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  • Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (United States [2010])

    Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), in the United States, health care reform legislation signed into law by U.S. Pres. Barack Obama in March 2010, which included provisions that required most individuals to secure health insurance or pay fines, made coverage easier and less costly

  • patients’ rights (law)

    health law: Patients’ rights: In addition to granting patients the means for the effective redress for negligent injury (which increases the cost of malpractice insurance for physicians—and thus the cost of medical care), malpractice litigation has also promoted what have come to be called patients’ rights.

  • Patil, Pratibha (president of India)

    Pratibha Patil, Indian lawyer and politician who was the first woman to serve as president of India (2007–12). Patil earned a master’s degree in political science and economics at Moolji Jaitha College, Jalgaon, and later received a law degree from Government Law College, Mumbai (Bombay). She

  • pātimokkha (Buddhism)

    Pātimokkha, (Pāli: “that which is binding”, ) Buddhist monastic code; a set of 227 rules that govern the daily activities of the monk and nun. The prohibitions of the pātimokkha are arranged in the Pāli canon according to the severity of the offense—from those that require immediate and lifelong

  • Pātimokkha-sutta (Buddhism)

    Pātimokkha, (Pāli: “that which is binding”, ) Buddhist monastic code; a set of 227 rules that govern the daily activities of the monk and nun. The prohibitions of the pātimokkha are arranged in the Pāli canon according to the severity of the offense—from those that require immediate and lifelong

  • Patina (ancient city, Turkey)

    Anatolia: The neo-Hittite states from c. 1180 to 700 bce: King Tutammu of Patina, who had been strategically safe as long as Arpad had not been conquered, also was defeated and his land turned into an Assyrian province. In 738 Samal, Milid, Kaska, Tabal, and Tuwanuwa (classical Tyana) came to terms with the Assyrian king. The Assyrian influence…

  • patina (geology)

    Desert varnish, thin, dark red to black mineral coating (generally iron and manganese oxides and silica) deposited on pebbles and rocks on the surface of desert regions. As dew and soil moisture brought to the surface by capillarity evaporate, their dissolved minerals are deposited on the surface;

  • patination (art)

    art conservation and restoration: Metal sculpture: …corrosion products and of “patina,” the term usually given to corrosion products that are either naturally occurring or artificially formed on the metal surface. Patinas are valued for aesthetic beauty and for the authenticity that they lend the object. Today treatment of metal sculptures is far more conservative than…

  • Patineurs, Les (work by Waldteufel)

    The Skaters’ Waltz, Op. 183, waltz by French composer Emil Waldteufel written in 1882. Of Waldteufel’s many compositions—including more than 200 dance pieces—The Skaters’ Waltz is the best-known. In The Skaters’ Waltz Waldteufel set out to capture the atmosphere of a winter day in Paris, with

  • Patinier, Joachim de (Flemish painter)

    Joachim Patinir, Flemish painter, the first Western artist known to have specialized in landscape painting. Little is known of his early life, but his work reflects an early knowledge of the painting of Gerard David, the last of the Early Netherlandish painters. He may have studied under Hiëronymus

  • Patinir, Joachim (Flemish painter)

    Joachim Patinir, Flemish painter, the first Western artist known to have specialized in landscape painting. Little is known of his early life, but his work reflects an early knowledge of the painting of Gerard David, the last of the Early Netherlandish painters. He may have studied under Hiëronymus

  • Patinir, Joachim de (Flemish painter)

    Joachim Patinir, Flemish painter, the first Western artist known to have specialized in landscape painting. Little is known of his early life, but his work reflects an early knowledge of the painting of Gerard David, the last of the Early Netherlandish painters. He may have studied under Hiëronymus

  • Patiño, José Patiño, marqués de (Spanish statesman)

    José Patiño, marquis de Patiño, Spanish statesman who was one of the most outstanding ministers of the Spanish crown during the 18th century. Patiño followed his father in entering the service of the Spanish government in Italy. Later, during the War of the Spanish Succession, he went to Spain, and

  • patio (architecture)

    Patio, in Spanish and Latin American architecture, a courtyard within a building, open to the sky. It is a Spanish development of the Roman atrium and is comparable to the Italian cortile. The patio was a major feature in medieval Spanish architecture. Sevilla Cathedral (1402–1506) has a patio, as

