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  • Paule, Antoine de (Grand Master of the Hospitallers)

    Paola: …the Hospitallers (Knights of Malta), Antoine de Paule, and it remained a small village until the late 19th century, when it grew rapidly as a residential district for workers from the adjacent Grand Harbour dockyards. It has a well-preserved Neolithic temple and the Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum (catacombs), discovered in 1902…

  • Paulescu, Nicolae C. (Romanian physiologist)

    Nicolas C. Paulescu, Romanian physiologist who conducted groundbreaking research on the antidiabetic hormone insulin and whose anti-Semitic writings contributed to the rise of the fascist Iron Guard movement (1930–41). As a young student, Paulescu developed an interest in the arts and in the

  • Paulescu, Nicolas C. (Romanian physiologist)

    Nicolas C. Paulescu, Romanian physiologist who conducted groundbreaking research on the antidiabetic hormone insulin and whose anti-Semitic writings contributed to the rise of the fascist Iron Guard movement (1930–41). As a young student, Paulescu developed an interest in the arts and in the

  • Paulescu, Nicolas Constantin (Romanian physiologist)

    Nicolas C. Paulescu, Romanian physiologist who conducted groundbreaking research on the antidiabetic hormone insulin and whose anti-Semitic writings contributed to the rise of the fascist Iron Guard movement (1930–41). As a young student, Paulescu developed an interest in the arts and in the

  • Paulet, Charles (French financier)

    Parlement: …new tax devised by financier Charles Paulet, was established, enabling officeholders to ensure the hereditability of their offices by paying one-sixtieth of its purchase price every year. However, the office of premier president, the head of Parlement, could be acquired only by a nominee of the crown.

  • paulette (French history)

    Paulette, in pre-Revolutionary France, royal edict of 1604 that resulted in making offices hereditary, a step in the creation of a permanent class of judicial magistrates, the noblesse de robe. The edict provided that, for an annual payment to the crown of one-sixtieth of an office’s value, that

  • Pauli exclusion principle (physics)

    Pauli exclusion principle, assertion that no two electrons in an atom can be at the same time in the same state or configuration, proposed (1925) by the Austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli to account for the observed patterns of light emission from atoms. The exclusion principle subsequently has been

  • Pauli, Wolfgang (American physicist)

    Wolfgang Pauli, Austrian-born physicist and recipient of the 1945 Nobel Prize for Physics for his discovery in 1925 of the Pauli exclusion principle, which states that in an atom no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state simultaneously. Pauli made major contributions to quantum mechanics,

  • Paulicéia Desvairada (work by Andrade)

    Mário de Andrade: …from his Paulicéia Desvairada (1922; Hallucinated City), was greeted by catcalls, but it has since been recognized as the single most significant influence on modern Brazilian poetry.

  • Paulicians (religious sect)

    Paulician, member of a dualistic Christian sect that originated in Armenia in the mid-7th century. It was influenced most directly by the dualism of Marcionism, a Gnostic movement in early Christianity, and of Manichaeism, a Gnostic religion founded in the 3rd century by the Persian prophet Mani.

  • Pauline benediction (Christianity)

    benediction: …Christian churches, however, prefer the Pauline benediction (II Cor. 13:14).

  • Pauline Chapel (chapel, Vatican City, Europe)
  • Pauline Hanson’s One Nation (political party, Australia)

    Australia: The advent of multicultural society: …the formation of the anti-immigrant One Nation Party in the late 1990s. Although the party’s success was limited, its position resonated with some Australian voters.

  • Pauline letters (biblical literature)

    biblical literature: The Pauline Letters: In the New Testament canon of 27 books, 21 are called “letters,” and even the Revelation to John starts and ends in letter form. Of the 21, 13 belong to the Pauline corpus; the Letter to the Hebrews is included…

  • Pauline: A Fragment of a Confession (work by Browning)

    Robert Browning: Life.: Browning’s first published work, Pauline: A Fragment of a Confession (1833, anonymous), although formally a dramatic monologue, embodied many of his own adolescent passions and anxieties. Although it received some favourable comment, it was attacked by John Stuart Mill, who condemned the poet’s exposure and exploitation of his own…

  • Pauling, Linus (American scientist)

    Linus Pauling, American theoretical physical chemist who became the only person to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes. His first prize (1954) was awarded for research into the nature of the chemical bond and its use in elucidating molecular structure; the second (1962) recognized his efforts to ban

