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  • PayCheck, Johnny (American musician)

    Johnny Paycheck, (Donald Eugene Lytle), American country musician (born May 31, 1938, Greenfield, Ohio—died Feb. 18, 2003, Nashville, Tenn.), was a hard-living honky-tonk singer and songwriter who recorded more than 30 albums and had dozens of hit singles, but he was most widely recognized for h

  • Payen, Anselme (French chemist)

    Anselme Payen, French chemist who made important contributions to industrial chemistry and discovered cellulose, a basic constituent of plant cells. Payen, the son of an industrialist, was put in charge of a borax-refining plant in 1815. He broke the Dutch monopoly on borax—most of which was mined

  • Payer, Julius (Austrian explorer)

    Arctic: Conquest of the Northeast Passage: …command of Karl Weyprecht and Julius Payer mounted an attempt on the passage from the west, intending to winter at either Cape Chelyuskin or the New Siberian Islands. Instead, the ship was beset in the Barents Sea, and as it drifted north it came within sight of Franz Josef Land.…

  • Payer, Mount (mountain, Russia)

    Ural Mountains: Physiography: …level, although the highest peak, Mount Payer, reaches 4,829 feet (1,472 metres). The next stretch, the Nether-Polar Urals, extends for more than 140 miles (225 km) south to the Shchugor River. This section contains the highest peaks of the entire range, including Mount Narodnaya (6,217 feet [1,895 metres]) and Mount…

  • Payette River (river, United States)

    Payette River, watercourse, southwestern Idaho, U.S., formed by the confluence of the North Fork Payette River and South Fork Payette River in Boise National Forest near the village of Banks. The North Fork originates in Payette Lake, a popular recreation site near McCall. The Payette flows south

  • Payette, Julie (Canadian astronaut, engineer and government official)

    Julie Payette, Canadian astronaut and engineer, who was named the 29th governor-general of Canada (2017– ). Payette received a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from McGill University in Montreal in 1986 and a master’s degree in computer engineering from the University of Toronto in 1990.

  • payload

    rocket and missile system: Design principles: …of the missile (called the payload) coasts in the midcourse phase, usually beyond the Earth’s atmosphere. The payload contains the warhead (or warheads), the guidance system, and such penetration aids as decoys, electronic jammers, and chaff to help elude enemy defenses. The weight of this payload constitutes the missile’s throw…

  • payload specialist

    astronaut: Astronaut training: …aboard the space shuttle as payload specialists, and teacher Christa McAuliffe was a “teacher in space” payload specialist on the doomed Challenger mission. The first U.S. astronaut to orbit Earth, John Glenn, returned to space as a shuttle payload specialist in October 1998. Most payload specialists made only one spaceflight.

  • payment (economics)

    Payment, the performance of an obligation to pay money. A person under such an obligation is called a debtor, and a person to whom the obligation is owed is called a creditor. The obligation may arise in various ways, but it is most commonly the result of a commercial transaction or contract

  • Payment on Demand (film by Bernhardt [1951])

    Curtis Bernhardt: 1950s and ’60s: Payment on Demand (1951) was a well-mounted drama about the marital problems of a couple (played by Davis and Barry Sullivan), with elaborate flashbacks building suspense. Sirocco (1951), a solid period action film, featured Bogart as a gunrunner, while The Blue Veil (1951) was a…

  • payments, balance of (economics)

    Balance of payments, systematic record of all economic transactions between residents of one country and residents of other countries (including the governments). The transactions are presented in the form of double-entry bookkeeping. There can be no surplus or deficit in a country’s balance of

  • Payna, Petra (English theologian)

    Peter Payne, English theologian, diplomat, and follower of the early religious Reformer John Wycliffe; he was a leading figure in securing Bohemia for the Hussites. About the time Payne was principal of St. Edmund Hall, Oxford (1410–12), he joined the Lollards, and when the influential Lollard