  • patio process (metallurgy)

    Patio process, method of isolating silver from its ore that was used from the 16th to early in the 20th century; the process was apparently commonly used by Indians in America before the arrival of the Europeans. The silver ore was crushed and ground by mule power in arrastras, shallow circular

  • Patiria miniata (echinoderm)

    sea star: The sea bat (Patiria miniata) usually has webbed arms; it is common from Alaska to Mexico. Sun stars of the genera Crossaster and Solaster are found in northern waters; they have numerous short rays and a broad, often sunburst-patterned disk. The widely distributed S. endeca is…

  • patis (seasoning)

    Fish sauce, in Southeast Asian cookery, a liquid seasoning prepared by fermenting freshwater or saltwater fish with salt in large vats. After a few months time, the resulting brownish, protein-rich liquid is drawn off and bottled. It is sometimes allowed to mature in the sun in glass or

  • Patisambhida-magga (Buddhist literature)

    Khuddaka Nikaya: Patisambhida-magga (“Way of Analysis”), a late work consisting of 30 chapters of Abhidhamma or scholastic-like analysis, of various doctrinal concepts.

  • Pâtissier royal parisien, Le (work by Carême)
  • Patjitanian industry (anthropology)

    Chopper chopping-tool industry: …(associated with Homo erectus), the Patjitanian industry of Java, the Soan industry of India, and the Anyathian industry of Myanmar (Burma).

  • Patkai Range (mountains, Asia)

    Nagaland: Relief and drainage: The mountains merge with the Patkai Range, part of the Arakan system, along the Myanmar border, reaching a maximum height of 12,552 feet (3,826 metres) at Mount Saramati. The region is deeply dissected by rivers: the Doyang and Dikhu in the north, the Barak in the southwest, and the tributaries…

  • Patkar, Medha (Indian activist)

    Medha Patkar, Indian social activist known chiefly for her work with people displaced by the Narmada Valley Development Project (NVDP), a large-scale plan to dam the Narmada River and its tributaries in the Indian states of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, and Maharashtra. An advocate of human rights,

  • Patkul, Johann Reinhold von (German diplomat)

    Johann Reinhold von Patkul, Baltic German diplomat who played a key role in the initiation of the Northern War (1700–21). Born to the Livonian German gentry, Patkul entered the Swedish army in Livonia in 1687. After serving as a representative of the Livonian landowners to the Swedish court in

  • Patmore, Coventry (English writer)

    Coventry Patmore, English poet and essayist whose best poetry is in The Unknown Eros, and Other Odes, containing mystical odes of divine love and of married love, which he saw as a reflection of Christ’s love for the soul. After his father fled to France to escape his creditors, Patmore obtained a

  • Patmore, Coventry Kersey Dighton (English writer)

    Coventry Patmore, English poet and essayist whose best poetry is in The Unknown Eros, and Other Odes, containing mystical odes of divine love and of married love, which he saw as a reflection of Christ’s love for the soul. After his father fled to France to escape his creditors, Patmore obtained a

  • Pátmos (island, Greece)

    Pátmos, island, the smallest and most northerly of the original 12, or Dodecanese (Modern Greek: Dodekánisa), Greek islands. It constitutes a dímos (municipality) in the periféreia (region) of South Aegean (Nótio Aigaío), southeastern Greece. The barren arc-shaped island consists of three deeply

  • Patna (India)

    Patna, city, capital of Bihar state, northern India. It lies about 290 miles (470 km) northwest of Kolkata (Calcutta). Patna is one of the oldest cities in India. During the Mughal period it was known as Azimabad. Patna is a riverside city that extends along the south bank of the Ganges (Ganga)

  • Patna painting (Indian art)

    Company school, style of miniature painting that developed in India in the second half of the 18th century in response to the tastes of the British serving with the East India Company. The style first emerged in Murshidabad, West Bengal, and then spread to other centres of British trade: Benares

  • Patnaik, Bijayananda (Indian politician)

    Biju Patnaik, Indian politician who parlayed his fame as a World War II aviator, anti-British freedom fighter, and commercial airline entrepreneur into a political career, notably as chief minister of Orissa state, 1961-63 and 1990-95 (b. March 5, 1916--d. April 17,