  • Pauling, Linus Carl (American scientist)

    Linus Pauling, American theoretical physical chemist who became the only person to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes. His first prize (1954) was awarded for research into the nature of the chemical bond and its use in elucidating molecular structure; the second (1962) recognized his efforts to ban

  • Pauling-Corey rules

    chemical bonding: The hydrogen bond: …a set of rules, the Pauling-Corey rules, for its implementation. The implication of these rules is the existence of two types of structure for a polypeptide, which is either a helical form (the α helix) or a pleated sheet form (the β-pleated sheet). All polypeptides have one structure or the…

  • Pauliniidae (insect)
  • Paulinus (bishop of Antioch)

    St. Jerome: Life: …to the party of Bishop Paulinus, who was opposed by St. Basil, the great orthodox bishop of Caesarea and one of the three Cappadocian Fathers—the others being St. Gregory of Nazianzus and St. Gregory of Nyssa. Recognizing his importance—since Jerome was by now known as a scholar and a monastic…

  • Paulinus of Nola, Saint (Roman Catholic saint)

    Saint Paulinus of Nola, ; feast day June 22), bishop of Nola and one of the most important Christian Latin poets of his time. Paulinus became successively a Roman senator, consul, and governor of Campania, a region of southern Italy. Returning to Aquitaine he married and in 389 retired with his

  • Paulinus, Meropius Pontius Anicius (Roman Catholic saint)

    Saint Paulinus of Nola, ; feast day June 22), bishop of Nola and one of the most important Christian Latin poets of his time. Paulinus became successively a Roman senator, consul, and governor of Campania, a region of southern Italy. Returning to Aquitaine he married and in 389 retired with his

  • Paulinus, Saint (English bishop)

    Saint Paulinus, ; feast day October 10), Italian missionary who converted Northumbria to Christianity, became the first bishop of York, and was later made archbishop of Rochester. In 601 Paulinus was sent with St. Mellitus (later first bishop of London) and St. Justus (later first bishop of

  • Paulist Fathers (Roman Catholic religious order)

    Isaac Thomas Hecker: …Catholic priest who founded the Paulist Fathers, a diocesan organization for missionary work in New York.

  • Paulista, Avenida (avenue, São Paulo, Brazil)

    São Paulo: West of the centre: …is the wide expanse of Avenida Paulista, the throbbing centre of São Paulo’s financial life, interspersed with pricey boutiques, restaurants, and nightclubs. The avenue was once an opulent row of coffee barons’ and industrial magnates’ mansions, each standing back from the street in a private manicured park. Running south-southeast from…

  • Paulistas (people)

    Paulistas, residents of the Brazilian state of São Paulo, Latin America’s foremost industrial centre. Paulistas are credited with exploring much of Brazil’s interior during the colonial years, helping the country extend its borders in the process. In the 16th–17th century bandeiras, expeditions in

  • Paullinia (plant genus)

    Sapindales: Distribution and abundance: …diversity in southeastern Brazil, and Paullinia (195 species) in the American tropics and subtropics. Both are lianas or vines. Allophylus is a tropical and subtropical genus of shrubs and trees, with anywhere from 1 to 200 species recognized by some botanists.

  • Paullinia cupana (plant)

    Guarana, (Paullinia cupana), woody, climbing plant, of the soapberry family (Sapindaceae), native to the Amazon Basin. It has a smooth, erect stem; large leaves with five oblong-oval leaflets; clusters of short-stalked flowers; and fruit about the size of a grape and usually containing one seed

  • Paullus (play by Pacuvius)

    Marcus Pacuvius: …from one Roman national drama, Paullus (celebrating the victory of Lucius Aemilius Paullus over Perseus of Macedonia in 168 bc), the 12 plays that he translated and adapted from original plays by Sophocles and other Greeks may represent his entire output.

