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  • Parzival (epic poem by Wolfram von Eschenbach)

    Parzival, epic poem, one of the masterpieces of the Middle Ages, written between 1200 and 1210 in Middle High German by Wolfram von Eschenbach. This 16-book, 25,000-line poem is in part a religious allegory describing Parzival’s painful journey from utter ignorance and naïveté to spiritual

  • PAS (chemical compound)

    history of medicine: Antituberculous drugs: …the two most important being para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) and isoniazid. With a combination of two or more of these preparations, the outlook in tuberculosis improved immeasurably. The disease was not conquered, but it was brought well under control.

  • pas assemblé (ballet)

    Assemblé, (French: “step put together”), in classical ballet, a movement in which a dancer’s feet or legs are brought together in the air and the dancer lands on both feet. It can be done front, back, dessus, dessous, and so on. In a basic assemblé, the dancer brushes the working leg into the air w

  • pas brisé (ballet step)

    Brisé, (French: “broken step”), in classical ballet, a small, battu (“beaten”) step. The quality of a brisé should be sharp and brisk. The basic brisé is a travelled assemblé that is done with a beat. The dancer brushes the working leg, as in an assemblé, to the side and into the air while

  • Pas d’acier, Le (ballet by Prokofiev)

    Sergey Prokofiev: Foreign period: …Prokofiev created new one-act ballets, Le Pas d’acier (performed in 1927) and The Prodigal Son (performed in 1929). Le Pas d’acier had a sensational success in Paris and London, thanks to its original staging and bold evocation of images of Soviet Russia at the beginning of the 1920s—with its economic…

  • pas d’élévation (ballet movement)

    Pas d’élévation, (French: “high steps”), all jumping and leaping movements in classical ballet. The steps are admired for the height at which they are performed and for the dancer’s ability to ascend without apparent effort and to land smoothly. Dancers famed for aerial maneuvers of this kind

  • pas de deux (dance)

    Pas de deux, (French: “step for two”), dance for two performers. The strictly classical balletic pas de deux followed a fixed pattern: a supported adagio, a solo variation for the male dancer, a solo variation for the female dancer, and a coda in which both participants displayed their

  • Pas, The (Manitoba, Canada)

    Manitoba: Settlement patterns: …town in the northern forest; The Pas, a trading and communications centre on the Saskatchewan River; Flin Flon, a mining centre near the Saskatchewan border; Churchill, a trans-shipment centre and port on Hudson Bay; Dauphin, a regional service town in west-central Manitoba;

  • Pas-de-Calais (department, France)

    Nord–Pas-de-Calais: …northernmost départements of Nord and Pas-de-Calais. In 2016 the Nord–Pas-de-Calais région was joined with the région of Picardy to form the new administrative entity of Hauts-de-France.

  • paşa (Turkish title)

    Pasha, title of a man of high rank or office in the Ottoman Empire and North Africa. It was the highest official title of honour in the Ottoman Empire, always used with a proper name, which it followed. It was given to soldiers and high civil officials, not to men of religion, and was purely p

  • Pasaban, Edurne (Spanish mountain climber)

    Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner: …Eun-Sun of South Korea and Edurne Pasaban of Spain—were also on track to become the first woman to summit all of the 14. Kaltenbrunner maintained that she was not competing with them and even climbed two of the peaks, Broad in 2007 and Dhaulagiri I (26,795 feet [8,167 metres]; in…

  • pasacalle (dance)

    passacaglia: …original name survives in the pasacalle, a lively folk dance for couples popular in western South America.

  • Pasadena (city, California, United States)

    Pasadena, city, Los Angeles county, southern California, U.S. It is located in the San Gabriel Valley, at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains. The area was part of Rancho el Rincon de San Pasqual, a northeast section of the San Gabriel Mission (1771). The city was founded in 1874 by Thomas B.

