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  • Pelham (work by Bulwer-Lytton)

    Edward George Earle Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Baron Lytton: …during the same year, but Pelham (1828), the adventures of a dandy, inaugurated his career as a fluent, popular novelist. The couple’s extravagant style of living necessitated a large output of work, and the strain made Bulwer-Lytton an irritable and negligent husband. After many violent quarrels, he and Rosina were…

  • Pelham, Henry (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    Henry Pelham, prime minister of Great Britain from 1743 to 1754. A somewhat colourless politician, he worked for peace abroad and introduced important financial reforms. The son of Thomas, 1st Lord Pelham, he was educated at Hart Hall (later Hertford College), Oxford, and then served briefly in the

  • Pelham, Peter (American artist)

    John Singleton Copley: …stepfather, the limner and engraver Peter Pelham, and developed an early sense of vocation: before he was 20 he was already an accomplished draughtsman. Copley soon discovered that his skills were most pronounced in the genre of portraiture. In his portraits, he revealed an intimate knowledge of his New England…

  • Pelham, Thomas (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st duke of Newcastle, prime minister of Great Britain from 1754 to 1756 and from 1757 to 1762. Through his control of government patronage, he wielded enormous political influence during the reigns of Kings George I and George II. Pelham-Holles inherited the barony of Pelham

  • Pelias (Greek mythology)

    Pelias, in Greek mythology, a king of Iolcos in Thessaly who imposed on his half-nephew Jason the task of bearing off the Golden Fleece. According to Homer, Pelias and Neleus were twin sons of Tyro (daughter of Salmoneus, founder of Salmonia in Elis) by the sea god Poseidon, who came to her

  • pelican (bird)

    Pelican, any of seven or eight species of water birds in the genus Pelecanus constituting the family Pelecanidae (order Pelecaniformes), distinguished by their large elastic throat pouches. Pelicans inhabit lakes, rivers, and seacoasts in many parts of the world. With some species reaching a length

  • Pelican (ship)

    Sir Francis Drake: Circumnavigation of the world: …which Drake later renamed the Golden Hind (or Hinde), weighed only about 100 tons. It seemed little enough with which to undertake a venture into the domain of the most powerful monarch and empire in the world.

  • Pelican Brief, The (novel by Grisham)

    John Grisham: Grisham wrote his third novel—The Pelican Brief (1992; film 1993), about a female law student investigating the assassinations of two Supreme Court justices—in only three months. There were 5.5 million copies of the book in print by March 1993. Film rights to the novel were sold for more than…

  • Pelican Brief, The (film by Pakula [1993])

    Alan J. Pakula: Films of the 1990s: …then wrote, directed, and produced The Pelican Brief (1993), which starred Julia Roberts and Denzel Washington. It was a big commercial hit but failed to impress the critics.

  • pelican eel (fish)

    Gulper, any of nine species of deep-sea fish constituting three families, placed by some authorities in the order Anguilliformes (eels) and by others in a distinct order, Saccopharyngiformes (or Lyomeri). Gulpers range to depths of 2,700 m (9,000 feet) or more. The members of one family,

  • Pelican Rapids (Wisconsin, United States)

    Rhinelander, city, seat (1887) of Oneida county, northern Wisconsin, U.S. It lies at the confluence of the Wisconsin and Pelican rivers, about 50 miles (80 km) northeast of Wausau. It is surrounded by a heavy concentration of lakes, and Nicolet National Forest lies to the east. The city, originally

  • Pelican State (state, United States)

    Louisiana, constituent state of the United States of America. It is delineated from its neighbours—Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, and Texas to the west—by both natural and man-made boundaries. The Gulf of Mexico lies to the south. The total area of Louisiana includes about 4,600

  • Pelican Waterholes (Queensland, Australia)

    Winton, town, central Queensland, Australia, on Western Mills Creek, an intermittent tributary of the Diamantina River. Settled in 1873 and originally called Pelican Waterholes, it became a village in 1875 and a town in 1879. It was later renamed after Winton, England, the birthplace of its

  • pelican’s foot shell (gastropod family)

    gastropod: Classification: …the pelican’s foot shells (Aporrhaidae) of near Arctic waters. Superfamily Calyptraeacea Cap shells (Capulidae) and slipper shells (Calyptraeidae) are limpets with irregularly shaped shells with a small internal cup or shelf; many species show sex reversal, becoming males early in life, then changing into females during old age; common…

  • Pelidnota punctata (insect)

    shining leaf chafer: A related species, the common vine pelidnota (Pelidnota punctata), occurs throughout North America. It is bright orange-brown with three black spots on each wing cover (elytra). The larvae feed on grapevine roots, the adults on the leaves; both can be quite destructive. The Japanese beetle (q.v.; Popillia japonica), which…

  • Péligot, Eugène-Melchior (French chemist)

    uranium: …isolated (1841) by French chemist Eugène-Melchior Péligot by the reduction of uranium tetrachloride (UCl4) with potassium.