  • Paullus Macedonicus, Lucius Aemilius (Roman general)

    Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus, Roman general whose victory over the Macedonians at Pydna ended the Third Macedonian War (171–168 bc). Paullus’s father, a consul of the same name, had been killed fighting the Carthaginians at Cannae in 216. Praetor in 191 and consul in 182, Paullus campaigned

  • Paulo Afonso (Brazil)

    Paulo Afonso, city, northeastern Bahia estado (state), northeastern Brazil. It lies on the São Francisco River at the site of the Paulo Afonso Falls, where an important hydroelectric facility is located. Made the seat of a municipality in 1958, Paulo Afonso is the transportation and commercial

  • Paulo Afonso Falls (waterfalls, Brazil)

    Paulo Afonso Falls, series of rapids and three cataracts in northeastern Brazil on the São Francisco River along the Bahia-Alagoas estado (state) border. Lying 190 miles (305 km) from the river’s mouth, the falls have a total height of 275 feet (84 m) and a width of less than 60 feet (18 m). Water

  • Paulos (Ethiopian cleric)

    Paulos, (Gebre Medhin Wolde Yohannes), Ethiopian cleric (born Nov. 3, 1935, Adwa, Tigray province, Eth.—died Aug. 16, 2012, Addis Ababa, Eth.), was from 1992 the patriarch of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, which in 2012 had some 40 million adherents, mainly within Ethiopia. He was educated

  • Paulownia Sun, Order of the (Japanese order of merit)

    Order of the Paulownia Sun, exclusive Japanese order, founded in 1888 by Emperor Meiji and awarded for outstanding civil or military merit. The order, awarded to males only, is seldom bestowed on anyone below the rank of admiral, general, or ambassador. Actually, this order, consisting of one

  • Pauls Valley (Oklahoma, United States)

    Pauls Valley, city, seat (1907) of Garvin county, south-central Oklahoma, U.S. The area, on the Washita River, was first settled by white North Carolinian Smith Paul, who arrived with a group of relocated Chickasaw Indians in 1837. He began to cultivate the fertile bottomland in 1857, and when the

  • Paulsen, Axel (Norwegian athlete)

    figure skating: Pioneers of the sport: …sport of figure skating are Axel Paulsen, Ulrich Salchow, and Alois Lutz. Each man created a jump that is now named after him. Paulsen, a Norwegian equally expert in figure and speed skating, introduced his jump in Vienna in 1882 at what is generally regarded as the first international championship.…

  • Paulsen, Johannes (German philosopher)

    Kantianism: Metaphysical Neo-Kantianism: The influential spiritual moralist Friedrich Paulsen defended the claim that Kant had always behaved as a metaphysician, even in the Critique of Pure Reason, in spite of the epistemological restrictions that he imposed upon himself—a claim that made an impact that was felt throughout the following century.

  • Paulsen, Pat (American comedian)

    Pat Paulsen, American comedian whose doleful countenance was introduced to the public on "The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour," from which in 1968 he launched the first of his five tongue-in-cheek campaigns for the presidency of the U.S. (b. July 6, 1927--d. April 24, 1

  • Paulsen, Patrick L. (American comedian)

    Pat Paulsen, American comedian whose doleful countenance was introduced to the public on "The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour," from which in 1968 he launched the first of his five tongue-in-cheek campaigns for the presidency of the U.S. (b. July 6, 1927--d. April 24, 1

  • Paulson Institute (American think tank)

    Henry Paulson: In 2011 he founded the Paulson Institute, a think tank.

  • Paulson, Allen (American businessman)

    Allen Paulson, American racehorse owner and businessman (born April 22, 1922, Clinton, Iowa—died July 19, 2000, La Jolla, Calif.), owned a number of highly successful racehorses, most notably Cigar, which in 1996 tied legendary racehorse Citation’s record of 16 victories in a row. Trained as an a

  • Paulson, Hank (United States official)

    Henry Paulson, American business executive who served as secretary of the U.S. Department of the Treasury (2006–09). As Treasury secretary, Paulson was a member of the board of governors of the International Monetary Fund. Paulson had previously served as chairman and chief executive officer (CEO)

  • Paulson, Henry (United States official)

    Henry Paulson, American business executive who served as secretary of the U.S. Department of the Treasury (2006–09). As Treasury secretary, Paulson was a member of the board of governors of the International Monetary Fund. Paulson had previously served as chairman and chief executive officer (CEO)

  • Paulson, Henry Merritt, Jr. (United States official)

    Henry Paulson, American business executive who served as secretary of the U.S. Department of the Treasury (2006–09). As Treasury secretary, Paulson was a member of the board of governors of the International Monetary Fund. Paulson had previously served as chairman and chief executive officer (CEO)

  • Paulus Aegineta (Greek physician)

    Paul of Aegina, Alexandrian physician and surgeon, the last major ancient Greek medical encyclopaedist, who wrote the Epitomēs iatrikēs biblio hepta, better known by its Latin title, Epitomae medicae libri septem (“Medical Compendium in Seven Books”), containing nearly everything known about the