  • Pasadena (Texas, United States)

    Pasadena, city, Harris county, southeastern Texas, U.S. It borders Houston (west) between the Houston Ship Channel and the Clear Lake area. It was founded in 1895 by J.H. Burnett and named after Pasadena, California. Several oil refineries had been built in the area by 1920. The city’s rapid growth

  • Pasadena Community Playhouse Association (American acting company)

    Pasadena Playhouse: …acting company known as the Pasadena Community Playhouse Association. The group obtained its own 700-seat theatre (the Pasadena Playhouse) in 1925, and it went on to acquire a nationwide reputation for its productions of both Shakespearean classics and new works by such playwrights as Eugene O’Neill, Noel Coward, and Tennessee…

  • Pasadena Playhouse (theatre, Pasadena, California, United States)

    Pasadena Playhouse, theatre in Pasadena, California, that was one of the first community theatres in the United States. It was founded in 1917–18 when Gilmor Brown organized a semiprofessional acting company known as the Pasadena Community Playhouse Association. The group obtained its own 700-seat

  • Pasadena Tournament of Roses (football game)

    Rose Bowl, oldest American postseason college gridiron football contest, held annually in Pasadena, California. Each Rose Bowl game is preceded by a Tournament of Roses Parade, or Rose Parade, which is one of the world’s most elaborate and famous annual parades. In 2014 the Rose Bowl began

  • Pasajes de la guerra revolucionaria (work by Guevara)

    Che Guevara: The Cuban Revolution: …de la guerra revolucionaria (1963; Reminiscences of the Cuban Revolutionary War, 1968).

  • pasang (mammal)

    goat: …goats are descended from the pasang (Capra aegagrus), which is probably native to Asia, the earliest records being Persian. In China, Great Britain, Europe, and North America, the domestic goat is primarily a milk producer, with a large portion of the milk being used to make cheese. One or two…

  • Pasarell, Charlie (American tennis player)

    Pancho Gonzales: …at age 41, he defeated Charlie Pasarell in a 112-game match that was the longest in the history of the Wimbledon tournament.

  • Pāsārgād (ancient city, Iran)

    Pasargadae, first dynastic capital of the Persian Achaemenian dynasty, situated on a plain northeast of Persepolis in southwestern Iran. According to tradition, Cyrus II (the Great; reigned 559–c. 529 bce) chose the site because it lay near the scene of his victory over Astyages the Mede (550). The

  • Pasargadae (ancient city, Iran)

    Pasargadae, first dynastic capital of the Persian Achaemenian dynasty, situated on a plain northeast of Persepolis in southwestern Iran. According to tradition, Cyrus II (the Great; reigned 559–c. 529 bce) chose the site because it lay near the scene of his victory over Astyages the Mede (550). The

  • Pasargadae (people)

    Persis: …leading Persian tribes as the Pasargadae, to which the Achaemenians, the royal family of Persia, belonged; the Maraphii; and the Maspii. It was these three that Cyrus II the Great assembled to approve his plans for his revolt against Astyages, his Median overlord, in 550 bc.

  • Pasaxon (Laotian newspaper)

    Laos: Media and broadcasting: The largest-circulating daily newspaper is Pasaxon (“The People”), published in Vientiane; it is the official organ of the ruling party. Also published in Vientiane is the party’s quarterly journal Aloun Mai (“New Dawn”). The official news agency is Khaosan Pathet Lao (KPL). Lao National Radio broadcasts in a number of…

  • Pasay (Philippines)

    Pasay, city, central Luzon, Philippines, situated on the eastern shore of Manila Bay. A major residential suburb of Manila (immediately north), it is well known for the nightclubs that line the waterfront along Roxas (formerly Dewey) Boulevard. Pasay is densely populated and highly commercialized.

  • PASB (international organization)

    Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), organization founded in December 1902 to improve health conditions in North and South America. The organization, which is headquartered in Washington, D.C., is the oldest international health agency in the world and was the first international organization

  • Pascagoula (Mississippi, United States)

    Pascagoula, city, seat (1812) of Jackson county, southeastern Mississippi, U.S. It is situated on Pascagoula Bay of Mississippi Sound (an embayment of the Gulf of Mexico), at the mouth of the Pascagoula River adjacent to Moss Point (north) and Gautier (west), 21 miles (34 km) east of Biloxi. The

  • Pascagoula River (river, United States)

    Pascagoula: The Pascagoula River is known locally as the Singing River because of strange humming sounds audible in its vicinity. The city’s name is derived from Pasca Okla (“Bread People”), the Choctaw name for a small band of Native Americans who once lived in the area.