  • Péligre (Haiti)

    Haiti: Relief and drainage: …the river was impounded as Lake Péligre in the mid-20th century; a hydroelectric complex began operating at Péligre in 1971, but its power output has been unreliable during the dry season. Just upstream from the Artibonite’s delta in the Gulf of Gonâve, some of its waters are used to irrigate…

  • Péligre Dam (dam, Haiti)

    Artibonite River: …of the project was the Péligre Dam, which was initiated in 1930 as a flood-control project; its completion in 1956 resulted in the creation of a large reservoir (Péligre Lake). Soil erosion, induced by forest denudation in the Artibonite valley, has resulted in severe siltation of the reservoir and has…

  • Pelikan, Jaroslav (American historian)

    Jaroslav Jan Pelikan, Jr., American historian (born Dec. 17, 1923, Akron, Ohio—died May 13, 2006, Hamden, Conn.), was widely recognized as one of the foremost historians of the Christian church. Pelikan earned a Bachelor of Divinity degree (1942) from Concordia Theological Seminary, St. Louis, M

  • Pelikan, Jaroslav Jan, Jr. (American historian)

    Jaroslav Jan Pelikan, Jr., American historian (born Dec. 17, 1923, Akron, Ohio—died May 13, 2006, Hamden, Conn.), was widely recognized as one of the foremost historians of the Christian church. Pelikan earned a Bachelor of Divinity degree (1942) from Concordia Theological Seminary, St. Louis, M

  • pelike (ancient Greek pottery)

    Marsyas Painter: …Classical period, known for a pelike (wine container), now in the British Museum, of “Peleus Taming Thetis,” and for a “Nuptial Lebes” (the bringing of gifts to the newly wed bride), now in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg. Both vases date from 340–330 bc, and both are in the so-called…

  • Pelin, Elin (Bulgarian writer)

    Bulgarian literature: His contemporary Elin Pelin portrayed his native rural province with wit and humanity in Razkazi (1904 and 1911; “Stories”) and in the tragic novellas Geratsite (1911; “The Gerak Family”) and Zemya (1928; “Land”). Yordan Yovkov, novelist and playwright, excelled at describing the effects of war, the subject…

  • Pelion, Mount (mountain, Greece)

    Mount Pelion, mountain on the Magnesia peninsula of southeastern Thessaly (Modern Greek: Thessalía), Greece, rising to 5,417 feet (1,651 metres) at its highest point. Pelion peak (5,075 feet), just northeast of Vólos, has a wooded western flank overlooking a gulf whose ancient ports were Iolcos and

  • pelisse (military uniform)

    díszmagyar: …outer coat, the mente (pelisse), was the dolmány (a fitted jacket decorated with braids); tight trousers and a hat with egret feathers completed the ensemble. The style was evidently influenced by the cut, soutaches, and braids of the hussar’s traditional uniform.

  • Pélissier, Aimable-Jean-Jacques, duc de Malakoff (marshal of France)

    Aimable-Jean-Jacques Pélissier, duc de Malakoff, French general during the Algerian conquest and the last French commander in chief in the Crimean War. Educated at the military schools of La Flèche and Saint-Cyr, Pélissier was commissioned as an artillery second lieutenant in 1815. After brief

  • pelitic rock (geology)

    metamorphic rock: Classification into four chemical systems: Pelitic rocks are derived from mudstone (shale) protoliths and are rich in potassium (K), aluminum (Al), silicon (Si), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), and water (H2O), with lesser amounts of manganese (Mn), titanium (Ti), calcium (Ca), and other

  • Pell equation (mathematics)

    number theory: Number theory in the East: …is now (erroneously) called the Pell equation. He posed the challenge to find a perfect square that, when multiplied by 92 and increased by 1, yields another perfect square. That is, he sought whole numbers x and y such that 92x2 + 1 = y2—a Diophantine equation with quadratic terms.…