  • Paulus Diaconus (Italian historian)

    Paul The Deacon, Lombard historian and poet, whose Historia Langobardorum (“History of the Lombards”) is the principal source on his people. Born to a rich and noble family of Friuli, northeast of Venice, Paul spent many years at the Lombard court in Pavia, serving as councillor under King D

  • Paulus Macedonicus, Lucius Aemilius (Roman general)

    Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus, Roman general whose victory over the Macedonians at Pydna ended the Third Macedonian War (171–168 bc). Paullus’s father, a consul of the same name, had been killed fighting the Carthaginians at Cannae in 216. Praetor in 191 and consul in 182, Paullus campaigned

  • Paulus Venetus (Italian philosopher)

    Paul Of Venice, Italian Augustinian philosopher and theologian who gained recognition as an educator and author of works on logic. Paul studied at the universities of Oxford and Padua, where he also lectured (1408–15), and became Venetian ambassador to Poland (1413), but difficulties with the

  • Paulus, der Apostel Jesu Christi (work by Baur)

    Ferdinand Christian Baur: …der Apostel Jesu Christi (1845; Paul, the Apostle of Jesus Christ), Baur applied the same principles to the life and thought of the apostle Paul and concluded that Paul did not write all of the letters then attributed to him. Baur considered only the letters to the Galatians, Corinthians, and…

  • Paulus, Friedrich (German military officer)

    Friedrich Paulus, German field marshal whose advance on Stalingrad (now Volgograd, Russia) in the summer and fall of 1942 represented the high-water mark of Nazi military expansion. Cut off by a Soviet counteroffensive and denied the option of retreat by German leader Adolf Hitler, Paulus was

  • Pauly, August von (German classical philologist)

    encyclopaedia: Other topics: August von Pauly (1796–1845), the German Classical philologist, began issuing his Real-Encyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (“Encyclopaedia of Classical Antiquities”) in 1837. The new edition was begun by another German Classical philologist, Georg Wissowa, in 1893. This enormous work on Classical studies has no equal in…

  • Pauly, Jean-Samuel (Swiss inventor)

    Nikolaus von Dreyse: …the Parisian gun factory of Jean-Samuel Pauly, a Swiss who designed several experimental breech-loading military rifles. Returning to Sömmerda, he in 1824 founded a company to manufacture percussion caps. There he designed a series of “needle-firing guns,” rifles in which a needlelike pin pierced a percussion cap in the centre…

  • Paumann, Conrad (German musician)

    Western music: Instrumental music: …as the Buxheimer Orgelbuch and Conrad Paumann’s Fundamentum organisandi (Fundamentals of Organ Playing). The compositions in both collections are of two basic types, arrangements of vocal works and keyboard pieces entitled Praeambulum (Prelude).

  • Paumgärtner Altarpiece (painting by Dürer)

    Western painting: Germany: In “The Paumgärtner Altarpiece” of 1502–04 (Alte Pinakothek, Munich), for example, the saints in the wings are depicted with the scrolls and a complexity of composition more reminiscent of a heraldic achievement, while the broad planes of the architecture and the large, simple figures of the…

  • Paumotu (islands, French Polynesia)

    Tuamotu Archipelago, island group of French Polynesia, central South Pacific Ocean. The archipelago comprises 75 atolls, one raised coral atoll (Makatea), and innumerable coral reefs, roughly dispersed northwest-southeast as a double chain for more than 900 miles (1,450 km). It is the largest group

  • paunch (anatomy)

    cow: Natural history: Inside the rumen, the largest chamber of the stomach, bacteria and other microorganisms digest tough plant fibres (cellulose). To aid in this process, cows regurgitate and re-chew food multiple times before it passes on to the rest of the digestive system via the other stomach chambers. This…

  • Paura della libertà (work by Levi)

    Carlo Levi: His Paura della libertà (1946; Of Fear and Freedom) proclaims the necessity of intellectual freedom despite an inherent human dread of it. L’orologio (1950; The Watch) deals with a postwar cabinet crisis in Rome; Le parole sono pietre (1955; Words Are Stones) is a study of Sicily; and La doppia…

  • paurāṇika (Indian storyteller)

