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  • past (time)

    salvation: Time: …of the temporal categories of past, present, and future. This time-consciousness is possessed by no other species with such insistent clarity. It enables humans to draw upon past experience in the present and to plan for future contingencies. This faculty, however, has another effect: it causes humans to be aware…

  • Past and Present (work by Carlyle)

    Thomas Carlyle: London: …the hero was elaborated in Past and Present, which strove “to penetrate…into a somewhat remote century…in hope of perhaps illustrating our own poor century thereby.” He contrasts the wise and strong rule of a medieval abbot with the muddled softness and chaos of the 19th century, pronouncing in favour of…

  • past posting (swindling operation)

    confidence game: A popular swindle, known as past posting, required a dummy telegraph office that was used to persuade the mark that horse-race results could be delayed long enough for him to bet on the winner after the race was won. As soon as the mark committed a large amount of money,…

  • past tense (grammar)

    Germanic languages: Conjugations: …and two participles (present and past). The Proto-Indo-European tense-aspect system (present, imperfect, aorist, perfect) was reshaped to a single tense contrast between present and past. The past showed two innovations: (1) In the “strong” verb, Germanic transformed Proto-Indo-European ablaut into a specific tense marker (e.g., Proto-Indo-European *bher-, *bhor-, *bhēr-, *bhṛ-…

  • pasta (food)

    Pasta, any of several starchy food preparations (pasta alimentaria) frequently associated with Italian cuisine and made from semolina, the granular product obtained from the endosperm of a type of wheat called durum, and containing a large proportion of gluten (elastic protein). It is formed into

  • pasta alimentaria (food)

    Pasta, any of several starchy food preparations (pasta alimentaria) frequently associated with Italian cuisine and made from semolina, the granular product obtained from the endosperm of a type of wheat called durum, and containing a large proportion of gluten (elastic protein). It is formed into

  • Pasta, Giuditta Maria Costanza (Italian opera singer)

    Giuditta Pasta, reigning Italian soprano of her time, acclaimed for her vocal range and expressiveness. She studied with Bonifazio Asioli and Giuseppe Scappa at Milan and made her debut there in 1815 in Scappa’s Le tre Eleonore. She gave a brilliant performance in 1821 at the Théâtre-Italien in

  • paste (glass product)

    Paste, heavy, very transparent flint glass that simulates the fire and brilliance of gemstones because it has relatively high indices of refraction and strong dispersion (separation of white light into its component colours). From a very early period the imitation of gems was attempted. The Romans

  • paste mold (glassmaking)

    industrial glass: Tableware: …blowing pipe into a split paste-mold. The paste-mold is made of cast iron and is lined with a wetted cork-type or pasted-sawdust material. The resulting steam cushion gives a smooth finish to the glass, which is rotated in the mold during the blowing step. The formed ware is then gently…

  • pastel (art)

    Pastel, dry drawing medium executed with fragile, finger-size sticks. These drawing crayons, called pastels, are made of powdered pigments combined with a minimum of nongreasy binder, usually gum tragacanth or, from the mid-20th century, methyl cellulose. Made in a wide range of colour values, the

  • pastel-manner (art)

    printmaking: Crayon manner and stipple engraving: Invented in the 18th century, crayon manner was purely a reproduction technique; its aim was the imitation of chalk drawings. The process started with a plate covered with hard ground (see below Etching). The design was created using a great…

  • Pasternak, Boris Leonidovich (Russian author)

    Boris Leonidovich Pasternak, Russian poet whose novel Doctor Zhivago helped win him the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1958 but aroused so much opposition in the Soviet Union that he declined the honour. An epic of wandering, spiritual isolation, and love amid the harshness of the Russian Revolution

  • Pasternak, Joe (American film producer)

    Henry Koster: Early work: …Universal Studios and, with producer Joe Pasternak, immediately went to work on a series of musicals starring Deanna Durbin, a teenager who Universal hoped would compete with Twentieth Century-Fox’s star Shirley Temple. The frothy films—which included Three Smart Girls (1936); One Hundred Men and a Girl (1937), recipient of an…

  • Pasternak, Leonid (Russian artist)

    Boris Leonidovich Pasternak: His father, Leonid, was an art professor and a well-known artist, portraitist of novelist Leo Tolstoy, poet Rainer Maria Rilke, and composer Sergey Rachmaninoff, all frequent guests at his home, and of Lenin. His mother was the pianist Rosa Kaufman.