  • Pell Grant (education)
  • Pell, Claiborne (United States senator)

    Claiborne deBorda Pell, American politician (born Nov. 22, 1918, New York, N.Y.—died Jan. 1, 2009 , Newport, R.I.), served (1961–97) as a Democratic U.S. senator from Rhode Island, during which time he became widely known as the originator of a federal program that provided financial grants to

  • Pell, Claiborne deBorda (United States senator)

    Claiborne deBorda Pell, American politician (born Nov. 22, 1918, New York, N.Y.—died Jan. 1, 2009 , Newport, R.I.), served (1961–97) as a Democratic U.S. senator from Rhode Island, during which time he became widely known as the originator of a federal program that provided financial grants to

  • Pell, George Cardinal (Australian archbishop)

    George Cardinal Pell, Australian prelate who served as archbishop of Sydney (2001–14) before being named prefect of the Secretariat for the Economy (2014–18). In 2018 he was convicted of historical child sexual assault, but his conviction was overturned two years later. A talented Australian rules

  • Pella (ancient city, Greece)

    Pella, ancient capital of King Archelaus of Macedonia at the end of the 5th century bc and birthplace of Alexander the Great. The city lay in northern Greece, about 24 miles (39 km) northwest of Thessaloníki. Originally known as Bounomos, the city developed rapidly under Philip II, but, after the

  • Pellaea (plant, genus Pellaea)

    Cliff brake, (genus Pellaea), any of about 40 species of ferns of the genus Pellaea (family Pteridaceae). Cliff brake ferns grow on or among rocks, mostly limestone, throughout the world. Several species, including button fern (Pellaea rotundifolia) and sickle fern (P. falcata), are grown as indoor

  • Pellaea falcata (plant)

    cliff brake: …button fern (Pellaea rotundifolia) and sickle fern (P. falcata), are grown as indoor ornamentals.

  • Pellaea rotundifolia (plant)

    cliff brake: Several species, including button fern (Pellaea rotundifolia) and sickle fern (P. falcata), are grown as indoor ornamentals.

  • pellagra (pathology)

    Pellagra, nutritional disorder caused by a dietary deficiency of niacin (also called nicotinic acid) or a failure of the body to absorb this vitamin or the amino acid tryptophan, which is converted to niacin in the body. Pellagra is characterized by skin lesions and by gastrointestinal and

  • pellagra-preventive vitamin (vitamin)

    Niacin, water-soluble vitamin of the B complex. It is also called the pellagra-preventive vitamin because an adequate amount in the diet prevents pellagra, a chronic disease characterized by skin lesions, gastrointestinal disturbance, and nervous symptoms. Niacin is interchangeable in metabolism

  • Pellatt, Apsley (British craftsman)

    crystallo ceramie: …but had no vogue until Apsley Pellatt, an English glassmaker, developed a technique that resulted in specimens of genuine beauty. In 1819 Pellatt patented his process under the name crystallo ceramie and began to issue his ware from the Falcon Glasshouse in Southwark. His cast bas-relief decorations—which usually were profile…

  • Pelle erobreren (film by August [1987])
  • Pelle erobreren (work by Nexø)

    Martin Andersen Nexø: A four-volume English translation, Pelle the Conqueror, appeared in 1913–16. In 1989 and 1991 a revised version of parts 1 and 2 of the 1913–16 translation was published. Although the Academy Award-winning film made in 1987 from Nexø’s novel bears the same title, it changes the story’s focus considerably.…

  • Pelle erovraren (film by August [1987])
  • Pelle the Conqueror (work by Nexø)

    Martin Andersen Nexø: A four-volume English translation, Pelle the Conqueror, appeared in 1913–16. In 1989 and 1991 a revised version of parts 1 and 2 of the 1913–16 translation was published. Although the Academy Award-winning film made in 1987 from Nexø’s novel bears the same title, it changes the story’s focus considerably.…

  • Pelle the Conqueror (film by August [1987])
  • pelle, La (work by Malaparte)

    Curzio Malaparte: … (1944); and La pelle (1949; The Skin), a terrifying, surrealistically presented series of episodes showing the suffering and degradation that the war had brought to the people of Naples.

