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  • parting (metallurgy)

    Parting, in metallurgy, the separation of gold and silver by chemical or electrochemical means. Gold and silver are often extracted together from the same ores or recovered as by-products from the extraction of other metals. A solid mixture of the two, known as bullion, or doré, can be parted by

  • Parting of Jean Calas from His Family, The (painting by Chodowiecki)

    Daniel Chodowiecki: …success with the sentimental painting The Parting of Jean Calas from His Family (1767), which shows the influence of Greuze. Chodowiecki began engraving in 1758. After engraving several subjects from the story of the Seven Years’ War, Chodowiecki produced the famous History of the Life of Jesus Christ. Many books…

  • Partisan (Yugoslavian military force)

    Partisan, member of a guerrilla force led by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia during World War II against the Axis powers, their Yugoslav collaborators, and a rival resistance force, the royalist Chetniks. Germany and Italy occupied Yugoslavia in April 1941, but it was not until Germany invaded

  • partisan group

    Political party, a group of persons organized to acquire and exercise political power. Political parties originated in their modern form in Europe and the United States in the 19th century, along with the electoral and parliamentary systems, whose development reflects the evolution of parties. The

  • Partisan Review, The (American magazine)

    Clement Greenberg: …the fall 1939 issue of Partisan Review. In this essay Greenberg, an avowed Trotskyite Marxist, claimed that avant-garde Modernism was “the only living culture that we now have” and that it was threatened primarily by the emergence of sentimentalized “kitsch” productions—“the debased and academicized simulacra of genuine culture.” For Greenberg,…

  • Partisans (dance)

    Igor Moiseyev: …this game; and the well-known Partisans, with its representations of guerrilla warfare and men on horseback. His Bulba so effectively re-created the folklore of Belorussia that it was adopted as that region’s national dance. After 1955 the ensemble toured France, England, Egypt, Japan, and the United States; it continued to…

  • Partit Laburista (political party, Malta)

    Malta: Modern history: In 1971, however, the Malta Labour Party (Partit Laburista; MLP) came to power, embracing a policy of nonalignment and aggressively asserting Malta’s sovereignty. The MLP formed a special friendship with China and Libya and negotiated an agreement that led to the total withdrawal of British forces from Malta by…

  • Partit Nazzjonalista (political party, Malta)

    Malta: Modern history: …Malta was governed by the Nationalist Party (Partit Nazzjonalista; PN), which pursued a policy of firm alignment with the West. In 1971, however, the Malta Labour Party (Partit Laburista; MLP) came to power, embracing a policy of nonalignment and aggressively asserting Malta’s sovereignty. The MLP formed a special friendship with…

  • partition (architecture)

    Wall, structural element used to divide or enclose, and, in building construction, to form the periphery of a room or a building. In traditional masonry construction, walls supported the weight of floors and roofs, but modern steel and reinforced concrete frames, as well as heavy timber and other

  • partition (of an integer)

    combinatorics: Partitions: A partition of a positive integer n is a representation of n as a sum of positive integers n = x1 + x2 +⋯+ xk, xi ≥ 1, i = 1, 2,…, k. The numbers xi are called the

  • partition (of a set)

    Partition, in mathematics and logic, division of a set of objects into a family of subsets that are mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive; that is, no element of the original set is present in more than one of the subsets, and all the subsets together contain all the members of the original

  • partition chromatography (chemical process)

    chromatography: Early developments: …technique came to be called partition chromatography. At that time, Martin and Synge suggested that the moving phase could well be a gas. It is a historical oddity that this idea was overlooked for nearly a decade, possibly because of the war, until Martin in collaboration with the British chemist…

  • partition coefficient (biology)

    cell: Permeation: …unit of measure called the partition coefficient. The greater the solubility of a substance, the higher its partition coefficient, and the higher the partition coefficient, the higher the permeability of the membrane to that particular substance. For example, the water solubility of hydroxyl, carboxyl, and amino groups reduces their solubility…

  • partition line (heraldry)

    heraldry: Other charges: Partition lines divide the shield. The most common ones are straight. Impalement means the division of the shield into two equal parts by a straight line from the top to bottom. That method is used to show either the arms of husband and wife, the…

  • partition, line of (heraldry)

    heraldry: Other charges: Partition lines divide the shield. The most common ones are straight. Impalement means the division of the shield into two equal parts by a straight line from the top to bottom. That method is used to show either the arms of husband and wife, the…

  • Partition, Treaty of (Europe [1668])

    War of Devolution: …in January 1668 concluded a treaty with the Holy Roman emperor Leopold I whereby they agreed to partition the Spanish dominions between themselves on the Spanish king’s death and in which it was also stipulated how much territory in the meantime France was to annex in the Netherlands. The French…

  • Partitioned Zone (territory, Kuwait-Saudi Arabia)

    Kuwait: Land: …of the territory (called the Neutral, or Partitioned, Zone), but they continue to share equally the revenues from oil production in the entire area. Although the boundary with Saudi Arabia is defined, the border with Iraq remains in dispute.