  • Patnaik, Biju (Indian politician)

    Biju Patnaik, Indian politician who parlayed his fame as a World War II aviator, anti-British freedom fighter, and commercial airline entrepreneur into a political career, notably as chief minister of Orissa state, 1961-63 and 1990-95 (b. March 5, 1916--d. April 17,

  • Patnaik, Naveen (Indian politician)

    Naveen Patnaik, Indian politician and government official in Odisha (Orissa) state, eastern India. He was the founder and longtime president of the Biju Janata Dal (BJD; Biju People’s Party), a regional political party focused on Odisha, and he also served as chief minister (head of government) of

  • pato (Argentine game)

    Argentina: Sports and recreation: …to the 17th century is pato (“duck”), which is played on an open field between two teams of four horsemen each. The riders attempt to carry a leather ball (originally a duck trapped in a basket) by its large handles and throw it through the opposing team’s goal, which is…

  • Patocka, Jan (Czechoslovak philosopher)

    phenomenology: In other European countries: The Husserl scholar Jan Patocka, a prominent expert in phenomenology as well as in the metaphysical tradition, was influential in the former Czechoslovakia; in Poland, Roman Ingarden represented the cause of phenomenology; and there were also important representatives in such countries as Portugal, the United Kingdom, South America,…

  • patois (linguistics)

    Dialect, a variety of a language that signals where a person comes from. The notion is usually interpreted geographically (regional dialect), but it also has some application in relation to a person’s social background (class dialect) or occupation (occupational dialect). The word dialect comes

  • patok (game)

    Go, board game for two players. Of East Asian origin, it is popular in China, Korea, and especially Japan, the country with which it is most closely identified. Go, probably the world’s oldest board game, is thought to have originated in China some 4,000 years ago. According to some sources, this

  • patola (Indian sari)

    Patola, type of silk sari (characteristic garment worn by Indian women) of Gujarati origin, the warp and weft being tie-dyed (see bandhani work) before weaving according to a predetermined pattern. It formed part of the trousseau presented by the bride’s maternal uncle. Although extant patolas of

  • Paton, Alan (South African writer)

    Alan Paton, South African writer, best known for his first novel, Cry, the Beloved Country (1948), a passionate tale of racial injustice that brought international attention to the problem of apartheid in South Africa. Paton studied at the University of Natal (later incorporated into the University

  • Paton, Alan Stewart (South African writer)

    Alan Paton, South African writer, best known for his first novel, Cry, the Beloved Country (1948), a passionate tale of racial injustice that brought international attention to the problem of apartheid in South Africa. Paton studied at the University of Natal (later incorporated into the University

  • Patos (mountain pass, South America)

    Andes Mountains: Physiography of the Central Andes: …Espinacito (16,000 feet) and Mount Patos (12,825 feet). South of Anconcagua the passes include Pircas (16,960 feet), Bermejo (more than 10,000 feet), and Iglesia (13,400 feet). Farther north the passes are more numerous but higher. The peaks of Mounts Bonete, Ojos del Salado, and Pissis surpass 20,000 feet.

  • Patos de Minas (Brazil)

    Patos de Minas, city, west-central Minas Gerais estado (state), Brazil. It lies at 2,808 feet (856 metres) above sea level in the highlands. Made the seat of a municipality in 1866, it gained city status in 1892 with the name of Patos, which was lengthened in 1944 to Patos de Minas. The cultivation

  • Patos Lagoon (lagoon, Brazil)

    Patos Lagoon, shallow lagoon in Rio Grande do Sul estado (state), extreme southeastern Brazil. It is the largest lagoon in Brazil and the second largest in South America. The lagoon is 180 miles (290 km) long and up to 40 miles (64 km) wide, with an area of more than 3,900 square miles (10,100

  • patra (Buddhism)

    relic: …such as his staff or alms bowl. The alms bowl (patra), particularly, is associated with a romantic tradition of wanderings and, in different historical periods, has been variously reported as located in Peshawar or in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). In addition, the bodily remains and personal effects of the great Buddhist…

  • Patrae (Greece)

    Pátrai, city and dímos (municipality), Western Greece (Modern Greek: Dytikí Elláda) periféreia (region), southern Greece. Located on the Gulf of Patraïkós, it is the chief port of the Peloponnese (Pelopónnisos) peninsula and one of the largest ports in Greece. A legendary federation of three

