wanaka Lake: Wanaka is separated from Hawea Lake to the east by a narrow ridge of land known as The Neck.

  • Pembroke (Wales, United Kingdom)

    Pembroke, urbanized area, historic and present county of Pembrokeshire (Sir Benfro), southwestern Wales. The Pembroke area comprises the localities of Pembroke, situated on a southeastern arm of the Milford Haven inlet (a fine natural harbour of the Celtic Sea), and, just to the northwest, Pembroke

  • Pembroke (county, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Pembrokeshire, county of southwestern Wales, bounded on the northeast by Ceredigion, on the east by Carmarthenshire, on the south by the Bristol Channel, and on the west and northwest by St. Bride’s Bay and Cardigan Bay of St. George’s Channel. The county’s rugged and convoluted coastline forms a

  • Pembroke Family (work by Van Dyck)

    Joshua Reynolds: Early life: …the large-scale portrait of the Pembroke family (1634–35) by the Flemish Baroque painter Sir Anthony Van Dyck, whose style of portrait painting influenced English portraiture throughout the 18th century. In 1749 Reynolds sailed with his friend Augustus Keppel to Minorca, one of the Balearic Islands off the Mediterranean coast of…

  • Pembroke table (furniture)

    Pembroke table, light, drop-leaf table designed for occasional use, probably deriving its name from Henry Herbert, 9th Earl of Pembroke (1693–1751), a noted connoisseur and amateur architect. The table has two drawers and flaps on either side that can be raised by brackets on hinges (known as

  • Pembroke Welsh corgi (breed of dog)

    Welsh corgi: The Pembroke Welsh corgi (see photograph), of Pembrokeshire, is descended from dogs brought to Wales by Flemish weavers about ad 1100. The ancestors of the Pembroke belonged to the group that produced the Keeshond, Pomeranian, and Samoyed. The corgi gained exposure from its association with the…

  • Pembroke, Earl of (Welsh noble)

    Jasper Tudor, duke of Bedford, leader of the Lancastrians in Wales, uncle and guardian of Henry, earl of Richmond, afterward Henry VII of England. The second son of Owen Tudor, founder of the family’s fortunes, he was knighted in 1449 and created earl of Pembroke about 1452. Between 1456 and 1459

  • Pembroke, Mary Herbert, Countess of (English translator)

    Mary Herbert, countess of Pembroke, patron of the arts and scholarship, poet, and translator. She was the sister of Sir Philip Sidney, who dedicated to her his Arcadia. After his death she published it and completed his verse translation of the Psalms. In 1575 Queen Elizabeth I invited Mary to

  • Pembroke, Richard FitzGilbert, 2nd Earl of (Anglo-Norman lord)

    Richard FitzGilbert, 2nd earl of Pembroke, Anglo-Norman lord whose invasion of Ireland in 1170 initiated the opening phase of the English conquest. The son of Gilbert FitzGilbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke, he succeeded to his father’s estates in southern Wales in 1148/49. Pembroke had evidently lost

  • Pembroke, William Herbert, 1st earl of, Baron Herbert of Cardiff (English noble)

    William Herbert, 1st earl of Pembroke, the earl of Pembroke of the second Herbert creation, a leading figure in the reigns of Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth I of England. His father, Sir Richard Herbert, was an illegitimate son of William, the 1st earl of Pembroke of the first creation. Sir

  • Pembroke, William Marshal, 1st earl of (English regent)

    William Marshal, 1st earl of Pembroke, marshal and then regent of England who served four English monarchs—Henry II, Richard I, John, and Henry III—as a royal adviser and agent and as a warrior of outstanding prowess. Marshal’s father, John (FitzGilbert) the Marshal (died 1165), fought for the

  • Pembrokeshire (breed of dog)

    Welsh corgi: The Pembroke Welsh corgi (see photograph), of Pembrokeshire, is descended from dogs brought to Wales by Flemish weavers about ad 1100. The ancestors of the Pembroke belonged to the group that produced the Keeshond, Pomeranian, and Samoyed. The corgi gained exposure from its association with the…

  • Pembrokeshire (county, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Pembrokeshire, county of southwestern Wales, bounded on the northeast by Ceredigion, on the east by Carmarthenshire, on the south by the Bristol Channel, and on the west and northwest by St. Bride’s Bay and Cardigan Bay of St. George’s Channel. The county’s rugged and convoluted coastline forms a

  • Pembrokeshire Coast National Park (national park, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Pembrokeshire: Pembrokeshire Coast National Park preserves the county’s scenic coast and the Preseli Hills. The town of St. David’s, named for the national saint of Wales, who was born in the 6th century, has been a place of pilgrimage since the Middle Ages, attracting those with…

  • pembrolizumab (drug)

    cancer: Immunotherapy: …therapies, such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab, have proven beneficial in patients with melanoma and certain other cancer types.