  • Pasterze Glacier (glacier, Austria)

    Grossglockner: …on the mountain is the Pasterze Glacier, 5 miles (8 km) long and 3 miles (5 km) wide. The Grossglockner-Hochalpenstrasse, a highway (opened 1935) connecting Dölfach to the north with Heiligenblut to the south, lies to the east of the peak. The road has two tunnels (the Mitteltörl and Hochtor),…

  • Pasteur effect (biochemistry)

    Louis Pasteur: Pasteur effect: The realization that specific organisms were involved in fermentation was further supported by Pasteur’s studies of butyric acid fermentation. These studies led Pasteur to the unexpected discovery that the fermentation process could be arrested by passing air (that is, oxygen) through the fermenting…

  • Pasteur Institute (institution, Paris, France)

    Louis Pasteur: Vaccine development: …was launched to build the Pasteur Institute in Paris, the inauguration of which took place on November 14, 1888.

  • Pasteur, Louis (French chemist and microbiologist)

    Louis Pasteur, French chemist and microbiologist who was one of the most important founders of medical microbiology. Pasteur’s contributions to science, technology, and medicine are nearly without precedent. He pioneered the study of molecular asymmetry; discovered that microorganisms cause

  • Pasteurella (genus of bacteria)

    Pasteurella, genus of rod-shaped bacteria that causes several serious diseases in domestic animals and milder infections in humans. The genus was named after Louis Pasteur. Its species are microbiologically characterized as gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes (not requiring oxygen)

  • Pasteurella multocida (bacillus)

    Pasteurella: Pasteurella multocida is pathogenic for many animals, causing fowl cholera, blood poisoning in ruminants, pneumonia in young cattle, and respiratory infection in cattle and humans. It is also the cause of shipping fever, which commonly attacks animals under stress, as during shipping. In this disease,…

  • Pasteurella pestis (bacterium)

    plague: >Yersinia pestis, a bacterium transmitted from rodents to humans by the bite of infected fleas. Plague was the cause of some of the most-devastating epidemics in history. It was the disease behind the Black Death of the 14th century, when as much as one-third of…

  • Pasteurella tularensis (bacillus)

    tularemia: …agent is the gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis. The disease is primarily one of animals; human infections are incidental. It occurs naturally in many types of wildlife. In the United States the rabbit, especially the cottontail (Sylvilagus), is an important source of human infection, but other mammals, birds, and insects also…

  • pasteurellosis (disease)

    Pasteurellosis, any bacterial disease caused by Pasteurella species. The name is sometimes used interchangeably with the so-called shipping fever, a specific type of pasteurellosis (caused by Pasteurella multocida) that commonly attacks cattle under stress, as during shipping. In this type of

  • Pasteuria (bacteria)

    bacteria: Budding: In some Pasteuria strains, the daughter buds have a flagellum and are motile, whereas the mother cells lack flagella but have long pili and holdfast appendages at the end opposite the bud. The related Planctomyces, found in plankton, have long fibrillar stalks at the end opposite the…

  • pasteurization (heating process)

    Pasteurization, heat-treatment process that destroys pathogenic microorganisms in certain foods and beverages. It is named for the French scientist Louis Pasteur, who in the 1860s demonstrated that abnormal fermentation of wine and beer could be prevented by heating the beverages to about 57° C

  • pasticcio (music)

    opera: Early opera in Germany and Austria: These had pasticcio (“assembled” from preexisting works) scores capitalizing, not very successfully, on the great popularity of The Beggar’s Opera (1728), the score of which was similarly assembled by John Christopher Pepusch. In German translation, the Coffey texts attracted the attention of German composers, most notably Johann…

  • pastiche (art forgery)

    forgery: Forgery in the visual arts: In the composite fraud, or pastiche, the forger combines copies of various parts of another artist’s work to form a new composition and adds a few connecting elements of his own to make it a convincing presentation. This type of forgery is more difficult to detect than the copy. Such…

  • Pastiches et mélanges (work by Proust)

    Marcel Proust: Life and works: …reprint of Swann and with Pastiches et mélanges, a miscellaneous volume containing “L’Affaire Lemoine” and the Ruskin prefaces. In December 1919, through Léon Daudet’s recommendation, À l’ombre received the Prix Goncourt, and Proust suddenly became world famous. Three more installments appeared in his lifetime, with the benefit of his final…