  • Pátrai (Greece)

    Pátrai, city and dímos (municipality), Western Greece (Modern Greek: Dytikí Elláda) periféreia (region), southern Greece. Located on the Gulf of Patraïkós, it is the chief port of the Peloponnese (Pelopónnisos) peninsula and one of the largest ports in Greece. A legendary federation of three

  • patralatā (Indian art)

    Patralatā, decorative motif in Indian art, consisting of a lotus rhizome (underground plant stem). A cosmology that identifies water as the source of all life had a great influence on early Indian art, and, of its visual symbols, the lotus is the most important and has been a dominant motif in

  • Patras (Greece)

    Pátrai, city and dímos (municipality), Western Greece (Modern Greek: Dytikí Elláda) periféreia (region), southern Greece. Located on the Gulf of Patraïkós, it is the chief port of the Peloponnese (Pelopónnisos) peninsula and one of the largest ports in Greece. A legendary federation of three

  • Pătrăşcanu, D. D. (Romanian author)

    Romanian literature: Between the wars: …were typical Bucharest citizens, and D.D. Pătrăscanu wittily described political life.

  • Pátria (work by Junqueiro)

    Abílio Manuel Guerra Junqueiro: …pride in a dramatic poem Pátria (1896), which blamed the Braganza dynasty and delusions of a glorious national past for the country’s downfall. The poem’s popularity was immense and, when the republic was established in 1910, Guerra Junqueiro, as a revolutionary hero, was appointed envoy to Bern. In his last…

  • patria chica (Mexican regional culture)

    Mexico: Cultural milieu: …regions, often referred to as patrias chicas (“small homelands”), which help to perpetuate cultural diversity. The large number of indigenous languages and customs, especially in the south, also accentuates cultural differences. However, indigenismo, or pride in the indigenous heritage, has been a major unifying theme of the country since the…

  • patria potestas (Roman law)

    Patria potestas, (Latin: “power of a father”), in Roman family law, power that the male head of a family exercised over his children and his more remote descendants in the male line, whatever their age, as well as over those brought into the family by adoption. This power meant originally not only

  • patriarch (Judaism)

    Judaism: The ancient Middle Eastern setting: …the family of the Hebrew patriarchs—Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (all early 2nd millennium bce)—as having its chief seat in the northern Mesopotamian town of Harran, which then belonged to the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni. From there Abraham, the founder of the Hebrew people, is said to have migrated to

  • patriarch (Eastern Orthodoxy)

    Patriarch, title used for some Old Testament leaders (Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Jacob’s 12 sons) and, in some Christian churches, a title given to bishops of important sees. The biblical appellation patriarch appeared occasionally in the 4th century to designate prominent Christian bishops. By

  • Patriarch of Independence (Brazilian statesman)

    José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva, Brazilian statesman who played a key role in Brazil’s attainment of independence from Portugal. He is known to Brazilians as the “Patriarch of Independence.” Andrada went to Portugal as a student and became a distinguished scholar there, earning an international

  • patriarcha (Eastern Orthodoxy)

    Patriarch, title used for some Old Testament leaders (Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Jacob’s 12 sons) and, in some Christian churches, a title given to bishops of important sees. The biblical appellation patriarch appeared occasionally in the 4th century to designate prominent Christian bishops. By

  • Patriarcha (work by Filmer)

    Sir Robert Filmer: …(1679) and his major work, Patriarcha, was published for the first time (1680). John Locke, then writing on politics, attacked his writings as “glib nonsense,” but 20th-century scholars have viewed Filmer as a significant and interesting figure in his own right, quite apart from Locke’s attention to him. He was…

  • Patriarchal Academy (Eastern Orthodoxy)

    Jeremias II: …Moscow patriarchate and organized a Patriarchal Academy in Constantinople that was to serve as an intellectual centre for Orthodoxy and to raise the educational level of the clergy.