  • pemetrexed (drug)

    mesothelioma: Survival prediction and treatment: …used in this class is pemetrexed, which is most effective when combined with platinum-based agents, such as cisplatinum. These drugs may be given as definitive treatment to patients that are not surgical candidates, and up to 50 percent of treated individuals may respond with tumour arrest and shrinkage and modestly…

  • Pemex (Mexican company)

    Petróleos Mexicanos, state-owned Mexican company, a producer, refiner, and distributor of crude oil, natural gas, and petroleum products. It is one of the largest petroleum companies in the world. It is also a major source of revenue for Mexico’s federal government, contributing as much as

  • Pemigewasset River (river, New Hampshire, United States)

    Franconia Notch: The Pemigewasset River rises in the Notch and follows the pass, from which it flows southward for about 70 miles (113 km) to join the Winnipesaukee River and form the Merrimack. The area, made a state park in 1928, is traversed by the Appalachian National Scenic…

  • pemmican (food)

    Pemmican, dried meat, traditionally bison (moose, caribou, deer, or beef can be used as well), pounded into coarse powder and mixed with an equal amount of melted fat, and occasionally saskatoon berries, cranberries, and even (for special occasions) cherries, currants, chokeberries, or blueberries.

  • Pempheridae (fish)

    Sweeper, any of the fishes of the genera Parapriacanthus or Pempheris, in the family Pempheridae (order Perciformes), all of which occur in marine or brackish waters in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans. Sweepers have elongate-oval, compressed bodies with well-developed fins and tail. The

  • Pempheris (fish)

    sweeper: …of the genera Parapriacanthus or Pempheris, in the family Pempheridae (order Perciformes), all of which occur in marine or brackish waters in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans. Sweepers have elongate-oval, compressed bodies with well-developed fins and tail. The eyes are unusually large. A few species have luminescent organs along…

  • Pempheris schomburgki (fish)

    sweeper: The glassy sweeper (Pempheris schomburgki) of the western Atlantic is the only representative along the North American coasts. No species occur in the eastern Atlantic or eastern Pacific.

  • pemphigus (dermatology)

    Pemphigus, a group of skin diseases characterized by large blisters that appear on the skin and mucous membranes. Pemphigus diseases include pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus vegetans, pemphigus foliaceus, pemphigus erythematosus, and benign familial pemphigus. The most common and most severe of these

  • pemphigus erythematosus (dermatology)

    pemphigus: Pemphigus foliaceus and pemphigus erythematosus are less severe. Mucous membranes are rarely involved. Lesions may be found on the scalp, face, or trunk, or they may spread. They also arise from an autoimmune reaction, but the process usually occurs nearer the surface of the epidermis. Low doses of…

  • pemphigus foliaceus (dermatology)

    pemphigus: Pemphigus foliaceus and pemphigus erythematosus are less severe. Mucous membranes are rarely involved. Lesions may be found on the scalp, face, or trunk, or they may spread. They also arise from an autoimmune reaction, but the process usually occurs nearer the surface of the epidermis.…

  • pemphigus vegetans (dermatology)

    pemphigus: Pemphigus vegetans is similar. Both are autoimmune diseases caused by antibodies that are produced against proteins (antigens) found within cells of the outermost layer of the skin, called the epidermis. The interaction between autoantibodies and these antigens results in a loss of cohesion among skin…

  • pemphigus vulgaris (dermatology)

    pemphigus: …severe of these diseases is pemphigus vulgaris, in which large, flaccid blisters erupt on otherwise healthy-looking skin and mucous membranes. The first site of blistering is often the mouth. The blisters rupture easily, leaving weeping, encrusted areas that do not heal. Pain from mouth lesions can prevent the individual from…

  • Pemptades (work by Dodoens)

    Rembert Dodoens: Pemptades introduced new families, arranged plants into 26 groups, and added many original and borrowed illustrations. It was the basis of John Gerard’s celebrated Herball. Dodoens served as physician to the Holy Roman emperor Maximilian II and his successor, Rudolph II. He joined the faculty…

  • PEN (international organization)

    International PEN, international organization of writers. The original PEN was founded in London in 1921 by the English novelist John Galsworthy, and it has since grown to include writers worldwide. The name PEN is an acronym standing for “poets, playwrights, editors, essayists, and novelists.”