  • Payne’s Landing, Treaty of (United States [1832])

    Second Seminole War: Gadsden then negotiated the Treaty of Payne’s Landing (1832) with various Seminole leaders. It called for the Seminoles to move within three years to the land assigned to Creek Indians west of the Mississippi if Seminole leaders found the land to be suitable and for the Seminoles to be…

  • Payne, Alexander (American writer, director, and producer)

    Alexander Payne, American director, screenwriter, and producer, who was noted for creating films that mixed sardonic humour with humanistic character-driven drama in prosaic contemporary settings. Payne grew up in Omaha, where his mother was a professor of Romance languages and his father ran a

  • Payne, Cecilia Helena (British-born American astronomer)

    Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, British-born American astronomer who discovered that stars are made mainly of hydrogen and helium and established that stars could be classified according to their temperatures. Payne entered the University of Cambridge in 1919. A lecture by astronomer Sir Arthur Eddington

  • Payne, Constantine Alexander (American writer, director, and producer)

    Alexander Payne, American director, screenwriter, and producer, who was noted for creating films that mixed sardonic humour with humanistic character-driven drama in prosaic contemporary settings. Payne grew up in Omaha, where his mother was a professor of Romance languages and his father ran a

  • Payne, Dolley (American first lady)

    Dolley Madison, American first lady (1809–17), the wife of James Madison, fourth president of the United States. Raised in the plain style of her Quaker family, she was renowned for her charm, warmth, and ingenuity. Her popularity as manager of the White House made that task a responsibility of

  • Payne, Humfry Gilbert Garth (British archaeologist)

    Humfry Payne, English archaeologist noted for the publication Necrocorinthia (1931), in which a vast body of important information on archaic vase painting and other arts practiced at Corinth was gathered and classified. Payne was educated at Christ Church College, Oxford, where he studied classics

  • Payne, John (American actor)

    John Payne, American actor, a popular leading man during the 1940s who appeared opposite Alice Faye and Betty Grable in a succession of Twentieth Century-Fox musicals. Payne attended the University of Virginia and Columbia University in New York and made his motion-picture debut in Dodsworth

  • Payne, John Howard (American playwright)

    John Howard Payne, American-born playwright and actor, who followed the techniques and themes of the European Romantic blank-verse dramatists. A precocious actor and writer, Payne wrote his first play, Julia, or, The Wanderer, when he was 15. Its success caused him to be sent to Union College,

  • Payne, Lewis (American conspirator)

    Mary Surratt: Mary Surratt was arrested with Lewis Payne (who had wounded William Seward, the secretary of state), George Atzerodt (who had failed to murder Vice President Andrew Johnson), David Herold (who had accompanied Atzerodt), and two other alleged conspirators. She stood trial on May 12, 1865, before a nine-man military commission.…

  • Payne, Liam (English singer)

    One Direction: …1993, Bradford, West Yorkshire, England), Liam Payne (b. August 29, 1993, Wolverhampton, West Midlands, England), Harry Styles (b. February 1, 1994, Holmes Chapel, Cheshire, England), and Louis Tomlinson (b. December 24, 1991, Doncaster, South Yorkshire, England).

  • Payne, Liam James (English singer)

    One Direction: …1993, Bradford, West Yorkshire, England), Liam Payne (b. August 29, 1993, Wolverhampton, West Midlands, England), Harry Styles (b. February 1, 1994, Holmes Chapel, Cheshire, England), and Louis Tomlinson (b. December 24, 1991, Doncaster, South Yorkshire, England).