  • partitioning (gas transport)

    poison: Inhalation: …move into the blood by partitioning, which is a gas-transfer process between two phases, such as between the air and the blood or the blood and the tissues. In partitioning, gas molecules move from a phase of high partial pressure to an adjacent phase of low partial pressure. When an…

  • partitioning (politics)

    20th-century international relations: South Asia: …only six months, and the partition of the subcontinent into a mainly Hindu India and a mainly Muslim but divided Pakistan (including part of Bengal in the east) at midnight on Aug. 14–15, 1947, was accompanied by panicky flight and riots between Hindus and Muslims that claimed between 200,000 and…

  • Partito Comunista Italiano (political party, Italy)

    Democrats of the Left, former Italian political party and historically western Europe’s largest communist party. The party was originally founded in January 1921 as the Italian Communist Party (Partito Comunista Italiano; PCI) by dissidents of the extreme left wing of the Italian Socialist Party

  • Partito della Rifondazione Comunista (political party, Italy)

    Democrats of the Left: …dissident communists formed the more-orthodox Communist Refoundation Party (Partito della Rifondazione Comunista), and thousands left the party.

  • Partito Democratico (political party, Italy)

    Italian Popular Party: …folded into the new centre-left Democratic Party (Partito Democratico).

  • Partito Democratico-Cristiano Popolare Svizzero (political party, Switzerland)

    Christian Democratic People’s Party, Swiss centre-right political party that endorses Christian democratic principles. With FDP. The Liberals, the Social Democratic Party, and the Swiss People’s Party, the Christian Democratic People’s Party (CVP) has governed Switzerland as part of a grand

  • Partito Liberale Italiano (political party, Italy)

    Italian Liberal Party, moderately conservative Italian political party that dominated Italian political life in the decades after unification (1861) and was a minor party in the period after World War II. The Liberal Party was first formed as a parliamentary group within the Piedmont assembly in

  • Partito Liberale-Radicale Svizzero (political party, Switzerland)

    FDP. The Liberals, centrist political party of Switzerland formed in 2009 by the merger of the Radical Democratic Party (German: Freisinnig-Demokratische Partei der Schweiz [FDP]) and the Liberal Party (German: Liberale Partei der Schweiz [LPS]). FDP. The Liberals assumed the role previously held

  • Partito Popolare Italiano (political party, Italy)

    Italian Popular Party, former centrist Italian political party whose several factions were united by their Roman Catholicism and anticommunism. They advocated programs ranging from social reform to the defense of free enterprise. The DC usually dominated Italian politics from World War II until the

  • Partito Radicale (political party, Italy)

    Italy: Years of crisis: …by Felice Cavallotti and the Radical group in parliament, who in the 1890s strongly denounced bank scandals, tariff protectionism, colonial wars, and the Triple Alliance. The Radicals were a northern, anticlerical, moralistic group that denounced the corruption of the south (Crispi was the first southern prime minister), of the monarchy,…

  • Partito Repubblicano Italiano (political party, Italy)

    Italian Republican Party, anticlerical social-reform party. Although it had only a small following in the years after World War II, its position in the centre of the Italian political spectrum enabled it to take part in many coalition governments. The party dates back to the 19th century, when

  • Partito Socialista dei Lavoratori Italiani (political party, Italy)

    Giuseppe Saragat: …statesman and founder of the Socialist Party of Italian Workers (PSLI), who held many ministerial posts from 1944 to 1964, when he became president of the Italian Republic (1964–71).

  • Partito Socialista Democratico Italiano (political party, Italy)

    Italian Democratic Socialist Party, anticommunist reform party advocating the nationalization of some industries. As a centre party, it was able to join many Italian governments in the decades after World War II. In early 1947, socialists who opposed the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) for its

  • Partito Socialista Italiano (political party, Italy)

    Italian Socialist Party, former Italian political party, one of the first Italian parties with a national scope and a modern democratic organization. It was founded in 1892 in Genoa as the Italian Workers’ Party (Partito dei Lavoratori Italiani) and formally adopted the name Italian Socialist Party

  • Partito Socialista Svizzero (political party, Switzerland)

    Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Swiss political party of the centre-left that supports an extensive government role in the economy. With the Christian Democratic People’s Party, FDP. The Liberals, and the Swiss People’s Party, the Social Democratic Party has governed Switzerland as part of