  • Pelléas et Mélisande (play by Maeterlinck)

    Pelléas et Mélisande, play in five acts by Maurice Maeterlinck, published in French in 1892 and produced in 1893, that is considered one of the masterpieces of French Symbolist drama. Set in an imaginary land in medieval times, it centres on the tragic love of Pelléas for Mélisande, who is married

  • Pelléas et Mélisande (opera by Debussy)

    Claude Debussy: Middle period: His single completed opera, Pelléas et Mélisande (1st perf. 1902), demonstrates how the Wagnerian technique could be adapted to portray subjects like the dreamy nightmarish figures of this opera who were doomed to self-destruction. Debussy and his librettist, Maurice Maeterlinck, declared that they were haunted in this work by…

  • Pelleas und Melisande (work by Schoenberg)

    Arnold Schoenberg: First major works: …symphonic poem for large orchestra, Pelleas und Melisande (1902–03), after the drama by Belgian writer Maurice Maeterlinck. Back in Vienna in 1903, Schoenberg became acquainted with the Austrian composer Gustav Mahler, who became one of his strongest supporters.

  • Pellegrin, Abbé (French librettist)

    Jean-Philippe Rameau: Abbé Pellegrin, whose biblical opera Jephté had been successfully set to music by Rameau’s rival Michel de Montéclair in 1732, was to become Rameau’s librettist for his first and in many ways finest opera, Hippolyte et Aricie. It was first performed in the spring of…

  • Pellegrini, Carlo (Italian caricaturist)

    Carlo Pellegrini, caricaturist notable for his portraits of prominent Englishmen appearing in Vanity Fair. As a young man, he was a part of Neapolitan society, whose members he caricatured in a good-natured way. Following an unhappy love affair and the death of a sister, he went to England in 1864

  • Pellegrini, Carlos (president of Argentina)

    Argentina: The crisis of 1890: …favour of the vice president, Carlos Pellegrini (1890–92), a solid ally of Roca.

  • Pellegrini, Il (Italian painter)

    Pellegrino Tibaldi, Italian painter, sculptor, and architect who spread the style of Italian Mannerist painting in Spain during the late 16th century. Tibaldi grew up in Bologna in a family of Lombard stonemasons. He was trained as a painter under minor Emilian artists who imitated the style of

  • Pellegrini, Pellegrino (Italian painter)

    Pellegrino Tibaldi, Italian painter, sculptor, and architect who spread the style of Italian Mannerist painting in Spain during the late 16th century. Tibaldi grew up in Bologna in a family of Lombard stonemasons. He was trained as a painter under minor Emilian artists who imitated the style of

  • Pellegrino, Mount (mountain, Italy)

    Palermo: Mount Pellegrino rises to a height of 1,988 feet (606 m) north of the city.

  • pellet (rock texture)

    sedimentary rock: Textural components: …or bioclasts generally are called pellets or peloids. Most are fecal pellets generated by mud-ingesting organisms. Pellets can be cemented together into irregularly shaped composite grains dubbed lumpstones or grapestones.

  • pellet (nuclear fuel)

    nuclear ceramics: Nuclear fuel: Ceramic fuel pellets also can be fabricated in an advanced process called sol-gel microsphere pelletization. The sol-gel route (described in the article advanced ceramics) achieves homogeneous distribution of uranium and plutonium in solid solution, enables sintering to occur at lower temperature, and ameliorates the toxic dust problem…

  • pellet (bead)

    automotive ceramics: Catalytic converter substrates: The pellets are porous beads approximately 3 millimetres (18 inch) in diameter. With a single pellet having up to 10 square millimetres of internal pore surface area, one litre of pellets can have up to 500,000 square metres of support surface. The pellet material is often…

  • pellet bell (bell)

    crotal: The term crotal may also refer to a closed bell containing loose pellets, similar in construction to a sleigh bell. This crotal produces a sound when it is shaken and the pellets strike the inner surface.