  • Payne, Peter (English theologian)

    Peter Payne, English theologian, diplomat, and follower of the early religious Reformer John Wycliffe; he was a leading figure in securing Bohemia for the Hussites. About the time Payne was principal of St. Edmund Hall, Oxford (1410–12), he joined the Lollards, and when the influential Lollard

  • Payne, Sereno (American politician)

    Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act: …began writing the legislation, and Sereno Payne of New York, chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee,introduced a bill that called for reductions. However, other members of the House revised the law to increase rates favoured by businesses within their districts. In the Senate, Nelson Aldrich of Rhode Island,…

  • Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act (United States [1909])

    Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act, law passed by the U.S. Congress in 1909 in response to a call from Republican Pres. William Howard Taft for lower tariffs. His acceptance of a bill that failed to significantly decrease rates caused him to lose the support of the progressive wing of his party. The

  • Payne-Gaposchkin, Cecilia (British-born American astronomer)

    Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, British-born American astronomer who discovered that stars are made mainly of hydrogen and helium and established that stars could be classified according to their temperatures. Payne entered the University of Cambridge in 1919. A lecture by astronomer Sir Arthur Eddington

  • Payo Obispo (Mexico)

    Chetumal, city, capital of Quintana Roo estado (state), southeastern Mexico. It is situated in the eastern Yucatán Peninsula, just north of the Belizean border. Chetumal lies at the mouth of the Hondo River on the Bay of Chetumal (an extension of the Caribbean Sea), at an elevation of 20 feet (6

  • payoff (statistics)

    statistics: Decision analysis: …is referred to as the payoff.

  • payoff matrix (logic)

    game theory: Cooperative versus noncooperative games: …impossible to deduce one player’s payoff from the payoff of the other; consequently, both players’ payoffs must be given.) The first number in each entry is the payoff to the row player (player A), and the second number is the payoff to the column player (player B).

  • payola (bribe)

    disc jockey: …or gifts (commonly known as payola). This widespread practice of commercial bribery was given national exposure by a federal investigation in 1959. As a result, payola faded for a while, but in the mid-1980s new exposés revealed that the practice continued to exist in many quarters.

  • PayPal (American company)

    PayPal, American e-commerce company formed in March 2000 that specializes in Internet money transfers. It was heavily used by the Internet auction company eBay, which owned PayPal from 2002 to 2015. Paypal was the product of a merger between X.com and Confinity, and it allowed users to make

  • payroll tax (taxation)

    Payroll tax, levy imposed on wages and salaries. In contrast to income taxes, payroll taxes do not include income from capital sources such as dividends and interest. Taxes on payrolls are seldom used as a source of general revenues, although in some developing countries the income tax base may

  • pays (geography)

    geography: Geography’s early research agenda in Europe: …regions, or what he called pays—relatively small homogeneous areas—whose distinctive genres de vie (“modes of life”) resulted from the interactions of people with their physical milieux. Unlike some of his German contemporaries, notably Ratzel, he did not see those interactions as predominantly determined by the physical environment. Instead, he promoted…

  • pays d’élection (French history)

    France: Military and financial organization: …areas of central France, the pays d’élection, the provincial assemblies, ceded their right to approve taxation and disappeared altogether. But, in those provinces where the provincial Estates survived (the pays d’état), the right to vote the amount of royal taxation also survived. During the Italian wars, meetings of the Estates…

  • pays d’état (French history)

    history of Europe: Sovereigns and estates: …smaller assemblies of provinces (pays d’états) lately incorporated into the realm, such as Languedoc and Brittany. They met regularly and had a permanent staff for raising taxes on property. With respect to the other provinces (pays d’élection), the crown had enjoyed the crucial advantage of an annual tax since…

  • pays de droit écrit (French history)

    Germanic law: Rise of feudal and monarchial states: In the south, the so-called pays de droit écrit (“land of written law”), where Gallo-Romans had been far more numerous than Franks, the custom of each district was based mainly on the vulgar law of the Lex Romana Visigothorum. In Italy this law existed side by side with Lombard law.…

  • Pays de la Loire (region, France)

    Pays de la Loire, région of France encompassing the western départements of Mayenne, Sarthe, Maine-et-Loire, Vendée, and Loire-Atlantique. Pays de la Loire is bounded by the régions of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté to the northwest, Normandy to the north, Centre to the east, and Nouvelle-Aquitaine to the