  • Pascal (computer language)

    Pascal, a computer programming language developed about 1970 by Niklaus Wirth of Switzerland to teach structured programming, which emphasizes the orderly use of conditional and loop control structures without GOTO statements. Although Pascal resembled ALGOL in notation, it provided the ability to

  • pascal (unit of energy measurement)

    Pascal (Pa), unit of pressure and stress in the metre-kilogram-second system (the International System of Units [SI]). It was named in honour of the French mathematician-physicist Blaise Pascal (1623–62). A pascal is a pressure of one newton per square metre, or, in SI base units, one kilogram per

  • Pascal celery (plant)
  • pascal second per cubic metre (unit of measurement)

    sound: Impedance: …per cubic metre, called an acoustic ohm, by analogy to electrical impedance.

  • pascal second per metre (unit of measurement)

    sound: Impedance: …per metre, often called the rayl, after Lord Rayleigh. The unit of acoustic impedance is the pascal second per cubic metre, called an acoustic ohm, by analogy to electrical impedance.

  • Pascal’s law (physics)

    Pascal’s principle, in fluid (gas or liquid) mechanics, statement that, in a fluid at rest in a closed container, a pressure change in one part is transmitted without loss to every portion of the fluid and to the walls of the container. The principle was first enunciated by the French scientist

  • Pascal’s principle (physics)

    Pascal’s principle, in fluid (gas or liquid) mechanics, statement that, in a fluid at rest in a closed container, a pressure change in one part is transmitted without loss to every portion of the fluid and to the walls of the container. The principle was first enunciated by the French scientist

  • Pascal’s theorem (geometry)

    projective geometry: Projective invariants: The second variant, by Pascal, as shown in the figure, uses certain properties of circles:

  • Pascal’s triangle (mathematics)

    Pascal’s triangle, in algebra, a triangular arrangement of numbers that gives the coefficients in the expansion of any binomial expression, such as (x + y)n. It is named for the 17th-century French mathematician Blaise Pascal, but it is far older. Chinese mathematician Jia Xian devised a triangular

  • Pascal’s wager (philosophy and religion)

    Pascal’s wager, Practical argument for belief in God formulated by Blaise Pascal. In his Pensées (1657–58), Pascal posed the following argument to show that belief in the Christian religion is rational: If the Christian God does not exist, the agnostic loses little by believing in him and gains

  • Pascal, Blaise (French philosopher and scientist)

    Blaise Pascal, French mathematician, physicist, religious philosopher, and master of prose. He laid the foundation for the modern theory of probabilities, formulated what came to be known as Pascal’s principle of pressure, and propagated a religious doctrine that taught the experience of God

  • Pascal, Carlo (Italian scholar)

    textual criticism: Emendation: …in which the Italian scholar C. Pascal founded the Paravia series of editions in order to purge Latin texts of German conjectures. The best critic is he who discriminates best, whether between variants or between transmitted text and conjecture.

  • Pascal, Jean (Canadian boxer)

    Bernard Hopkins: In May 2011 Hopkins defeated Jean Pascal to capture the WBC light heavyweight title. By so doing, he broke George Foreman’s record and became the oldest world champion in boxing history. Hopkins bested his own mark 22 months later when he won a unanimous decision over Tavoris Cloud to become…

  • Pascaline (technology)

    Pascaline, the first calculator or adding machine to be produced in any quantity and actually used. The Pascaline was designed and built by the French mathematician-philosopher Blaise Pascal between 1642 and 1644. It could only do addition and subtraction, with numbers being entered by manipulating

  • Pascendi Dominici Gregis (encyclical by Pius X)

    Modernism: …1907 in the papal encyclical Pascendi Dominici Gregis and the decree Lamentabili Sane Exitu of the Curia’s Holy Office. In order to ensure enforcement, the priest-scholar Umberto Benigni organized, through personal contacts with theologians, a nonofficial group of censors who would report to him those thought to be teaching condemned…

  • Pasch, Lorentz, the Younger (Danish painter)

    Western painting: Scandinavia: Another was Lorentz Pasch the Younger, who trained under Pilo in Copenhagen, although he subsequently worked mainly in Sweden. Other painters of Swedish origin were Alexander Roslin, who worked throughout Europe, and Georg Desmarées, who settled in Bavaria. The Scandinavian Rococo has a distinctive flavour that is…

  • Pasch, Moritz (German mathematician)

    mathematics: The foundations of geometry: …successfully was the German mathematician Moritz Pasch, who argued in 1882 that the mistake had been to rely too heavily on physical intuition. In his view an argument in mathematics should depend for its validity not on the physical interpretation of the terms involved but upon purely formal criteria. Indeed,…