  • Pelletier, David (Canadian figure skater)

    David Pelletier, Canadian pairs figure skater who, with his partner Jamie Salé, was awarded a gold medal at the 2002 Winter Games in Salt Lake City, Utah, after a judging scandal. The couple shared the gold with the Russian pair, Yelena Berezhnaya and Anton Sikharulidze. Pelletier began skating as

  • Pelletier, Gérard (Canadian politician)

    Gérard Pelletier, Canadian politician, journalist, and activist (born June 21, 1919, Victoriaville, Que.—died June 22, 1997, Montreal, Que.), was hailed, along with Pierre Trudeau and Jean Marchand, as one of Quebec’s "three wise men." The trio was recruited by Liberal Prime Minister Lester P

  • Pelletier, Pierre-Joseph (French chemist)

    Pierre-Joseph Pelletier, French chemist who helped found the chemistry of alkaloids. Pelletier was professor at and, from 1832, director of the School of Pharmacy, Paris. In 1817, in collaboration with the chemist Joseph-Bienaimé Caventou, he isolated chlorophyll, the green pigment in plants that

  • Pelletier, Rose-Virginie (French nun)

    Good Shepherd Sister: …trying to reestablish itself when Rose-Virginie Pelletier entered the community in 1814 and took the name Sister Mary Euphrasia. By 1829 she had become superior of the community and founded a convent at Angers, followed in the next five years by four more convents. In 1835 Pope Gregory XVI approved…

  • pelletization (technology)

    iron processing: Pelletizing: First, moistened concentrates are fed to a rotating drum or an inclined disc, the tumbling action of which produces soft, spherical agglomerates. These “green” balls are then dried and hardened by firing in air to a temperature in the range of 1,250° to 1,340°…

  • Pelletron accelerator (particle accelerator)

    Robert Jemison Van de Graaff: …a related device called the Pelletron accelerator, the moving belt is replaced by a moving chain of metallic beads separated by insulating material. The Pelletron accelerator at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tenn., produces 25 megavolts and will accelerate protons or heavy ions, which are then injected into an isochronous…

  • Pelli, Cesar (American architect)

    Cesar Pelli, Argentine-born American architect who was widely regarded as one of the 20th century’s preeminent architects. After earning a bachelor’s degree in architecture at the National University of Tucumán, Pelli moved to the United States to attend the University of Illinois at

  • Pellicer, Pina (Mexican actress)

    One-Eyed Jacks: …to her daughter, Louisa (Pina Pellicer). Although initially wary of Rio’s motives, Dad accepts his former partner’s lies when he says that he bears Dad no malice. Rio subsequently seduces Louisa, outraging Dad. After Rio kills a man in self-defense, Dad beats him and forces him to leave. While…

  • pellicle (biology)

    ciliate: …known as kineties, on the pellicle (cell covering), but they may fuse together near the cytostome (cell mouth) of some species to form membranelles or undulating membranes (various sheetlike or fan-shaped groupings of cilia); elsewhere on the pellicle, cilia may form limblike tufts called cirri. Most ciliates have a flexible…

  • Pellico, Silvio (Italian author)

    Silvio Pellico, Italian patriot, dramatist, and author of Le mie prigioni (1832; My Prisons), memoirs of his sufferings as a political prisoner, which inspired widespread sympathy for the Italian nationalist movement, the Risorgimento. Educated at Turin, Pellico spent four years in France,

  • Pelling, Maurice (art director)
  • Pellipario, Nicola (Italian pottery painter)

    pottery: Majolica: …associated with the name of Nicola Pellipario (died c. 1542), the greatest of the majolica painters. He also painted grotesques similar to those of Deruta, in Umbria, which are rather more stylized than the grotesques introduced later in the 16th century at Urbino that are humourous and full of movement.…

  • pellitory (plant)

    Urticaceae: microphylla), and pellitory (Parietaria), a genus of wall plants, are grown as ornamentals. Baby tears (Helxine soleiroli), a mosslike creeping plant with round leaves, often is grown as a ground cover. The trumpet tree (Cecropia peltata), a tropical American species that has hollow stems inhabited by biting…

  • Pelloreum ruficeps (bird)

    jungle babbler: An example is the striped jungle babbler, or spotted babbler (Pelloreum ruficeps), of Southeast Asia—16 centimetres (614 inches) long, with reddish cap, white eyeline, dark greenish back, and streaked white breast. It is usually detected by its loud two-note whistle.