  • Paysan parvenu, Le (work by Marivaux)

    Pierre Marivaux: Le Paysan parvenu (1734–35; “The Fortunate Peasant”) is the story of a handsome opportunistic young peasant who uses his attractiveness to older women to advance in the world. Both works concern struggles to arrive in society and reflect the author’s rejection of authority and religious…

  • Paysandú (Uruguay)

    Paysandú, city, western Uruguay, on the Uruguay River. The city was founded in 1772 by a priest, Policarpo Sandú, and 12 families of Christianized Indians, who translated the Spanish word padre (“father”) into the Guaraní Indian word pay, from which stems the name Paysandú. Now Uruguay’s third

  • paysannat system (agriculture)

    farm management: Democratic Republic of the Congo: A land-settlement plan, called the paysannat system, in which strips of cultivated land were alternated with bush and grassland, was introduced in the 1930s to increase production. This system, however, has disintegrated since independence due to the lack of management personnel and government extension services and disruption of marketing channels.…

  • Paysans du Nord pendant la Révolution française, Les (work by Lefebvre)

    Georges Lefebvre: Lefebvre’s major work, Les Paysans du Nord pendant la Révolution française (1924; “The Peasants of the North During the French Revolution”), was the result of 20 years of research into the role of the peasantry during the Revolution, during which time he supported himself as a secondary school…

  • Payson (Utah, United States)

    Payson, city, Utah county, northern Utah, U.S. Nestled in the foothills of the southern Wasatch Range, the city was founded as an agricultural colony in 1850 and was named after pioneer James Pace. A centre of grain and food-crop production, Payson later hosted several manufacturing plants

  • Payson, Elizabeth (American writer)

    Elizabeth Payson Prentiss, American writer of popular children’s books of a pious and homely character. Elizabeth Payson was the daughter of a well-known minister and revivalist. At age 19 she opened a short-lived school, but ill health made it difficult for her to establish herself. In 1845 she

  • payṭanim (Jewish poets)

    Hebrew literature: Piyyuṭim: The authors were called payṭanim (from Greek poiētēs, “poet”), their poems piyyuṭim. The keynote was messianic fervour and religious exuberance. Besides employing the entire biblical, Mishnaic, and Aramaic vocabularies, the payṭanim coined thousands of new words. Such poems, presupposing a highly educated audience, abound in recondite allusions and contain…

  • Payton, Gary (American basketball player)

    Gary Payton, American basketball player who is regarded as one of the most tenacious defenders in the history of the National Basketball Association (NBA). When Payton went into the NBA in 1990, he was part of a new generation of players: they were brash, flashy, unafraid to speak their minds, and

  • Payton, Gary Dwayne (American basketball player)

    Gary Payton, American basketball player who is regarded as one of the most tenacious defenders in the history of the National Basketball Association (NBA). When Payton went into the NBA in 1990, he was part of a new generation of players: they were brash, flashy, unafraid to speak their minds, and

  • Payton, John (American civil-rights lawyer)

    John Adolphus Payton, American civil rights lawyer (born Dec. 27, 1946, Los Angeles, Calif.—died March 22, 2012, Baltimore, Md.), won wide respect as a tireless advocate for equality as a lawyer in private practice and, from 2008, as president and director-counsel of the NAACP Legal Defense and

  • Payton, John Adolphus (American civil-rights lawyer)

    John Adolphus Payton, American civil rights lawyer (born Dec. 27, 1946, Los Angeles, Calif.—died March 22, 2012, Baltimore, Md.), won wide respect as a tireless advocate for equality as a lawyer in private practice and, from 2008, as president and director-counsel of the NAACP Legal Defense and

  • Payton, Lawrence (American singer)