  • Pascha (holiday)

    Easter, principal festival of the Christian church, which celebrates the Resurrection of Jesus Christ on the third day after his Crucifixion. The earliest recorded observance of an Easter celebration comes from the 2nd century, though the commemoration of Jesus’ Resurrection probably occurred

  • Pascha, Het (work by Vondel)

    Joost van den Vondel: Het Pascha (1612; “The Passover”), a dramatization of the Exodus of the Jews from Egypt, was his most important early work, in which the power and splendour of his verse is already apparent. This play was an allegory for the Calvinists who had fled from…

  • Paschal candle

    Easter: Liturgical observances: …of lights focused on the Paschal candle; the service of lessons called the prophecies; the administration of the sacraments of baptism and confirmation to adult converts; and the Easter mass. The use of the Paschal candle, to denote the appearance of light out of darkness through the Resurrection, was first…

  • Paschal controversies (Christianity)

    Paschal controversies, in the Christian Church, disputes concerning the correct date for observing Easter (Greek Pascha). The earliest controversy was over the question of whether Easter should always be celebrated on a Sunday or on the actual day of the Jewish lunar month (14th of Nisan) on which

  • Paschal I (antipope)

    Paschal (I) , antipope against both the rival antipope Theodore and the legitimate pope St. Sergius I during 687. After the death of Pope Conon in September 687, the Roman populace proceeded to enthrone both Paschal, then an archdeacon, and the archpriest Theodore. No agreement could be reached,

  • Paschal I, Saint (pope)

    Saint Paschal I, ; feast day May 14), pope from 817 to 824. A priest who had served in the Curia, Paschal was an abbot when elected pope immediately after the death of his predecessor, Stephen IV (V), on Jan. 26, 817. During his pontificate Paschal was continually concerned with the relation of the

  • Paschal II (pope)

    Paschal II, pope from 1099 to 1118. He entered a monastery as a boy and was made cardinal by Pope St. Gregory VII about 1080. He was legate to Spain under Pope Urban II, whom he was elected to succeed on Aug. 13, 1099. Although Paschal fostered the First Crusade and followed Gregory’s great

  • Paschal III (antipope)

    Paschal (III), antipope from 1164 to 1168. Against Pope Alexander III, he was one of the original supporters of the antipope Victor IV, whom he succeeded on April 22, 1164, becoming the second antipope set up by the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. Elected through the influence of R

  • Paschal lamb

    Paschal lamb, in Judaism, the lamb sacrificed at the first Passover, on the eve of the Exodus from Egypt, the most momentous event in Jewish history. According to the story of the Passover (Exodus, chapter 12), the Jews marked their doorposts with the blood of the lamb, and this sign spared them

  • paschal moon (religious calendar date)

    Easter: The date of Easter and its controversies: …14th day of the first full moon of spring, 14 Nisan (see Jewish calendar). The Resurrection, then, was observed two days later, on 16 Nisan, regardless of the day of the week. In the West the Resurrection of Jesus was celebrated on the first day of the week, Sunday, when…

  • Paschasius Radbertus, Saint (French monk and writer)

    Saint Paschasius Radbertus, ; feast day April 26), French abbot, theologian, and author whose monograph De corpore et sanguine Christi (“Concerning Christ’s Body and Blood”) later became the dominant interpretation of the Eucharist. Abandoned as an infant, Paschasius was raised by the monks of St.

  • Paschen series (physics)

    spectral line series: …the United States and Friedrich Paschen of Germany. The Lyman series lies in the ultraviolet, whereas the Paschen, Brackett, and Pfund series lie in the infrared. Their formulas are similar to Balmer’s except that the constant term is the reciprocal of the square of 1, 3, 4, or 5, instead…

  • Paschke, Ed (American artist)

    Ed Paschke, American artist affiliated with the Chicago Imagists and known for his confrontational, colourful paintings, many of which depict society’s marginal figures and make reference to pop culture, often in a highly sexualized or grotesque manner. Paschke found his earliest inspiration in

  • Paschke, Edward Francis, Jr. (American artist)

    Ed Paschke, American artist affiliated with the Chicago Imagists and known for his confrontational, colourful paintings, many of which depict society’s marginal figures and make reference to pop culture, often in a highly sexualized or grotesque manner. Paschke found his earliest inspiration in