  • Patriarchal Caliphate (caliphs)

    Rashidun, (Arabic: “Rightly Guided,” or “Perfect”), the first four caliphs of the Islamic community, known in Muslim history as the orthodox or patriarchal caliphs: Abū Bakr (reigned 632–634), ʿUmar (reigned 634–644), ʿUthmān (reigned 644–656), and ʿAlī (reigned 656–661). The 29-year rule of the

  • Patriarchal Cathedral (cathedral, Kharkiv, Ukraine)

    Kharkiv: …17th-century Pokrovsky Cathedral, the 19th-century Patriarchal Cathedral, and the belltower commemorating the victory over Napoleon I in 1812.

  • Patriarchate of Constantinople (Eastern Orthodoxy)

    Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, honorary primacy of the Eastern Orthodox autocephalous, or ecclesiastically independent, churches; it is also known as the “ecumenical patriarchate,” or “Roman” patriarchate (Turkish: Rum patriarkhanesi). According to a legend of the late 4th century, the

  • patriarchēs (Eastern Orthodoxy)

    Patriarch, title used for some Old Testament leaders (Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Jacob’s 12 sons) and, in some Christian churches, a title given to bishops of important sees. The biblical appellation patriarch appeared occasionally in the 4th century to designate prominent Christian bishops. By

  • Patriarchs, The (American high society)

    Ward McAllister: The Patriarchs accepted or rejected aspirants to New York’s “high society.” McAllister contributed articles to newspapers and magazines, becoming known as an authority on the social graces. His book Society As I Have Found It was published in 1890.

  • patriarchy (social system)

    Patriarchy, hypothetical social system in which the father or a male elder has absolute authority over the family group; by extension, one or more men (as in a council) exert absolute authority over the community as a whole. Building on the theories of biological evolution developed by Charles

  • Patrice Lumumba Battalion (African military unit)

    Che Guevara: The Congo, Bolivia, and death: …futile attempt to help the Patrice Lumumba Battalion, which was fighting a civil war there. During that period Guevara resigned his ministerial position in the Cuban government and renounced his Cuban citizenship. After the failure of his efforts in the Congo, he fled first to Tanzania and then to a…

  • Patrice Lumumba Peoples’ Friendship University (university, Moscow, Russia)

    Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (PFUR), state institution of higher learning in Moscow, founded in 1960 as Peoples’ Friendship University “to give an education to people who had liberated themselves from colonialist oppression.” It was renamed Patrice Lumumba Peoples’ Friendship University

  • patrician (ancient Rome)

    Patrician, any member of a group of citizen families who, in contrast with the plebeian (q.v.) class, formed a privileged class in early Rome. The origin of the class remains obscure, but the patricians were probably leaders of the more important families or clans who formed the major part, if n

  • patriciate (social position)

    history of the Low Countries: French and English influence: …control the urban elites (the patriciate) by controlling the cities’ finances and the appointment of the magistrates (aldermen, or schepenen) failed because the French king supported the patricians. King Philip IV, who was successful in his territorial expansion in Champagne and Gascony, also tried to incorporate the county of Flanders…

  • patricii (ancient Rome)

    Patrician, any member of a group of citizen families who, in contrast with the plebeian (q.v.) class, formed a privileged class in early Rome. The origin of the class remains obscure, but the patricians were probably leaders of the more important families or clans who formed the major part, if n

  • patricius (ancient Rome)

    Patrician, any member of a group of citizen families who, in contrast with the plebeian (q.v.) class, formed a privileged class in early Rome. The origin of the class remains obscure, but the patricians were probably leaders of the more important families or clans who formed the major part, if n

  • Patrick family (Canadian family)

    Patrick family, Canadian family who as managers, owners, and league officials helped establish professional ice hockey in Canada. Lester B. Patrick (b. December 30, 1883, Drummondville, Quebec, Canada—d. June 1, 1960, Victoria, British Columbia) and his brother Frank A. Patrick (b. December 23,

  • Patrick Melrose (television miniseries)

    Benedict Cumberbatch: Doctor Strange and The Grinch: …whose child goes missing, and Patrick Melrose (2018), a miniseries based on five novels by Edward St. Aubyn focusing on a self-destructive English gentleman as he reckons with his past. Cumberbatch supplied his distinctive voice to the animated features The Grinch and Mowgli: Legend of the Jungle (both 2018), playing…

  • Patrick, Danica (American race car driver)

    Danica Patrick, American race car driver and the first woman to win an IndyCar championship event. Patrick’s racing career began with go-karts in her hometown of Beloit, Wisconsin, at age 10. At age 16, after national success in go-karts, Patrick left high school to race Formula Fords and Vauxhalls