  • pastille (pharmacology)

    pharmaceutical industry: Other solid dosage forms: Lozenges usually consist of a mixture of sugar and either gum or gelatin, which are compressed to form a solid mass. Lozenges are designed to release drug while slowly dissolving in the mouth. Suppositories are solid dosage forms designed for introduction into the rectum or…

  • pastime (leisure activity)

    history of publishing: Nonprofessional types: …layman may fall into the hobby category. Very often a professional magazine has an amateur counterpart, as, for instance, in electronics, where the amateur finds a wide range of technical magazines on radio, television, hi-fi, and tape recording. Other popular subjects are photography (the British Amateur Photographer was founded in…

  • Pastinaca sativa (vegetable)

    Parsnip, (species Pastinaca sativa), member of the parsley family (Apiaceae), cultivated since ancient times for its large, tapering, fleshy white root, which is edible and has a distinctive flavour. The root is found on roadsides and in open places in Great Britain and throughout Europe and

  • pastis (alcoholic beverage)

    absinthe: …as Pernod, anis (or anisette), pastis, ouzo, or raki. Pastis also turns cloudy white when mixed with water, and anis turns to a cloudy, greenish-tinged white.

  • Pasto (Colombia)

    Pasto, city, capital of Nariño department, southwestern Colombia, situated 8,291 feet (2,527 m) above sea level at the base of Galeras Volcano (14,029 feet [4,276 m]). Founded in 1539, Pasto was a royalist stronghold during the revolution against Spain. Although now less important as a trade centre

  • Pasto Knot (mountains, Colombia)

    Pasto Knot, mountain knot formed in Colombia by the merging of the terminal ranges of the Andes Mountains: the Cordilleras Oriental, Central, and

  • Pasto Mountains (mountains, Colombia)

    Pasto Knot, mountain knot formed in Colombia by the merging of the terminal ranges of the Andes Mountains: the Cordilleras Oriental, Central, and

  • Pasto, Nudo de (mountains, Colombia)

    Pasto Knot, mountain knot formed in Colombia by the merging of the terminal ranges of the Andes Mountains: the Cordilleras Oriental, Central, and

  • Paston family (English family)

    Sir John Fastolf: …Norfolk neighbour and friend John Paston picture Fastolf as an irascible, acquisitive old man who was utterly ruthless in his business dealings. Childless, he intended to leave his possessions for pious works, but the Pastons got most of them. The bishop of Winchester, however, managed to salvage a portion for…

  • Paston Letters (collection of English correspondence)

    Paston Letters, the largest surviving collection of 15th-century English correspondence. It is invaluable to historians and philologists and is preserved mainly in the British Museum. Part is derived from the circle of the career soldier Sir John Fastolf (c. 1378–1459), and part is from the

  • Pastor Aeternus (Roman Catholic doctrinal constitution)

    Roman Catholicism: Pius IX: …converged in the doctrinal constitution Pastor aeternus (“Eternal Shepherd”), promulgated by the First Vatican Council (commonly called Vatican I) on July 18, 1870. It asserted that

  • pastor fido, Il (work by Guarini)

    Battista Guarini: …wrote his celebrated dramatic pastoral, Il pastor fido (“The Faithful Shepherd”). Written and revised over a period of many years, this pastoral tragicomedy, set in Arcadia, was published in 1590 and first performed at the carnival at Crema in 1595. Although it lacked the lyrical simplicity of Tasso’s earlier work…

  • Pastor Russell (American religious leader)

    Charles Taze Russell, founder of the International Bible Students Association, forerunner of the Jehovah’s Witnesses. By the time he was 20, Russell had left both Presbyterianism and Congregationalism because he could not reconcile the idea of an eternal hell with God’s mercy. He had drifted into

  • Pastor, Antonio (American comic singer)

    Tony Pastor, American impresario and comic singer, considered the father of vaudeville in the United States. An entertainer from the age of six, Pastor appeared at P.T. Barnum’s American Museum in New York City as a child prodigy and then appeared in minstrel shows and in the circus before he first

  • Pastor, Ludwig, Freiherr von Campersfelden (Austrian historian)

    Ludwig Pastor, baron von Campersfelden, German author of one of the monumental papal histories, Geschichte der Päpste seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters, 16 vol. (1886–1933; History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages). While a student, Pastor became acquainted with the leading historians

  • Pastor, Tony (American comic singer)

    Tony Pastor, American impresario and comic singer, considered the father of vaudeville in the United States. An entertainer from the age of six, Pastor appeared at P.T. Barnum’s American Museum in New York City as a child prodigy and then appeared in minstrel shows and in the circus before he first

  • Pastora Peak (mountain, Arizona, United States)

    Carrizo Mountains: …this extinct volcanic range is Pastora Peak (9,412 ft [2,869 m]). The arid mountains are within the Navajo Indian Reservation.