  • pen (writing implement)

    Pen, tool for writing or drawing with a coloured fluid such as ink. The earliest ancestor of the pen probably was the brush the Chinese used for writing by the 1st millennium bce. The early Egyptians employed thick reeds for penlike implements about 300 bce. A specific allusion to the quill pen

  • pen (female swan)

    swan: …called cobs, and females, called pens, look alike. Legend to the contrary, swans utter a variety of sounds from the windpipe, which in some species is looped within the breastbone (as in cranes); even the mute swan, the least vocal species, often hisses, makes soft snoring sounds, or grunts sharply.

  • pen drawing

    Pen drawing, artwork executed wholly or in part with pen and ink, usually on paper. Pen drawing is fundamentally a linear method of making images. In pure pen drawing in which the artist wishes to supplement his outlines with tonal suggestions of three-dimensional form, modeling must necessarily be

  • PEN International (international organization)

    International PEN, international organization of writers. The original PEN was founded in London in 1921 by the English novelist John Galsworthy, and it has since grown to include writers worldwide. The name PEN is an acronym standing for “poets, playwrights, editors, essayists, and novelists.”

  • pen shell (mollusk)

    bivalve: Annotated classification: (pearl oysters and fan shells) Shell equivalve, variably shaped; anisomyarian but often monomyarian; shell structure of outer simple calcitic prisms and inner nacre; ctenidia pseudolamellibranch, often plicate (deeply folded); mantle margin lacking fusions; foot reduced; marine; endobyssate or epibyssate. About 100 species. Order Limoida Shell equivalve, ovally

  • Pen y Fan (mountain, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Brecknockshire: Pen y Fan, the highest peak in the park, stands 2,906 feet (866 metres) above sea level. Because of its location at the edge of the Welsh highlands along what became the English border, Brecknock has been historically a centre of conflict between the Welsh…

  • Pen, Jean-Marie Le (French politician)

    Jean-Marie Le Pen, French nationalist who founded and served as leader (1972–2011) of the National Front political party, which represented the main right-wing opposition to the country’s mainstream conservative parties from the 1970s through the early 21st century. A controversial figure who

  • pen-and-wash drawing (art)

    Line-and-wash drawing, in the visual arts, a drawing marked out by pen or some similar instrument and then tinted with diluted ink or watercolour. In 13th-century China, artists used transparent ink washes to create delicate atmospheric effects. The line-and-wash technique was practiced in Europe f

  • Pen-hsi (China)

    Benxi, city, southeast-central Liaoning sheng (province), northeastern China. It is situated some 45 miles (75 km) southeast of Shenyang (Mukden) on the Taizi River. From the time of the Liao dynasty (907–1125), Benxi was the centre of a small-scale iron industry, and coal began to be mined in the

  • pen-tailed tree shrew (mammal)

    tree shrew: …hair, but that of the pen-tailed tree shrew (Ptilocercus lowii) is hairless and ends in a featherlike tuft.

  • Pen-ts’ao kang-mu (work by Li Shizhen)

    Li Shizhen: …highly influential materia medica, the Bencao gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica), which described 1,892 drugs and presented directions for preparing some 11,000 prescriptions. Completed in 1578, the book was in part a compilation of other smaller works of the same kind. It contained descriptions of 1,094 herbs and 444 animal…

  • Pen-y-bont Ar Ogwr (county borough, Wales, United Kingdom)

    Bridgend, county borough, historic county of Glamorgan (Morgannwg), southern Wales. Bridgend county borough extends from the mining valleys of Ogmore, Garw, and Llynfi in the north to the arable lowlands and an extensive coastline in the south. The town of Bridgend is the administrative centre of

  • Pen-y-Ghent (mountain, England, United Kingdom)

    Pennines: …(2,373 feet [723 m]), and Pen-y-Ghent (2,273 feet [693 m]). In the southern section, heights of more than 2,000 feet (600 m) are rare, apart from Kinder Scout (2,088 feet [636 m]), part of the Peak District of Derbyshire.

  • PEN/Faulkner Award (American literary award)

    PEN/Faulkner Award, American literary prize for fiction founded in 1980 by author Mary Lee Settle. Settle, then teaching at the University of Virginia, established the award in response to what she considered the commercialization of American literature prizes. Named for the writers organization

  • PEN/Faulkner Award for Fiction (American literary award)

    PEN/Faulkner Award, American literary prize for fiction founded in 1980 by author Mary Lee Settle. Settle, then teaching at the University of Virginia, established the award in response to what she considered the commercialization of American literature prizes. Named for the writers organization

  • PEN/Nabokov Award (American literary award)

    PEN/Nabokov Award, annual American literary award for lifetime achievement established by the PEN American Center, the American branch of the writers’ organization International PEN, in 2016. A previous version of the prize, awarded biennially from 2000 to 2008, was open to both U.S. and

  • PEN/Nabokov Award for Achievement in International Literature (American literary award)