  • Patrick, Danica Sue (American race car driver)

    Danica Patrick, American race car driver and the first woman to win an IndyCar championship event. Patrick’s racing career began with go-karts in her hometown of Beloit, Wisconsin, at age 10. At age 16, after national success in go-karts, Patrick left high school to race Formula Fords and Vauxhalls

  • Patrick, Frank A. (Canadian ice-hockey player, coach and manager)

    Patrick family: Frank refereed in the Montreal senior league (1903–04), and the two joined the Renfrew Millionaires in the professional league that came to be the National Hockey Association (NHA; formed 1910).

  • Patrick, John (American playwright)

    John Patrick, U.S. Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright of Teahouse of the August Moon and screenwriter of such hits as Three Coins in the Fountain, Love Is a Many Splendored Thing, and High Society (b. May 17, 1905--d. Nov. 7,

  • Patrick, Joseph Frank (Canadian athlete)

    Patrick family: …the brothers with their father, Joseph Frank Patrick, a lumberman, formed the Pacific Coast League. They built the first enclosed ice rinks at Vancouver and Victoria; at the time, the Vancouver rink was one of the largest buildings in Canada, seating 10,000. In that league the Patricks introduced many practices…

  • Patrick, Lester B. (Canadian ice-hockey player and coach)

    Patrick family: …while attending McGill University (Montreal), Lester with the Montreal Amateur Athletic Association team (1901–02) and the amateur Montreal Wanderers (1905–07), both of which won Stanley Cups, and for the Brandon (Manitoba) team that played for but did not win the Stanley Cup (1903–05). Frank refereed in the Montreal senior league…

  • Patrick, Mary Mills (American missionary and educator)

    Mary Mills Patrick, American missionary and educator who oversaw the evolution of a girls’ high school into a major college for Turkish women. Patrick graduated from the Lyons Collegiate Institute in Lyons (now part of Clinton), Iowa, in 1869. In 1871, by appointment of the American Board of

  • Patrick, Murray (Canadian ice hockey player and coach)

    Muzz Patrick, Canadian hockey player who also served as coach and general manager of the New York Rangers; his family boasted several generations of professional hockey players (b. June 28, 1915, Victoria, B.C.--d. July 23, 1998, Riverside,

  • Patrick, Muzz (Canadian ice hockey player and coach)

    Muzz Patrick, Canadian hockey player who also served as coach and general manager of the New York Rangers; his family boasted several generations of professional hockey players (b. June 28, 1915, Victoria, B.C.--d. July 23, 1998, Riverside,

  • Patrick, Ruth (American biologist and educator)

    Ruth Myrtle Patrick, American aquatic biologist and educator widely regarded as one of the early pioneers of the science of limnology. She is best known for her work with diatoms (a type of algae encased in a glasslike shell) and her efforts in deploying multidisciplinary teams of researchers to

  • Patrick, Ruth Myrtle (American biologist and educator)

    Ruth Myrtle Patrick, American aquatic biologist and educator widely regarded as one of the early pioneers of the science of limnology. She is best known for her work with diatoms (a type of algae encased in a glasslike shell) and her efforts in deploying multidisciplinary teams of researchers to

  • Patrick, St. (bishop and patron saint of Ireland)

    St. Patrick, ; feast day March 17), patron saint and national apostle of Ireland, credited with bringing Christianity to Ireland and probably responsible in part for the Christianization of the Picts and Anglo-Saxons. He is known only from two short works, the Confessio, a spiritual autobiography,

  • patriclan (kinship group)

    Australian Aboriginal peoples: Social groups and categories: …either the male line (patriclan) or female line (matriclan). Patriclans were the more common form, and they played a very important social role in certain areas, such as northeast Arnhem Land.

  • patrilineage (sociology)

    descent: …are of two main types—patrilineal (or agnatic) systems, in which the relationships reckoned through the father are emphasized, and matrilineal (or uxorial) systems, in which the relationships reckoned through the mother are emphasized.

  • patrilineal descent (sociology)

    descent: …are of two main types—patrilineal (or agnatic) systems, in which the relationships reckoned through the father are emphasized, and matrilineal (or uxorial) systems, in which the relationships reckoned through the mother are emphasized.