  • paścimadharma (Buddhism)

    Mappō, in Japanese Buddhism, the age of the degeneration of the Buddha’s law, which some believe to be the current age in human history. Ways of coping with the age of mappō were a particular concern of Japanese Buddhists during the Kamakura period (1192–1333) and were an important factor in the

  • Pascin, Jules (Bulgarian-born American painter)

    Jules Pascin, Bulgarian-born American painter, renowned for his delicate draftsmanship and sensitive studies of women. Born of Italian Serbian and Spanish Jewish parents, Pascin was educated in Vienna before he moved to Munich, where he attended art school in 1903. Beginning in 1904, his drawings

  • Pasco (Washington, United States)

    Pasco, city, seat (1889) of Franklin county, southeastern Washington, U.S., situated at the confluence of the Snake and Columbia rivers, opposite Kennewick and immediately southeast of Richland. Established on the site of a prehistoric Indian village in 1880, when the Northern Pacific Railway (now

  • Pasco Knot (plateau, Peru)

    Andes Mountains: Physiography of the Central Andes: The Pasco Knot is a large, high plateau. To the west it is bounded by the Cordillera Huarochirí, on the west slope of which the Rímac River rises in a cluster of lakes fed by glaciers and descends rapidly to the ocean (15,700 feet in 60…

  • Pasco-Kennewick Bridge (bridge, Washington, United States)

    bridge: U.S. designs: The Pasco-Kennewick Bridge (1978) over the Columbia River in Washington state supported its centre span of 294 metres (981 feet) from two double concrete towers, the cables fanning down to the concrete deck on either side of the roadway. Designed by Arvid Grant in collaboration with…

  • Pascoaes, Teixeira de (Portuguese poet-philosopher)

    Teixeira de Pascoaes, Portuguese poet-philosopher who attempted to create a cult of nationalistic mystique based on saudade (“yearning”; an overtone in Portuguese and Brazilian lyric poetry that fuses hope and nostalgia). His work, together with that of António Nobre, was at the core of the

  • Pascoli, Giovanni (Italian poet)

    Giovanni Pascoli, Italian classical scholar and poet whose graceful and melancholy Italian lyric poems, perfect in form, rhythmic in style, and innovative in wording, were an important influence on the crepuscolari (“twilight poets”; see crepuscolarismo). Pascoli had an extremely painful childhood:

  • Pascon agan Arluth (Cornish drama)

    Cornish literature: …Lord”; also called in English Mount Calvary), about Christ’s suffering and Crucifixion, was written in the 14th century. Literature in Middle Cornish otherwise takes the form of lengthy religious plays produced for popular audiences and performed in the open. These are in verse, typically consisting of four- and seven-syllable lines,…

  • Pascua, Isla de (island, Chile)

    Easter Island, Chilean dependency in the eastern Pacific Ocean. It is the easternmost outpost of the Polynesian island world. It is famous for its giant stone statues. The island stands in isolation 1,200 miles (1,900 kilometres) east of Pitcairn Island and 2,200 miles west of Chile. Forming a

  • pascuita (plant)

    spurge: …is native, is the shrub pascuita (E. leucocephala), 1.5 to 4 metres tall, which is covered much of the winter with a mist of small, white bracts. In some varieties the leaves are dark red. The scarlet plume (E. fulgens), from Mexico, a 90-centimetre- (3-foot-) tall shrub with slender stems…

  • Pāsdārān-e Enqelāb (Iranian armed forces)

    Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), branch of the Iranian armed forces, independent of Iran’s regular army (the latter is sometimes called Artesh). Iran’s leader Ruhollah Khomeini established the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) in April 1979 by decree and tasked it with safeguarding

  • pase de la firma

    bullfighting: Act three: …of the faena, and the pase de la firma, in which the muleta is moved in front of the bull’s nose while the bullfighter remains motionless. Especially noteworthy is the left-handed natural, a simple but dangerous pass performed with the muleta held to the matador’s right: the sword is not…

  • Pasek, Jan Chryzostom (Polish diarist)

    Jan Chryzostom Pasek, Polish soldier best remembered for his memoirs, which provide an excellent example of Polish Baroque prose. Pasek received some education in a Jesuit school. He enlisted in the army at age 19, seeing service against the Swedes in Poland, with the Danes against the Swedes in

  • Pasenow oder die Romantik 1888 (novel by Broch)

    The Sleepwalkers: …oder die Romantik 1888 (1931; The Romantic), Esch oder die Anarchie 1903 (1931; The Anarchist), and Huguenau oder die Sachlichkeit 1918 (1932; The Realist).