  • Pastora, Edén (Nicaraguan revolutionary)

    Edén Pastora, Nicaraguan guerrilla leader and legendary fighter. A military commander of the Sandinista movement, Pastora led the assault on the national palace in Managua, Nicaragua, on August 22, 1978. Twenty-three men under his command took some 1,000 hostages, about half of them legislators and

  • pastoral (musical form)

    Claudio Monteverdi: Three decades in Venice: …the other hand, from the pastoral, with its highly artificial characterizations of shepherds and shepherdesses. Monteverdi, however, was increasingly concerned with the expression of human emotions and the creation of recognizable human beings, with their changes of mind and mood. Thus, he wished to develop a greater variety of musical…

  • Pastoral (work by Bassano)

    Jacopo Bassano: …of the finest is his Pastoral. These works elaborated the genre and landscape elements that had been incidental in his religious works.

  • Pastoral Care (work by Gregory I)

    mirror for princes: Gregory I’s Pastoral Care (6th century): though centred on the role of bishops, rather than secular lords, Gregory’s emphasis on humility as a key virtue of those holding worldly power, on the moral temptations of secular might, and on the need to provide moral leadership by example…

  • pastoral care (Christianity)

    Christianity: Pastoral care: Pastoral care has always been of special importance in the Christian community. The biographies of the great charismatic ministers, beginning with the Fathers of the Eastern Church and the Western Church, testify to surprising variations of this pastoral care. The principal interest of…

  • Pastoral Concert (painting by Giorgione)
  • Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the World of Today (papal decree)

    Second Vatican Council: The “Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the World of Today” acknowledges the profound changes humanity is experiencing and attempts to relate the church’s concept of itself and of revelation to the needs and values of contemporary culture.

  • pastoral counseling (Christianity)

    Christianity: Pastoral care: Pastoral care has always been of special importance in the Christian community. The biographies of the great charismatic ministers, beginning with the Fathers of the Eastern Church and the Western Church, testify to surprising variations of this pastoral care. The principal interest of…

  • Pastoral Epistles (New Testament)

    biblical literature: The Pastoral Letters: I and II Timothy and Titus: The First and Second Letters of Paul to Timothy and the Letter of Paul to Titus, three small epistles traditionally part of the Pauline corpus, are written not to churches nor…

  • Pastoral letters (New Testament)

    biblical literature: The Pastoral Letters: I and II Timothy and Titus: The First and Second Letters of Paul to Timothy and the Letter of Paul to Titus, three small epistles traditionally part of the Pauline corpus, are written not to churches nor…

  • pastoral literature

    Pastoral literature, class of literature that presents the society of shepherds as free from the complexity and corruption of city life. Many of the idylls written in its name are far remote from the realities of any life, rustic or urban. Among the writers who have used the pastoral convention

  • pastoral meeting (Quakerism)

    Society of Friends: The impact of evangelicalism: …Midwest and Far West, “pastoral meetings” in which a paid minister assumed the functions of delivering a sermon and exercising pastoral care of members. Such meetings often called themselves “Friends’ Churches”; congregational singing was a part of the service, which might have only a few moments of silence, and…

  • pastoral ministry (Christianity)

    Christianity: Pastoral care: Pastoral care has always been of special importance in the Christian community. The biographies of the great charismatic ministers, beginning with the Fathers of the Eastern Church and the Western Church, testify to surprising variations of this pastoral care. The principal interest of…

  • pastoral nomad

    nomadism: Pastoral nomads, who depend on domesticated livestock, migrate in an established territory to find pasturage for their animals. Most groups have focal sites that they occupy for considerable periods of the year. Pastoralists may depend entirely on their herds or may also hunt or gather,…