    Hinduism: Vernacular literatures: …with their mythological heritage by pauranikas, tellers of the ancient stories and heirs of the sutas of 3,000 years ago, and no festival ground is complete without tents where the religious are reminded of their myths by pious speakers, modestly compensated by fees but richly rewarded by the honour in…

  • pauraque (bird)

    Pauraque, (Nyctidromus albicollis), nocturnal bird of brushlands from southern Texas to northern Argentina. It is a relative of the nightjar (q.v.), belonging to the family Caprimulgidae. The pauraque is about 30 cm (about 12 inches) long, with rounded wings and a longish tail. It is mottled brown

  • pauropod (arthropod class)

    Pauropod, any member of the class Pauropoda (phylum Arthropoda), a group of small, terrestrial invertebrates that superficially resemble tiny centipedes or millipedes. The approximately 380 known species are found worldwide under dead leaves, stones, and rotten wood. They feed chiefly on fungi and

  • Pauropoda (arthropod class)

    Pauropod, any member of the class Pauropoda (phylum Arthropoda), a group of small, terrestrial invertebrates that superficially resemble tiny centipedes or millipedes. The approximately 380 known species are found worldwide under dead leaves, stones, and rotten wood. They feed chiefly on fungi and

  • Pausanias (Greek military officer)

    Pausanias, Spartan commander during the Greco-Persian Wars who was accused of treasonous dealings with the enemy. A member of the Agiad royal family, Pausanias was the son of King Cleombrotus I and nephew of King Leonidas. He became regent for Leonidas’ son after the father was killed at

  • Pausanias (Greek geographer)

    Pausanias, Greek traveler and geographer whose Periegesis Hellados (Description of Greece) is an invaluable guide to ancient ruins. Before visiting Greece, Pausanias had traveled widely in Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Macedonia, Epirus (now in Greece and Albania), and parts of Italy. His

  • Pausanias (Macedonian noble)

    Philip II: Last years: There Philip was assassinated by Pausanias, a young Macedonian noble with a bitter grievance against the young queen’s uncle Attalus and against Philip for denying him justice. This was the official explanation, and Pausanias himself could add nothing to it; he was killed on the spot. Suspicion fell on Olympias…

  • Pausch, Randolph Frederick (American computer scientist)

    Randy Pausch, (Randolph Frederick Pausch), American computer scientist and personality (born Oct. 23, 1960, Baltimore, Md.—died July 25, 2008, Chesapeake, Va.), delivered (in September 2007) at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, his celebrated “Last Lecture,” an inspirational and uplifting

  • Pausch, Randy (American computer scientist)

    Randy Pausch, (Randolph Frederick Pausch), American computer scientist and personality (born Oct. 23, 1960, Baltimore, Md.—died July 25, 2008, Chesapeake, Va.), delivered (in September 2007) at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, his celebrated “Last Lecture,” an inspirational and uplifting

  • Pausias (Greek painter)

    encaustic painting: …perfection by the genre painter Pausias in the 4th century bce.

  • Pausilippo Tunnel (ancient tunnel, Italy)

    tunnels and underground excavations: Ancient tunnels: …25-foot-wide, 30-foot-high road tunnel (the Pausilippo) between Naples and Pozzuoli, executed in 36 bc. By that time surveying methods (commonly by string line and plumb bobs) had been introduced, and tunnels were advanced from a succession of closely spaced shafts to provide ventilation. To save the need for a lining,…

  • Paustovsky, Konstantin Georgiyevich (Soviet writer)

    Konstantin Georgiyevich Paustovsky, Soviet fiction writer best known for his short stories, which carried the pre-Revolutionary romantic tradition into the Soviet period. A descendant of Ukrainian Cossacks, Paustovsky attended school in Kiev, St. Petersburg, and Odessa. Before he began to write, he

  • Pautalia (Bulgaria)

    Kyustendil, town, southwestern Bulgaria. It lies on the margin of a small alluvial basin in the Struma River valley at the foot of the Osogov Mountains. It was known in Roman times as Pautalia, or Ulpia Pautalia. Located on the site of a Thracian fortified settlement, it became an important town

  • Pautre, Antoine Le (French architect)

    Antoine Le Pautre, French Baroque architect. Born into a family of architects and decorators, Le Pautre was appointed architect to the king’s buildings in 1644. He then designed the Chapelle de Port-Royal (begun 1646), an austere building that suited Jansenist sobriety. He was commissioned in 1654

  • Pauvre Christ de Bomba, Le (work by Beti)