  • patrilineal succession (law)

    Germanic law: Tribal Germanic institutions: …his property passed to his descendants in the nearest degree of proximity, with a preference for males. (The declaration in the Salic Law that daughters could not inherit land was used by 16th-century French lawyers as additional support for the long-standing practice of excluding women or their descendants from succeeding…

  • patrilocal residence (anthropology)

    South American nomad: Composite bands: …in the male line) and patrilocal (a wife resided with her husband’s lineage and band).

  • patrimoiety (kinship group)

    moiety system: …common than patrilineal moieties (patrimoieties). Matrimoieties are generally found in association with smaller kin groups, such as lineages and clans. In all cases—whether the moieties are exogamous or not, unilineal or not, or aligned on the basis of season, geographic position, name bestowal, or other criteria—they serve to divide…

  • patrimonialism (political organization)

    Patrimonialism, form of political organization in which authority is based primarily on the personal power exercised by a ruler, either directly or indirectly. A patrimonial ruler may act alone or as a member of a powerful elite group or oligarchy. Although the ruler’s authority is extensive, he is

  • Patrimony of St. Peter (papal lands)

    Papal States: Early history: …property around Rome (called the Patrimony of St. Peter). From the 5th century, with the breakdown of Roman imperial authority in the West, the popes’ influence in central Italy increased as the people of the area relied on them for protection against barbarian invasions. Leo I (reigned 440–461), for example,…

  • Patrinia (plant genus)

    Valerianoideae: …members of the Eurasian genus Patrinia, perennials with yellow or white flowers. Spikenard (Nardostachys grandiflora, sometimes N. jatamansi) is a perennial herb of the Himalayas that produces an essential oil in its woody rhizomes; it is listed as a critically endangered species by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

  • Patriocetidae (fossil mammal family)

    cetacean: Annotated taxonomy: †Family Patriocetidae 4 genera. Upper Eocene to Upper Oligocene. Europe and North America. †Family Llanocetidae 1 genus. Lower Oligocene or Upper Eocene. Antarctica. †Family Cetotheriidae (cetotheres) About 30 genera. Middle Oligocene to

  • Patriot (missile)

    radar: Antennas: Army’s Patriot battlefield air-defense system and the U.S. Navy’s Aegis system for ship air defense also depend on the electronically steered phased-array antenna.

  • PATRIOT Act (United States [2001])

    USA PATRIOT Act, U.S. legislation, passed by Congress in response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks and signed into law by Pres. George W. Bush in October 2001, that significantly expanded the search and surveillance powers of federal law-enforcement and intelligence agencies. The USA

  • Patriot Day (United States holiday)

    Patriot Day, holiday observed in the United States on September 11 to commemorate the lives of those who died in the 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Virginia and those who perished when the hijacked United Airlines Flight 93 crashed in

  • Patriot for Me, A (play by Osborne)

    John Osborne: A Patriot for Me (1965) portrays a homosexual Austrian officer in the period before World War I, based on the story of Alfred Redl, and shows Osborne’s interests in the decline of empire and the perils of the nonconformist. West of Suez (1971) revealed a…

  • Patriot Games (film by Noyce [1992])

    Harrison Ford: …adapted from Tom Clancy novels—Patriot Games (1992) and Clear and Present Danger (1994). In The Fugitive (1993), a film based on the 1960s television show, he portrayed the wrongly convicted Dr. Richard Kimble.

  • Patriot Games (novel by Clancy)

    Tom Clancy: Red Storm Rising (1986), Patriot Games (1987; film 1992), Clear and Present Danger (1989; film 1994), The Sum of All Fears (1991; film 2002), Rainbow Six (1998), The Bear and the Dragon (2000), The Teeth of the Tiger (2003), Dead or

  • Patriot movement (Irish history)

    Henry Flood: …Anglo-Irish statesman, founder of the Patriot movement that in 1782 won legislative independence for Ireland.

  • Patriot Movement (Dutch political movement)

    Netherlands: The Patriot movement: During the next decades, in the face of the rigid conservatism of the princes of Orange (William V succeeded his father in 1751 and assumed personal government in 1759) and under the influence of the French Enlightenment, an essentially new political force began…

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