  • pastoral nomadism

    nomadism: Pastoral nomads, who depend on domesticated livestock, migrate in an established territory to find pasturage for their animals. Most groups have focal sites that they occupy for considerable periods of the year. Pastoralists may depend entirely on their herds or may also hunt or gather,…

  • Pastoral Rule (work by Gregory I)

    mirror for princes: Gregory I’s Pastoral Care (6th century): though centred on the role of bishops, rather than secular lords, Gregory’s emphasis on humility as a key virtue of those holding worldly power, on the moral temptations of secular might, and on the need to provide moral leadership by example…

  • pastoral society (society)

    primitive culture: Herding societies: Herding societies are in many respects the direct opposite of forest horticulturalists. They are usually the most nomadic of primitive societies, they occupy arid grasslands rather than rainforests, they have a nearly total commitment to their animals, and their sociopolitical system is nearly…

  • pastoral staff (religion)

    Crosier, staff with a curved top that is a symbol of the Good Shepherd and is carried by bishops of the Roman Catholic, Anglican, and some European Lutheran churches and by abbots and abbesses as an insignia of their ecclesiastical office and, in former times, of temporal power. It is made of metal

  • Pastoral Symphony (symphony by Beethoven)

    Symphony No. 6 in F Major, symphony by Ludwig van Beethoven. Premiering in Vienna December 22, 1808, on the same concert that offered the premiere of his Symphony No. 5, this work is distinct from that one in part due to its generally optimistic character, but also by the presence of a sequence of

  • Pastoral Symphony, The (work by Gide)

    André Gide: Great creative period: …Strait Is the Gate), and La Symphonie pastorale (1919; “The Pastoral Symphony”) reflect Gide’s attempts to achieve harmony in his marriage in their treatment of the problems of human relationships. They mark an important stage in his development: adapting his works’ treatment and style to his concern with psychological problems.…

  • pastoralism (society)

    primitive culture: Herding societies: Herding societies are in many respects the direct opposite of forest horticulturalists. They are usually the most nomadic of primitive societies, they occupy arid grasslands rather than rainforests, they have a nearly total commitment to their animals, and their sociopolitical system is nearly…

  • Pastorals (work by Philips)

    Ambrose Philips: …best-known poems were collected in Pastorals and were probably written while he was a fellow at Cambridge, although they were not published until 1710. For Pastorals, published in one of Jacob Tonson’s several volumes entitled Miscellany, Philips won immediate praise from several leading men of letters, including Richard Steele and…

  • Pastorals (work by Pope)

    Alexander Pope: Early works: By 1705 his “Pastorals” were in draft and were circulating among the best literary judges of the day. In 1706 Jacob Tonson, the leading publisher of poetry, had solicited their publication, and they took the place of honour in his Poetical Miscellanies in 1709.

  • Pastore, John (United States senator)

    Jack Reed: John Pastore, Reed received an appointment to the United States Military Academy (West Point), graduating with a bachelor’s degree in 1971. While an officer in the U.S. Army, he studied public policy at Harvard University (M.P.P., 1973). He then served in the 82nd Airborne Division…

  • Pastorius, Francis Daniel (German educator)

    Francis Daniel Pastorius, German educator, humanitarian, author, and public official who helped settle Pennsylvania and was founder of Germantown, Pa. After graduating from the University of Altdorf in 1676, Pastorius practiced law in Germany and, from 1680 to 1682, traveled throughout western

  • Pastors and Masters (novel by Compton-Burnett)

    Dame Ivy Compton-Burnett: Pastors and Masters (1925), Compton-Burnett’s second novel, was published 14 years after her first, and it introduced the style that was to make her name. In this book the struggle for power, which occupies so many of her characters, is brought to light through clipped,…

  • Pastors’ Emergency League (German organization)

    Martin Niemöller: …Nazi Party, Niemöller founded the Pfarrernotbund (“Pastors’ Emergency League”). The group, among its other activities, helped combat rising discrimination against Christians of Jewish descent caught in the tension between a religious definition as Christian and the German racial definition of Jews based on the identity of people’s grandparents.