    Mongo Beti: …Pauvre Christ de Bomba (1956; The Poor Christ of Bomba), satirizes the destructive influence of French Catholic missionary activities in Cameroon. It was followed by Mission terminée (1957; also published as Mission to Kala and Mission Accomplished), which attacks French colonial policy through a young man who, upon returning to…

  • pavane (dance)

    Pavane, (probably from Italian padovana, “Paduan”), majestic processional dance of the 16th- and 17th-century European aristocracy. Until about 1650 the pavane opened ceremonial balls and was used as a display of elegant dress. Adapted from the basse danse, an earlier court dance, the pavane

  • pavarana (Buddhist ceremony)

    vassa: Vassa concludes with the pavarana ceremony, in which every monk, irrespective of rank or seniority, agrees willingly to receive instruction from any other monk in the monastery if he acts improperly. The lively kathina (“cloth”) ceremony, in which groups of laymen present gifts to the monks, takes place during…

  • Pavarotti (film by Howard [2019])

    Ron Howard: the band’s 250 concerts, while Pavarotti (2019) chronicles the life and career of the prolific opera singer.

  • Pavarotti, Luciano (Italian opera singer)

    Luciano Pavarotti, Italian operatic lyric tenor who was considered one of the finest bel canto opera singers of the 20th century. Even in the highest register, his voice was noted for its purity of tone, and his concerts, recordings, and television appearances—which provided him ample opportunity

  • Pave Paws radar

    radar: Ballistic missile defense and satellite-surveillance radars: The Pave Paws radar (AN/FPS-115) is an ultrahigh-frequency (UHF; 420–450 MHz) phased-array system for detecting submarine-launched ballistic missiles. It is supposed to detect targets with a radar cross section of 10 square metres at a range of 3,000 nautical miles (5,600 km). The array antenna contains…

  • Pavel Petrovich (emperor of Russia)

    Paul, emperor of Russia from 1796 to 1801. Son of Peter III (reigned 1762) and Catherine the Great (reigned 1762–96), Paul was reared by his father’s aunt, the empress Elizabeth (reigned 1741–61). After 1760 he was tutored by Catherine’s close adviser, the learned diplomat Nikita Ivanovich Panin,

  • Pavel, Josef (Czech statesman)

    Czechoslovak history: The Prague Spring of 1968: …control of another purge victim, Josef Pavel. The newly elected Presidium, the policy-making body of the Czechoslovak Communist Party, consisted largely of newcomers.

  • Pavelić, Ante (Croatian fascist leader and revolutionist)

    Ante Pavelić, Croatian fascist leader and revolutionist who headed a Croatian state subservient to Germany and Italy during World War II. As a practicing lawyer in Zagreb, Pavelić entered the nationalist Croatian Party of Rights. In 1920 he was elected city and county alderman at Zagreb. From 1927

  • pavement (civil engineering)

    Pavement, in civil engineering, durable surfacing of a road, airstrip, or similar area. The primary function of a pavement is to transmit loads to the sub-base and underlying soil. Modern flexible pavements contain sand and gravel or crushed stone compacted with a binder of bituminous material,

  • Pavement (American band)

    Pavement, American band whose foppish lyrics and punk-derived sonic textures merged into a free-floating poetry of reference that epitomized 1990s college rock. The original members were lead singer, guitarist, and principal songwriter Stephen Malkmus (also known as S.M.; b. May 30, 1966, Santa

  • pavement karst (geology)

    cave: Pavement karst: This form of karst develops where bare carbonate rocks are exposed to weathering. The initiation of pavement karst is often due to glaciation, which scrapes off soil and weathered rock material to expose the bare bedrock. Accordingly, pavement karsts occur mainly in high…

  • pavement line

    roads and highways: Traffic control: … of roadway surfaces with painted lines and raised permanent markers is commonplace and effective, despite high maintenance costs and visibility problems at night, in heavy traffic, and in rain or snow. A solid line is a warning or instruction not to cross, and a broken line is for guidance. Thus,…

  • pavement mosaic

    Tessellated pavement, interior or exterior floor covering composed of stone tesserae (Latin: “dice”), cubes, or other regular shapes closely fitted together in simple or complex designs with a durable and waterproof cement, mortar, clay, or grout. Deriving from Greek pebble mosaic (q.v.) pavings