  • paseo (dance step and cadence)

    Latin American dance: Folk and popular dances: …the musical measure), called the paseo, or a quick 68 cadence (i.e., a compound metre having two three-part beats to the measure), called the zapateado (rhythmic stamping). The flexed hips and knees of the asentado body position made zapateado easier to do. The dance opened with a brief promenade around…

  • paseo (dance section)

    Latin American dance: Folk and popular dances: …or introduction, often included a paseo de salida (a side-by-side promenade of the space) with a vuelta y colocación (a turn and getting into position). The next section consisted of an adorno (an improvisation of the dancers’ favourite steps). The final phase of the dances was the exaltación, which included…

  • paseo de salida (dance section)

    Latin American dance: Folk and popular dances: …or introduction, often included a paseo de salida (a side-by-side promenade of the space) with a vuelta y colocación (a turn and getting into position). The next section consisted of an adorno (an improvisation of the dancers’ favourite steps). The final phase of the dances was the exaltación, which included…

  • PASGT (body armour)

    armour: Modern body armour systems: Army developed the Personnel Armor System for Ground Troops (PASGT), which was composed of a newly designed Kevlar helmet and a Kevlar vest. Although the vest weighed 9 pounds (4 kg), slightly more than the M-1969 vest it replaced, it provided superior protection against shell fragments. In 2003,…

  • pasha (Turkish title)

    Pasha, title of a man of high rank or office in the Ottoman Empire and North Africa. It was the highest official title of honour in the Ottoman Empire, always used with a proper name, which it followed. It was given to soldiers and high civil officials, not to men of religion, and was purely p

  • Pasha, Goltz (Prussian military officer)

    Colmar, baron von der Goltz, Prussian soldier, military teacher, and writer, an imperial German field marshal who reorganized the Turkish army (1883–96), and who served as commander in chief of Turkish forces against the British in Mesopotamia (Iraq) during World War I. Despite his advanced age, he

  • Pasha, Mehmed Emin (German explorer)

    Mehmed Emin Pasha, physician, explorer, and governor of the Equatorial province of Egyptian Sudan who contributed vastly to the knowledge of African geography, natural history, ethnology, and languages. In 1865 Schnitzer became a medical officer in the Turkish army and used his leisure to begin

  • Pasha, Ragib Mehmed (Ottoman vizier)

    Mustafa III: …and his able grand vizier, Ragib Mehmed Pasha, understood the necessity for reform, their efforts were directed toward the results, not the causes, of the Ottoman decline. They were unable to curb tax abuses; hence, their fiscal reforms proved ineffective. Administrative reforms foundered on the central government’s inability to extend…

  • Pasha, Slatin (governor of The Sudan)

    Rudolf Karl, baron von Slatin, Austrian soldier in the service of England in the Sudan, famous for his imprisonment by the Mahdists (religious and nationalist revolutionaries in the Sudan) and his subsequent escape. His nearly 40 years in the Sudan indelibly influenced its development. Slatin first

  • Pashinyan, Nikol (prime minister of Armenia)

    Robert Kocharian: Post-presidency: …2018, mass protests led by Nikol Pashinyan, who was a member of parliament, forced Sarkisyan to step down within weeks. Pashinyan was elected interim prime minister and launched a campaign aimed at fighting corruption. In July Kocharian was arrested on charges relating to the crackdown of March 2008. A court…

  • pashm (animal fibre)

    Cashmere, animal-hair fibre forming the downy undercoat of the Kashmir goat and belonging to the group of textile fibres called specialty hair fibres. Although the word cashmere is sometimes incorrectly applied to extremely soft wools, only the product of the Kashmir goat is true cashmere. The

  • Pashmakli (Bulgaria)

    Smolyan, town, southern Bulgaria, on the Cherna River in the southeastern Rhodope Mountains. Its elevation, 3,300 feet (1,000 metres), makes it the highest town in Bulgaria. It is a local agricultural centre, with a timber industry and, more recently, mining. It is picturesquely located among

  • pashmina (animal fibre)