    Lawrence Payton, American singer who for more than 40 years was a member of the Motown group the Four Tops, which sold over 50 million records and had almost 30 singles, including "Baby I Need Your Loving," and "Reach Out I’ll Be There," on the pop charts (b. 1938--d. June 20,

  • Payton, Sean (American football player and coach)

    New Orleans Saints: …record under first-year head coach Sean Payton. Featuring a potent offense led by quarterback Drew Brees, the Saints became national media darlings as they rebounded from the previous season’s adversity and defeated the Philadelphia Eagles in the postseason en route to their first NFC championship game, which they lost to…

  • Payton, Walter (American football player)

    Walter Payton, American professional gridiron football player whose productivity and durability made him one of the game’s greatest running backs. He retired in 1987 as the leading rusher in the history of the National Football League (NFL), a title he held until 2002, when he was surpassed by

  • Payton, Walter Jerry (American football player)

    Walter Payton, American professional gridiron football player whose productivity and durability made him one of the game’s greatest running backs. He retired in 1987 as the leading rusher in the history of the National Football League (NFL), a title he held until 2002, when he was surpassed by

  • Payton, Walter Jerry (American football player)

    Walter Payton, American professional gridiron football player whose productivity and durability made him one of the game’s greatest running backs. He retired in 1987 as the leading rusher in the history of the National Football League (NFL), a title he held until 2002, when he was surpassed by

  • payusnaya caviar (food)

    caviar: This payusnaya caviar is preferred by some because of its more intense flavour. The red roe of salmon and that of other fishes is sometimes sold under the name caviar. The roes of whitefish and lumpfish are dyed black with cuttlefish ink to resemble sturgeon eggs.

  • paz (Slavic religion)

    Slavic religion: Folk conceptions: These forms are: bog (“god”); sporysh, anciently an edible herb, today a stalk of grain with two ears, a symbol of abundance; ray (“paradise”); and dobro (“the good”). The word bog is an Indo-Iranian word signifying riches, abundance, and good fortune. Sporysh symbolizes the same concept. In Iranian…

  • Paz Estenssoro, Víctor (president of Bolivia)

    Víctor Paz Estenssoro, Bolivian statesman, founder and principal leader of the left-wing Bolivian political party National Revolutionary Movement (MNR), who served three times as president of Bolivia (1952–56, 1960–64, 1985–89). Paz Estenssoro began his career as professor of economics at the

  • Paz García, Policarpo (Honduran politician)

    Policarpo Paz García, Honduran politician and military leader (born Dec. 7, 1932, Goascorán, Honduras—died April 16, 2000, Tegucigalpa, Honduras), was the last military ruler of Honduras. As an infantry officer, Paz distinguished himself in his country’s so-called Soccer War (a conflict touched o

  • Paz, Manuel de Godoy, Prince de la (prime minister of Spain)

    Manuel de Godoy, Spanish royal favourite and twice prime minister, whose disastrous foreign policy contributed to a series of misfortunes and defeats that culminated in the abdication of King Charles IV and the occupation of Spain by the armies of Napoleon Bonaparte. Born into an old but poor noble

  • Paz, Octavio (Mexican writer and diplomat)

    Octavio Paz, Mexican poet, writer, and diplomat, recognized as one of the major Latin American writers of the 20th century. He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1990. (See Nobel Lecture: “In Search of the Present.”) Paz’s family was ruined financially by the Mexican Civil War, and he grew

  • Pazardjik (Bulgaria)

    Pazardzhik, town, west-central Bulgaria. It lies along the upper Maritsa River, between the Rhodope Mountains to the south and the Sredna Mountains to the north. It is a rail junction and an industrial centre, specializing in textiles, rubber, furniture, engineering, and the processing of

  • Pazardzhik (Bulgaria)

    Pazardzhik, town, west-central Bulgaria. It lies along the upper Maritsa River, between the Rhodope Mountains to the south and the Sredna Mountains to the north. It is a rail junction and an industrial centre, specializing in textiles, rubber, furniture, engineering, and the processing of