  • Pellorneini (bird)

    Jungle babbler, any of about 32 species of songbirds constituting the tribe Pellorneini of the babbler family Timaliidae. Found from Africa to Malaysia and the Philippines, these drab birds with slender, often hook-tipped bills skulk in forest undergrowth. An example is the striped jungle babbler,

  • Pelloutier, Fernand (French political scientist)

    Fernand Pelloutier, a leading organizer and theoretician of the French labour movement who deeply influenced the philosophy and methods of anarcho-syndicalist labour unionism. As a young journalist in the town of Saint-Nazaire, Pelloutier became a member of the Parti Ouvrier, the largest Marxist

  • Pelloux, Luigi Girolamo (prime minister of Italy)

    Luigi Pelloux, Italian general and prime minister (1898–1900) who brought his country to the brink of crisis by adopting an extremely repressive domestic policy. After graduation from the military academy at Turin (1857), Pelloux fought in several battles against Austria, distinguishing himself as

  • pellucid zone (biology)

    animal development: Preparatory events: …is surrounded by the so-called pellucid zone, which is equivalent to the vitelline membrane of other animals; follicle cells form an area called the corona radiata around this zone.

  • Pelly River (stream, Yukon, Canada)

    Pelly River, stream in central Yukon, Canada, one of the main headstreams of the Yukon River. It was named in 1840 by Robert Campbell for Sir John Henry Pelly, governor of the Hudson’s Bay Company. Rising in the Mackenzie Mountains near the southeastern boundary of the territory, the river flows

  • Pelobates fuscus (amphibian)

    spadefoot toad: The European spadefoot (Pelobates fuscus) is found in Europe and Central Asia, usually in sandy regions. Some related species have more restricted ranges. It is about 6 to 7.5 cm (2 to 3 inches) long and spends the day underground.

  • Pelobatinae (amphibian subfamily)

    Anura: Annotated classification: …Asia, Indo-Australian archipelago, Philippines) and Pelobatinae (Europe and North America). Family Pelodytidae Eocene to present; 8 presacral vertebrae; coccyx free, bicondylar; astragalus and calcaneum fused; western Europe and southwestern Asia; 1 genus, 2 species. Suborder Neobatrachia Superfamily Bufonoidea

  • Pelobatoidea (amphibian superfamily)

    Anura: Annotated classification: Superfamily Pelobatoidea Vertebrae procoelous with labile centra; pectoral girdle arciferal; ribs absent; amplexus inguinal; larvae with single spiracle on the left and with complex mouthparts. Family Megophryidae (South Asian frogs) Family Pelobatidae (spadefoots) Late Cretaceous to present; 8

  • Pelodryadinae (amphibian subfamily)

    Anura: Annotated classification: 5 inches); 4 subfamilies: Pelodryadinae (Australo-Papuan region), Phyllomedusinae (Central and South America), Hemiphractinae (Central and South America), and Hylinae (North and South America, Europe, Asia except Indian subregion, and Africa north of Sahara). Family Leptodactylidae Eocene to present; 8 presacral

  • Pelodytidae (amphibian family)

    Anura: Annotated classification: Family Pelodytidae Eocene to present; 8 presacral vertebrae; coccyx free, bicondylar; astragalus and calcaneum fused; western Europe and southwestern Asia; 1 genus, 2 species. Suborder Neobatrachia Superfamily Bufonoidea Vertebrae procoelous; pectoral girdle arciferal (in some, secondarily

  • pelog (music)

    Pelog, Javanese and Balinese seven-pitch scale. See

  • pelog scale (music)

    Pelog, Javanese and Balinese seven-pitch scale. See

  • Pelomyxa (protist)

    protozoan: Annotated classification: Pelomyxa Anaerobic, lacking mitochondria, peroxisomes, and hydrogenosomes. Express a polymorphic life cycle with multinucleate stages. Eumycetozoa (slime molds) Produce fruiting bodies (either a sporocarp or a sorocarp) that spawn amoeboid organisms; other life stages are uninucleate amoeboflagellates, uninucleate non-flagellate amoebae, or

  • Pelopia (Turkey)

    Akhisar, town, western Turkey. It is located in a fertile plain on the Great Zab River (the ancient Lycus). The ancient town, originally called Pelopia, was probably founded by the Lydians. It was made a Macedonian colony about 290 bce and renamed Thyatira. It became part of the kingdom of Pergamum

  • Pelopidas (Theban statesman)

    Pelopidas, Theban statesman and general responsible, with his friend Epaminondas, for the brief period (371–362) of Theban hegemony in mainland Greece. In 385 Pelopidas served in a Theban contingent sent to support the Spartans at Mantineia, where he was seriously wounded but was saved by

  • Peloponnese (peninsula, Greece)

    Peloponnese, peninsula of 8,278 square miles (21,439 square km), a large, mountainous body of land jutting southward into the Mediterranean that since antiquity has been a major region of Greece, joined to the rest of mainland Greece by the Isthmus of Corinth. The name, which is derived from

  • Peloponnesian League (ancient Greek history)

    Peloponnesian League, military coalition of Greek city-states led by Sparta, formed in the 6th century bc. League policy, usually decisions on questions of war, peace, or alliance, was determined by federal congresses, summoned by the Spartans when they thought fit; each member state had one vote.