  • Pastors’ Ordinance (Swiss treaty)

    Priests’ Charter, (October 1370), treaty that unified the legal system in all the Swiss cantons, particularly highlighting two features: safety on the highways for traders and nonintervention by foreign priests. Bruno Brun, a provost wanting to escape punishment, was the catalyst for an amendment i

  • Pastoureaux (French history)

    Pastoureaux, (French: “Shepherds”), the participants in two popular outbreaks of mystico-political enthusiasm in France in 1251 and 1320. The first Pastoureaux were peasants in northeastern France who were aroused in 1251 by news of reverses suffered by King Louis IX in his first crusade against

  • pastourelle

    Pastoral literature, class of literature that presents the society of shepherds as free from the complexity and corruption of city life. Many of the idylls written in its name are far remote from the realities of any life, rustic or urban. Among the writers who have used the pastoral convention

  • Pastrana Arango, Andrés (president of Colombia)

    Andrés Pastrana Arango, Colombian journalist and politician who served as president of Colombia (1998–2002). Pastrana, the son of Misael Pastrana Borrero, president of Colombia from 1970 to 1974, earned a graduate degree in public law from San Carlos College in Bogotá and later studied at the

  • Pastrana Borrero, Misael (president of Colombia)

    Misael Pastrana Borrero, Colombian politician who served as president of Colombia from 1970 to 1974, heading a progressive National Front coalition that failed in its attempt to bring an end to the violence and turmoil that was engulfing the country and had killed some 200,000 people (b. Nov. 14,

  • Pastrone, Giovanni (Italian director and producer)

    Giovanni Pastrone, pioneer Italian motion picture director and producer. As a teenager Pastrone demonstrated a temperament both practical and creative, combining his studies in accounting with the study of the cello. He constructed several musical instruments by hand, and, though his passion for

  • pastry (food)

    Pastry, stiff dough made from flour, salt, a relatively high proportion of fat, and a small proportion of liquid. It may also contain sugar or flavourings. Most pastry is leavened only by the action of steam, but Danish pastry is raised with yeast. Pastry is rolled or patted out into thin sheets to

  • Pastry War (Mexican history)

    Pastry War, (1838–39), brief and minor conflict between Mexico and France, arising from the claim of a French pastry cook living in Tacubaya, near Mexico City, that some Mexican army officers had damaged his restaurant. A number of foreign powers had pressed the Mexican government without success

  • pasture (agriculture)

    feed: Pasture: Pasture grasses and legumes, both native and cultivated, are the most important single source of feed for ruminants such as cattle, horses, sheep, and goats. During the growing season they furnish most of the feed for these animals at a cost lower than for…

  • Pasture, Rogier de la (Netherlandish painter)

    Rogier van der Weyden, Northern Renaissance painter who, with the possible exception of Jan van Eyck, was the most influential northern European artist of his time. Though most of his work was religious, he produced secular paintings (now lost) and some sensitive portraits. Rogier was the son of a

  • Pastures, The (building, North Luffenham, Leicestershire, England, United Kingdom)

    Charles Francis Annesley Voysey: …Chorley Wood, Hertfordshire (1899–1900); and The Pastures, North Luffenham, Leicestershire (1901). The interiors of his nature-related, cottage-style buildings were characteristically long and low, with clean lines, the exteriors distinctive for their characteristic white roughcast walls, high pitched roofs, and massive chimneys. Voysey’s designs were widely copied. He designed no major…

  • pasul (Judaism)

    kosher: …it is the opposite of pasul (“unfit”).

  • Pasul Buzău (pass, Romania)

    Buzău Pass, pass connecting Brașov with Buzău, southeastern Romania, over the Buzău Mountains, in the Eastern Carpathians. It follows the valley of the Buzău River for most of its distance. A road crosses the pass, and there are short, nonconnecting rail branches from Brașov and

  • Pasul Predeal (pass, Romania)

    Predeal Pass, pass, southeastern Romania, connecting the city of Braşov and the Bîrsei Depression to the north with the city of Ploieşti and the Danube Plain to the south, across the Transylvanian Alps (Southern Carpathians). A major natural route followed by road and rail lines, it divides the

  • Pasul Surduc (pass, Romania)

    Surduc Pass, pass, southwestern Romania. The Jiu River flows through the pass between the Vâlcan (west) and the Parâng (east) mountains, in the Transylvanian Alps (Southern Carpathians). The pass connects the Petroşani Depression (upper Jiu Valley) with the Plain of Oltenia. A road and the

  • Paśupatinātha (temple, Nepal)

    Pashupati: …Hindu god Śiva) temple of Paśupatinātha (Pashupatinath). The temple is built in pagoda style with gilt roof, and the banks of the Bāghmati are paved for several hundred yards. There are numerous other shrines in the vicinity. The Śivarātri festival in February or early March attracts Hindu pilgrims from India…