  • Pazardžik (Bulgaria)

    Pazardzhik, town, west-central Bulgaria. It lies along the upper Maritsa River, between the Rhodope Mountains to the south and the Sredna Mountains to the north. It is a rail junction and an industrial centre, specializing in textiles, rubber, furniture, engineering, and the processing of

  • Pazhou Complex (convention complex, Guangzhou, China)

    Guangzhou: Other districts: …the first phase of the Guangzhou International Convention and Exhibition Center (Pazhou Complex) on Pazhou Island in the Pearl River. One of the largest such venues in the world, it hosts Guangzhou’s major trade shows (including the Guangzhou Trade Fair) and has spurred rapid development of Haizhu’s commerce and tourism-related…

  • Pázmány, Péter (Hungarian cardinal)

    Hungarian literature: Effects of the Counter-Reformation: A Jesuit cardinal, Péter Pázmány, a master of Hungarian prose, was outstanding as an orator and essayist. His writing was characterized by a vigorous and clear, though far from simple, style, use of popular expressions, and solid argument. His Isteni igazságra vezérlő kalauz (1613; “Guide to Divine Truth”)…

  • Pazos de Ulloa, Los (novel by Pardo Bazán)

    Emilia, condesa de Pardo Bazán: …and most representative novels are The House of Ulloa (originally in Spanish, Los pazos de Ulloa, 1886) and its sequel, La madre naturaleza (1887; “Mother Nature”)—studies of physical and moral ruin among the Galician squirearchy, set against a beautiful natural background and a moral background of corrupting power. Insolación (“Sunstroke”)…

  • Pazyryk (archaeological site, Kazakhstan)

    Pazyryk, Scythian burial site in a dry valley opening on the Bolshoy Ulagan River valley in Kazakhstan. The site, which consists of five large and nine smaller burial mounds and dates from about the 5th to the 3rd century bc, was excavated in 1929 and 1947–49. It is perhaps the richest source of

  • Pazzi Chapel (chapel, Florence, Italy)

    Desiderio da Settignano: …the tondi for Filippo Brunelleschi’s Pazzi Chapel in Florence sometime after 1451 and completed the marble Altar of the Sacrament in San Lorenzo, Florence (1461), which is considered to be one of the decorative masterpieces of the 15th century.

  • Pazzi conspiracy (Italian history)

    Pazzi conspiracy, (April 26, 1478), unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence; the most dramatic of all political opposition to the Medici family. The conspiracy was led by the rival Pazzi family of Florence. In league with the Pazzi were Pope Sixtus IV and his nephew Girolamo

  • Pazzi family (Italian family)

    Filippo Brunelleschi: Architectural career: …and influential Florentine family, the Pazzi, commissioned Brunelleschi to design a chapel adjacent to the monastic Church of Santa Croce that was intended to be a chapter house (a place of assembly for monks to conduct business). Work probably did not begin before 1442; the building still was not complete…

  • Pazzi, Roberto (Italian author)

    Italian literature: Fiction at the turn of the 21st century: Conscientiously constructed are Roberto Pazzi’s pseudo-historical novels Cercando l’imperatore (1985; Searching for the Emperor) and La principessa e il drago (1986; The Princess and the Dragon).

  • Pazzi, War of the (Italian history)

    Italy: Florence: Yet the “War of the Pazzi” (1478–80) that followed, with Florence pitted against a papacy allied to Naples, proved dangerous and expensive, and Lorenzo emerged from it only with great difficulty.