    PEN/Nabokov Award, annual American literary award for lifetime achievement established by the PEN American Center, the American branch of the writers’ organization International PEN, in 2016. A previous version of the prize, awarded biennially from 2000 to 2008, was open to both U.S. and

  • Peña de Francia (mountains, Spain)

    Salamanca: The Peña de Francia Mountains rise in the south to their highest point at Peña de Francia (5,682 feet [1,732 metres]), which is crowned by a monastery and hostel. This part of the province is richly forested. The Gata Mountains lie along the boundary with Cáceres.…

  • Peña Gómez, José Francisco (Dominican politician)

    José Francisco Peña Gómez, prominent black Dominican politician whose lack of success in three presidential campaigns was attributed to racism (b. March 6, 1937, Valverde province, Dom.Rep.--d. May 10, 1998, Santo Domingo,

  • Peña Nieto, Enrique (president of Mexico)

    Enrique Peña Nieto, Mexican politician of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional; PRI) who served as the president of Mexico (2012–18). Prior to becoming president, he served as governor of the state of México (2005–11). Peña Nieto was born in México state and

  • Pena Palace (building, Sintra, Portugal)

    Sintra: …the mountain peaks is the Pena Palace, a 19th-century castle, partly an adaptation of a 16th-century monastery and partly an imitation of a medieval fortress, which was built for Queen Maria II by her young German consort, Ferdinand II. On the extensive grounds of the castle, Ferdinand created the Parque…

  • Penacook Plantation (New Hampshire, United States)

    Concord, city, capital (since 1808) of New Hampshire, U.S., and seat (1823) of Merrimack county. It lies along the Merrimack River above Manchester. The site was granted by the Massachusetts Bay colony in 1725 as Penacook Plantation. Settled in 1727, the community was incorporated as Rumford in

  • Penaeaceae (plant family)
  • penal code (law)

    crime: The concept of crime: criminal codes: Criminal behaviour is defined by the laws of particular jurisdictions, and there are sometimes vast differences between and even within countries regarding what types of behaviour are prohibited. Conduct that is lawful in one country or jurisdiction may be criminal in another, and…

  • penal colony

    Penal colony, distant or overseas settlement established for punishing criminals by forced labour and isolation from society. Although a score of nations in Europe and Latin America transported their criminals to widely scattered penal colonies, such colonies were developed mostly by the English,

  • Penal Laws (British and Irish history)

    Penal Laws, laws passed against Roman Catholics in Britain and Ireland after the Reformation that penalized the practice of the Roman Catholic religion and imposed civil disabilities on Catholics. Various acts passed in the 16th and 17th centuries prescribed fines and imprisonment for participation

  • penal science (sociology)

    Penology, the division of criminology that concerns itself with the philosophy and practice of society in its efforts to repress criminal activities. As the term signifies (from Latin poena, “pain,” or “suffering”), penology has stood in the past and, for the most part, still stands for the p

  • penal servitude (law)

    crime: China: Punishments for serious offenses include imprisonment and the death penalty. About 70 different offenses are punishable by death, though the vast majority of death sentences are imposed for common crimes such as murder, rape, robbery, assault (see assault and battery), and theft. Since the 1990s there have been an increasing…

  • Peñalara Peak (mountain, Spain)

    Spain: Relief: Their highest points—Peñalara Peak at 7,972 feet (2,430 metres) and Almanzor Peak at 8,497 feet (2,590 metres)—rise well above the plains of the central plateau. In contrast, the granitic Galician mountains, at the northwestern end of the Hercynian block, have an average elevation of only 1,640 feet…

  • Peñalba, Rodrigo (Nicaraguan artist)

    Cocibolca: The Nicaraguan artist Rodrigo Peñalba immortalized Cocibolca in murals depicting the final battle between its Indian inhabitants and the Spaniards. Cocibolca, meaning “sweet sea,” was also the Indian name for the lake.

  • penalty (law)

    Punishment, the infliction of some kind of pain or loss upon a person for a misdeed (i.e., the transgression of a law or command). Punishment may take forms ranging from capital punishment, flogging, forced labour, and mutilation of the body to imprisonment and fines. Deferred punishments consist

  • penalty kick (sports)

    football: Fouls: Penalty kicks, introduced in 1891, are awarded for more serious fouls committed inside the area. The penalty kick is a direct free kick awarded to the attacking side and is taken from a spot 12 yards (11 metres) from goal, with all players other than…

  • penalty shot (sports)

    ice hockey: Strategies: …and exciting play is the penalty shot, which is called when a stick is thrown to deflect a shot or when a player with an open path to the goal is pulled down from behind. The team against which the infraction was committed selects a player to skate unopposed to…

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