  • Peloponnesian War (ancient Greek history)

    Peloponnesian War, (431–404 bce), war fought between the two leading city-states in ancient Greece, Athens and Sparta. Each stood at the head of alliances that, between them, included nearly every Greek city-state. The fighting engulfed virtually the entire Greek world, and it was properly regarded

  • Peloponnesus (peninsula, Greece)

    Peloponnese, peninsula of 8,278 square miles (21,439 square km), a large, mountainous body of land jutting southward into the Mediterranean that since antiquity has been a major region of Greece, joined to the rest of mainland Greece by the Isthmus of Corinth. The name, which is derived from

  • Pelopónnisos (peninsula, Greece)

    Peloponnese, peninsula of 8,278 square miles (21,439 square km), a large, mountainous body of land jutting southward into the Mediterranean that since antiquity has been a major region of Greece, joined to the rest of mainland Greece by the Isthmus of Corinth. The name, which is derived from

  • Pelops (Greek mythology)

    Pelops, legendary founder of the Pelopid dynasty at Mycenae in the Greek Peloponnese, which was probably named for him. Pelops was a grandson of Zeus, the king of the gods. According to many accounts, his father, Tantalus, cooked and served Pelops to the gods at a banquet. Only Demeter, bereaved

  • Pelorosaurus (dinosaur genus)

    Gideon Algernon Mantell: known as Iguanodon, Hylaeosaurus, Pelorosaurus, and Regnosaurus. He also described the Triassic reptile Telerpeton elginense. Mantell’s major works include The Fossils of the South Downs, or Illustrations of the Geology of Sussex (1822) and Medals of Creation (1844).

  • Pelosi, Nancy (American politician)

    Nancy Pelosi, American Democratic politician who was a congresswoman from California in the U.S. House of Representatives (1987– ), where she served as the first female speaker (2007–11; 2019– ). Her other notable posts included House minority leader (2003–07; 2011–19). D’Alesandro—whose father,

  • pelota (court games)

    Pelota, (Spanish: “ball”, ) any of a number of glove, racket, or bat court games requiring a rubber-cored ball. These games arose from the old French game known as jeux de paume. Varieties of this game are played in many parts of the world. The variations of pelota can be classified as either jeux

  • pelota de mano (sport)

    Ecuador: Sports and recreation: Pelota de mano (“handball”) is usually played by men and involves hitting a small, hard ball back and forth with a bare (or rarely, gloved) fist, a widespread attraction on Sunday afternoons in Quito and San Antonio de Ibarra. National parks and nature preserves, including…

  • pelota vasca (sport)

    Jai alai, ball game of Basque origin played in a three-walled court with a hard rubber ball that is caught and thrown with a cesta, a long, curved wicker scoop strapped to one arm. Called pelota vasca in Spain, the Western Hemisphere name jai alai (Basque “merry festival”) was given to the game

  • Pelotas (Brazil)

    Pelotas, coastal city, southeastern Rio Grande do Sul estado (state), southern Brazil. It is located on the left bank of the São Gonçalo Canal, the river that connects Mirim Lagoon with the Patos Lagoon. Founded in 1780 as São Francisco de Paula, Pelotas was raised to town status and renamed in

  • Pelotas River (river, Brazil)

    Pelotas River, river in southern Brazil, rising on the western slope of the Serra Geral at Alto do Bispo in Santa Catarina estado (state), on the Atlantic coast. It arches northwestward across the uplands for approximately 280 miles (450 km) before receiving the Canoas River and becoming the

  • pelote basque (court games)

    Pelota, (Spanish: “ball”, ) any of a number of glove, racket, or bat court games requiring a rubber-cored ball. These games arose from the old French game known as jeux de paume. Varieties of this game are played in many parts of the world. The variations of pelota can be classified as either jeux

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