  • Pb (chemical element)

    Lead (Pb), a soft, silvery white or grayish metal in Group 14 (IVa) of the periodic table. Lead is very malleable, ductile, and dense and is a poor conductor of electricity. Known in antiquity and believed by the alchemists to be the oldest of metals, lead is highly durable and resistant to

  • PB pipe (technology)

    polybutylene terephthalate: Pipe made with PBT (so-called polybutylene pipe, or PB pipe) was formerly popular for residential plumbing as a low-cost and easily handled substitute for copper, but it was found to degrade after prolonged contact with oxidizing chemicals such as chlorine in municipal water supplies, so it is no longer used.…

  • PBA (American sports organization)

    Don Carter: …and first president of the Professional Bowlers Association (PBA; founded in 1958). He began bowling as a boy while working as a pinsetter. He built his own lane in the basement of the family home, and in 1953 he joined the St. Louis Budweiser team. Carter was bowler of the…

  • PBDE (chemical compound)

    biomonitoring: Studies and surveillance programs: …that human milk levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), chemicals used as flame retardants in many consumer products, had doubled every five years. Other studies detected these chemicals in breast milk from women in Japan, Germany, the United States, and Canada, as well as in killer whales and polar bears…

  • PBI (chemical compound)

    Carl Shipp Marvel: …during the 1960s, Marvel synthesized polybenzimidazoles (PBIs), a type of polyimide that is resistant to temperatures as high as 600 °C (1,100 °F) and is used in suits for astronauts and firefighters. In 1980 PBIs became the first man-made fibres to be produced commercially in almost a decade. Marvel continued…

  • PBI test (medicine)

    Protein-bound iodine test, laboratory test that indirectly assesses thyroid function by measuring the concentration of iodine bound to proteins circulating in the bloodstream. Thyroid hormones are formed by the addition of iodine to the amino acid tyrosine and are normally transported in the

  • PBIB design (mathematics)

    combinatorics: PBIB (partially balanced incomplete block) designs: Given υ objects 1, 2, · · ·, υ, a relation satisfying the following conditions is said to be an m-class partially balanced association scheme:

  • PBL (atmospheric science)

    Planetary boundary layer (PBL), the region of the lower troposphere where Earth’s surface strongly influences temperature, moisture, and wind through the turbulent transfer of air mass. As a result of surface friction, winds in the PBL are usually weaker than above and tend to blow toward areas of

  • PBOC (bank, China)

    China: Finance: …and financial control are the People’s Bank of China and the Ministry of Finance, both subject to the authority of the State Council. The People’s Bank, which replaced the Central Bank of China in 1950 and gradually took over private banks, fulfills many of the functions of Western central and…

  • PBP (biochemistry)

    MRSA: Mechanisms of resistance: This gene encodes a unique penicillin-binding protein (PBP) that binds methicillin and thereby promotes bacterial survival by preventing the antibiotic from inhibiting cell wall synthesis. Numerous variants of MRSA have evolved, including two strains of epidemic MRSA (EMRSA), which first appeared in the early 1990s—their emergence corresponding to the dramatic…

  • PBS (American organization)

    Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), private, nonprofit American corporation whose members are the public television stations of the United States and its unincorporated territories. PBS provides its member stations with programming in cultural, educational, and scientific areas, in children’s fare,

  • PBS Newshour (American television program)

    Public Broadcasting Service: …MacNeil and Jim Lehrer; now PBS NewsHour), Live from Lincoln Center (begun 1976), Live from the Metropolitan Opera (later titled The Metropolitan Opera Presents; 1977–2006), This Old House (begun 1979), Mystery! (begun 1980; later subsumed into Masterpiece), Nature (begun 1982), American Playhouse (1982–93), Frontline (begun 1983), The Frugal Gourmet (1983–95;…

  • PBT (chemical compound)

    Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), a strong and highly crystalline synthetic resin, produced by the polymerization of butanediol and terephthalic acid. PBT is similar in structure to polyethylene terephthalate (PET)—the difference being in the number of methylene (CH2) groups present in the

  • PC (logic)

    Propositional calculus, in logic, symbolic system of treating compound and complex propositions and their logical relationships. As opposed to the predicate calculus, the propositional calculus employs simple, unanalyzed propositions rather than terms or noun expressions as its atomic units; and, a