  • Pasur River (river, Bangladesh)

    Pusur River, distributary of the Padma River (Ganges [Ganga] River), southwestern Bangladesh. It leaves the Madhumati River (there called the Baleswar) northeast of Khulna city and flows some 110 miles (177 km) southward past the port at Mongla and through the swampy Sundarbans region to the Bay of

  • Pasuruan (Indonesia)

    Pasuruan, city, East Java (Jawa Timur) propinsi (or provinsi; province), Java, Indonesia. It is situated on Madura Strait. The Dutch first established a fort at Pasuruan in 1707. It was the capital of a residency from 1811 to 1934, which, by transferring to Malang in 1934, precipitated the

  • Pasvanoğlu of Vidin (Ottoman leader)

    ʿayn: …of Jannina (now in Greece), Pasvanoğlu of Vidin (now in Bulgaria), and İsmail Bey of Seres (now Sérrai, Greece) maintained their own private armies, levied taxes, and dispensed justice. The ʿayn of Rusçuk (now in Bulgaria), Bayrakdar Mustafa Paşa, although he failed to restore Selim III, led a successful coup…

  • Pasvanoğlu, Osman (Ottoman leader)

    ʿayn: …of Jannina (now in Greece), Pasvanoğlu of Vidin (now in Bulgaria), and İsmail Bey of Seres (now Sérrai, Greece) maintained their own private armies, levied taxes, and dispensed justice. The ʿayn of Rusçuk (now in Bulgaria), Bayrakdar Mustafa Paşa, although he failed to restore Selim III, led a successful coup…

  • Paswan, Chirag (Indian politician)

    Lok Janshakti Party: Also prominent were his son, Chirag Paswan, who served as the chairman of the LJP’s parliamentary board, and younger brothers Pashupati Kumar Paras, who acted as the party’s Bihar unit chief, and Ramchandra Paswan, who was one of its national vice presidents.

  • Paswan, Ram Vilas (Indian politician)

    Ram Vilas Paswan, Indian politician and government official who was a long-serving national parliamentarian and was the founder and longtime leader of the Lok Janshakti Party (LJP), a regional political party in Bihar state, eastern India. Paswan was born in a village near Khagaria in what is now

  • Pat (region, Pakistan)

    Bahawalpur: East of Bahawalpur is the Pat, or Bar, a tract of land considerably higher than the adjoining valley. It is chiefly desert irrigated by the Sutlej inundation canals and yields crops of wheat, cotton, and sugarcane. Farther east the Rohi, or Cholistan, is a barren desert tract, bounded on the…

  • pat (geology)

    Jashpur Pats: The pats are a complex of small, flat-topped plateaus and hills, separated from each other by fault scarps and river valleys. To the north the Upper Pats (known locally as Uparghat) have an elevation of about 2,500 to 3,300 feet (750 to 1,000 metres). To the…

  • pat (plant)

    Jute, either of two species of Corchorus plants—C. capsularis, or white jute, and C. olitorius, including both tossa and daisee varieties—belonging to the hibiscus, or mallow, family (Malvaceae), and their fibre. The latter is a bast fibre; i.e., it is obtained from the inner bast tissue of the

  • Pat and Mike (film by Cukor [1952])

    George Cukor: Films of the 1950s: …followed by the sunny, hilarious Pat and Mike (1952), with Tracy and Hepburn again splendid as a sports promoter and a high-class multitalented athlete, respectively. Its Kanin-Gordon screenplay earned an Academy Award nomination. Cukor’s next projects were built on screenplays that Gordon and Kanin wrote independently of each other. The…

  • Pat Boone–Chevy Showroom, The (American television program)

    Pat Boone: …the weekly television variety program The Pat Boone–Chevy Showroom. He appeared in several popular films, including April Love (1957), the science-fiction movie Journey to the Center of the Earth (1959), and the musical State Fair (1962), in which he starred with fellow teen idols Bobby Darin and Ann-Margret.

  • Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid (film by Peckinpah [1973])

    Bob Dylan: …in director Sam Peckinpah’s film Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid and contributed to the sound track, including “Knockin’ on Heaven’s Door.” Writings and Drawings, an anthology of his lyrics and poetry, was published the next year. In 1974 he toured for the first time in eight years, reconvening with…

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