  • paver

    roads and highways: Construction: …paving material increasingly involves a paving machine for distributing the aggregate, asphalt, or concrete uniformly and to the required thickness, shape, and width (typically, one or two traffic lanes). The paving machine can slipform the edges of the course, thus avoiding the need for fixed side-forms. As it progresses down…

  • Pavese, Cesare (Italian author)

    Cesare Pavese, Italian poet, critic, novelist, and translator, who introduced many modern U.S. and English writers to Italy. Born in a small town in which his father, an official, owned property, he moved with his family to Turin, where he attended high school and the university. Denied an outlet

  • Paveway (weapon)

    smart bomb: …with television-guidance systems and the Paveway series of bombs equipped with laser-guidance systems. Smart bombs or missiles were used in the latter stages of the Vietnam War to give pinpoint bombing accuracy and were used with dramatic effect by Allied forces in the Persian Gulf War. See also missile.

  • Pavi (Parsiism)

    Gahanbar: …sacred liquor, haoma; and the Pavi, prayers honouring God and his spirits, performed jointly by the priest and the faithful. A solemn feast then follows, in which the sacrifical offerings made in the preceding liturgies are consumed in ritual purity.

  • Pavia (Italy)

    Pavia, city, Lombardia (Lombardy) region, northern Italy, on the left bank of the Ticino River, above its junction with the Po, 20 mi (32 km) south of Milan, with which it is connected by the Naviglio di Pavia (Pavia Canal). Pavia originated as Ticinum, a settlement of the Papiria tribe, which was

  • Pavía y Lacy, Manuel (Spanish general)

    Manuel Pavía y Lacy, Spanish general whose defeat in the Spanish Revolution of 1868 helped bring about the deposition of Queen Isabella II. Pavía was encouraged to enter the military by his father, an infantry colonel, and eventually was admitted to the elite Guards regiment. When Isabella became

  • Pavía y Rodríguez de Alburquerque, Manuel (Spanish general)

    Manuel Pavía y Rodríguez de Alburquerque, Spanish general whose coup d’etat ended Spain’s First Republic (1873–74). In 1865 Pavía joined the staff of Gen. Juan Prim, whom he supported in the unsuccessful uprisings of 1866 and, after two years in exile, in the successful revolution of 1868 that

  • Pavia, Battle of (Europe [1525])

    Battle of Pavia, (Feb. 24, 1525), the decisive military engagement of the war in Italy between Francis I of France and the Habsburg emperor Charles V, in which the French army of 28,000 was virtually annihilated and Francis himself, commanding the French army, was left Francis a prisoner of his

  • Pavia, Compact of (1329)

    Louis IV: Early life: The dynastic Compact of Pavia (1329), dividing the house of Wittelsbach into a Bavarian and a Palatinate line, enabled Louis to gain the latter line’s support in matters of imperial policy. He failed, however, to achieve a lasting understanding with his Lower Bavarian cousins; that conflict was…

  • Pavia, Treaty of (756)

    Papal States: Early history: …the same year, by the Treaty of Pavia, the Lombard king Aistulf ceded territory in northern and central Italy. It was probably also about this time that the Donation of Constantine was forged by an unknown cleric in Rome. A legitimate donation by Charlemagne and decrees by Louis the Pious…

  • Pavia, Treaty of (1329)

    Louis IV: Early life: The dynastic Compact of Pavia (1329), dividing the house of Wittelsbach into a Bavarian and a Palatinate line, enabled Louis to gain the latter line’s support in matters of imperial policy. He failed, however, to achieve a lasting understanding with his Lower Bavarian cousins; that conflict was…

  • Pavia, University of (university, Pavia, Italy)

    Pavia: The University of Pavia, founded in 1361, is linked with the ancient law school, which dates back to 825. The colleges of Ghislieri and Borromeo, founded in the 16th century by Pope Pius V and St. Charles Borromeo, with the addition of the Cairoli, Castiglioni-Brugnatelli, Fraccaro,…

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    Auguste Pavie, French explorer and diplomat, who is best known for his explorations of the upper Mekong River valley and for having almost single-handedly brought the kingdoms of Laos under French control. Pavie went to Cochinchina (now part of southern Vietnam) as a sergeant in the marines in 1869

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    Auguste Pavie, French explorer and diplomat, who is best known for his explorations of the upper Mekong River valley and for having almost single-handedly brought the kingdoms of Laos under French control. Pavie went to Cochinchina (now part of southern Vietnam) as a sergeant in the marines in 1869

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