  • PC (society)

    Political correctness (PC), term used to refer to language that seems intended to give the least amount of offense, especially when describing groups identified by external markers such as race, gender, culture, or sexual orientation. The concept has been discussed, disputed, criticized, and

  • PC (chemical compound)

    Polycarbonate (PC), a tough, transparent synthetic resin employed in safety glass, eyeglass lenses, and compact discs, among other applications. PC is a special type of polyester used as an engineering plastic owing to its exceptional impact resistance, tensile strength, ductility, dimensional

  • PC (technology)

    Personal computer (PC), a digital computer designed for use by only one person at a time. A typical personal computer assemblage consists of a central processing unit (CPU), which contains the computer’s arithmetic, logic, and control circuitry on an integrated circuit; two types of computer

  • PC’s Limited (American company)

    Dell Inc., global company that designs, develops, and manufactures personal computers (PCs) and a variety of computer-related products. The company is one of the world’s leading suppliers of PCs. Dell is headquartered in Round Rock, Texas. The company, first named PC’s Limited, was founded in 1984

  • PC(USA) (church, United States)

    Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), U.S. Protestant denomination formed on June 10, 1983, in the merger of the United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. (headquartered in New York City) and the Presbyterian Church in the United States (headquartered in Atlanta). The merger ended a North-South split among

  • PC, IBM (computer line)

    personal computer: IBM PC: IBM Corporation, the world’s dominant computer maker, did not enter the new market until 1981, when it introduced the IBM Personal Computer, or IBM PC. The IBM PC was significantly faster than rival machines, had about 10 times their memory capacity, and was…

  • PCA (evangelical church)

    Presbyterian Church in America (PCA), theologically conservative U.S. evangelical Presbyterian denomination founded in 1973. In the first quarter of the 21st century, the denomination claimed more than 340,000 members and 1,400 churches, making it the second largest Presbyterian denomination in the

  • PCA (chess organization)

    chess: The world championship and FIDE: …of a new organization, the Professional Chess Association (PCA). Before Kasparov defeated Short in London in late 1993 in the first PCA championship, FIDE disqualified Kasparov and organized its own world championship match, won by Karpov.

  • PCB (chemical compound)

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), any of a class of organohalogen compounds prepared by the reaction of chlorine with biphenyl. A typical mixture of PCBs may contain over 100 compounds and is a colourless, viscous liquid. The mixture is relatively insoluble in water, is stable at high temperatures,

  • PCC (political party, Colombia)

    FARC: …the military wing of the Colombian Communist Party (Partido Comunista de Colombia; PCC), the FARC is the largest of Colombia’s rebel groups, estimated to possess some 10,000 armed soldiers and thousands of supporters, largely drawn from Colombia’s rural areas. The FARC supports a redistribution of wealth from the wealthy to…

  • PCC (political party, Cuba)

    Communist Party of Cuba, Cuban communist party organized by Fidel Castro and others in 1965 but historically dating from communist activity begun in Cuba in 1923. Under the constitution of 1976 it became the only party permitted to function in Cuba, and in the revised constitution of 1992 it was

  • PCC (chemical compound)

    aldehyde: Synthesis of aldehydes: …have been used, most notably pyridinium chlorochromate, PCC.

  • PCE (political party, Spain)

    Communist Party of Spain (PCE), Spanish political party founded in 1921 by dissident members of the Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party (PSOE). In April 1920 youth members of the PSOE split from the party, and the following year the PCE was formed when these former socialists united with the Spanish

  • PCEC (vaccine)

    rabies: …human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV), purified chick embryo cell culture (PCEC), and rabies vaccine adsorbed (RVA). With older vaccines, at least 16 injections were required, whereas with HDCV, PCEC, or RVA, 5 are usually sufficient. Persons at risk of rabies by virtue of occupation (e.g., veterinarians) or travel to endemic…

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