    Cashmere, animal-hair fibre forming the downy undercoat of the Kashmir goat and belonging to the group of textile fibres called specialty hair fibres. Although the word cashmere is sometimes incorrectly applied to extremely soft wools, only the product of the Kashmir goat is true cashmere. The

  • Pashto language

    Pashto language, member of the Iranian division of the Indo-Iranian group of Indo-European languages. Extensive borrowing has caused Pashto to share many features of the Indo-Aryan group of the Indo-European languages as well. Originally spoken by the Pashtun people, Pashto became the national

  • Pashtu language

    Pashto language, member of the Iranian division of the Indo-Iranian group of Indo-European languages. Extensive borrowing has caused Pashto to share many features of the Indo-Aryan group of the Indo-European languages as well. Originally spoken by the Pashtun people, Pashto became the national

  • Pashtun (people)

    Pashtun, Pashto-speaking people residing primarily in the region that lies between the Hindu Kush in northeastern Afghanistan and the northern stretch of the Indus River in Pakistan. They constitute the majority of the population of Afghanistan and bore the exclusive name of Afghan before that name

  • Pashtunistan (region, Asia)

    Afghanistan: Mohammad Zahir Shah (1933–73): The “Pashtunistan” problem regarding the political status of those Pashtun living on the British (Pakistani) side of the Durand Line developed after the independence of Pakistan in 1947.

  • Pashtunwali (social code)

    Afghanistan: Informal institutions and justice: …Pashtun tribal law, known as Pashtunwali. With the advent of the Taliban, Islamic courts and an Islamic administration of justice through interpretation of the law by clergy (ʿulamāʾ) assumed greater prominence. These changes have widely replaced the authority once exercised by traditional local leaders, or khans.

  • Pashupata (Hindu sect)

    Pashupata, perhaps the earliest Hindu sect to worship the god Shiva as the supreme deity. It gave rise in turn to numerous subsects that flourished in Gujarat and Rajasthan, at least until the 12th century, and also travelled to Java and Cambodia. The sect takes its name from Pashupati, an epithet

  • Pashupati (Hindu deity)

    Hinduism: Shaivism: …were active among humankind: as Pashupati (“Lord of Cattle”), he took over the fetters of the Vedic Varuna; as Aghora (“To Whom Nothing Is Horrible”), he showed the uncanny traits of his nature (evil, death, punishment) and also their opposites.

  • Pashupati (Nepal)

    Pashupati, town, central Nepal, situated in the Kāthmāndu Valley on the Bāghmati River, just east of Kāthmāndu. Regarded as the holiest place in Nepal, it is the site of an ancient Śaivite (i.e., devoted to the Hindu god Śiva) temple of Paśupatinātha (Pashupatinath). The temple is built in pagoda

  • Pashupatinath (temple, Nepal)

    Pashupati: …Hindu god Śiva) temple of Paśupatinātha (Pashupatinath). The temple is built in pagoda style with gilt roof, and the banks of the Bāghmati are paved for several hundred yards. There are numerous other shrines in the vicinity. The Śivarātri festival in February or early March attracts Hindu pilgrims from India…

  • Pašić, Nikola (prime minister of Serbia)

    Nikola Pašić, prime minister of Serbia (1891–92, 1904–05, 1906–08, 1909–11, 1912–18) and prime minister of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (1918, 1921–24, 1924–26). He was one of the founders, in 1918, of the kingdom that would later (from 1929 to 2003) be called Yugoslavia. Pašić, who

  • Pasig River (river, Philippines)

    Pasig River, river draining Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the Philippines, into Manila Bay at Manila. It flows north-northwest through the market town of Pasig and bisects Manila, then enters the bay between the North and South harbours. Its length is 14 mi (23 km). The wharves and quays at

  • Pasinetti, Francesco (Italian filmmaker)

    Francesco Pasinetti, Italian motion picture director, historian, critic, comedy writer, screenwriter, and film scholar. At age 19, Pasinetti began writing film criticism for a Venetian newspaper. In 1933, having submitted the first Italian thesis on the topic of motion pictures, he received a

  • Pasion (Greek banker)

    metic: …a character in Plato’s Republic; Pasion, a metic and former slave, became a great Athenian banker of the 4th century bc.

  • Pasión River (river, Guatemala)

    Usumacinta River: …by the junction of the Pasión River, which arises in the Sierra de Santa Cruz (in Guatemala), and the Chixoy River, which descends from the Sierra Madre de Guatemala.

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