  • Partito Socialista Unita (political party, Italy)

    Italian Socialist Party, former Italian political party, one of the first Italian parties with a national scope and a modern democratic organization. It was founded in 1892 in Genoa as the Italian Workers’ Party (Partito dei Lavoratori Italiani) and formally adopted the name Italian Socialist Party

  • Partiya Karkeran Kurdistan (Kurdish militant organization)

    Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), militant Kurdish nationalist organization founded by Abdullah (“Apo”) Öcalan in the late 1970s. Although the group initially espoused demands for the establishment of an independent Kurdish state, its stated aims were later tempered to calls for greater Kurdish

  • Partiya Narodnoy Svobody (Russian political party)

    Kadet, a Russian political party advocating a radical change in Russian government toward a constitutional monarchy like Great Britain’s. It was founded in October 1905 by the Union of Liberation and other liberals associated with the zemstvos, local councils that often were centres of liberal

  • Partizan (Yugoslavian military force)

    Partisan, member of a guerrilla force led by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia during World War II against the Axis powers, their Yugoslav collaborators, and a rival resistance force, the royalist Chetniks. Germany and Italy occupied Yugoslavia in April 1941, but it was not until Germany invaded

  • Partizansk (Russia)

    Partizansk, city, Primorsky kray (territory), far eastern Russia. It lies in the valley of the Partizanskaya River. It was formed in 1932 by the amalgamation of mining settlements that developed near mine shafts in a bituminous coal basin. A thermal power station serving the region is located in

  • Partizánske (Slovakia)

    Slovakia: Settlement patterns: Partizánske and Nová Dubnica, both in the west, are examples of new towns founded, respectively, just before and after World War II.

  • Partners in Health

    Paul Farmer: …administrator who, as cofounder of Partners in Health (PIH), was known for his efforts to provide medical care in impoverished countries.

  • partnership (business)

    Partnership, voluntary association of two or more persons for the purpose of managing a business enterprise and sharing its profits or losses. In the usual partnership each general partner has full power to act for the firm in carrying on its business; thus, partners are at once proprietors and

  • Partnership for Peace Programme (international relations)

    Ukraine: Kuchma’s presidency: In 1994 Ukraine joined the Partnership for Peace Programme run by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO); the country also established a “special partnership” with the organization in 1996. In 1995 Ukraine joined the Council of Europe.

  • partnership pinochle (card game)

    pinochle: Partnership pinochle: Four play in two partnerships, with partners sitting opposite each other. All the cards are dealt out in four rounds of three cards. Each side’s aim is to score 100 or more points over as many deals as necessary. Points are scored for…

  • parton (subatomic particle)

    subatomic particle: The development of quark theory: …pointlike objects, which were named partons because they are parts of the larger particles. The experiments also showed that the partons can indeed have fractional charges of +23e or −13e and thus confirmed one of the more surprising predictions of the quark model.

  • Parton, Dolly (American musician and actress)

    Dolly Parton, American country music singer, guitarist, and actress, best known for pioneering the interface between country and pop music styles. Parton was born into a poor farming family, the fourth of 12 children. She displayed an aptitude and passion for music at an early age, and as a child

  • Parton, Dolly Rebecca (American musician and actress)

    Dolly Parton, American country music singer, guitarist, and actress, best known for pioneering the interface between country and pop music styles. Parton was born into a poor farming family, the fourth of 12 children. She displayed an aptitude and passion for music at an early age, and as a child

  • Parton, James (American author)

    biography: 19th century: One professional biographer, James Parton, published competent, well-researched narratives, such as his lives of Aaron Burr and Andrew Jackson, but they brought him thin rewards and are today outmoded. In France, biography was turned inward, to romantic introspection, a trend introduced by Étienne Pivert de Senancour’s Obermann (1804).…

  • Parton, Sara Payson Willis (American author and newspaper writer)

    Sara Payson Willis Parton, American novelist and newspaper writer, one of the first woman columnists, known for her satiric commentary on contemporary society. Grata Payson Willis early changed her first name to Sara. Her family had a strong literary and journalistic tradition: her father,

  • Partonopier und Meliur (work by Konrad von Würzburg)

    Konrad von Würzburg: …to full-scale epics, such as Partonopier und Meliur, on the fairy-lover theme, and Der Trojanerkrieg (The Trojan War), an account of the Trojan War. He is at his best in his shorter narrative poems, the secular romances Engelhart, Dasz Herzmaere (The Heart’s Tidings), and Keiser Otte mit dem Barte (Kaiser…

  • partridge (bird)

    Partridge, any of many small game birds native to the Old World and belonging to the family Phasianidae (order Galliformes). They are larger than quails, with stronger bills and feet. (For New World birds erroneously called partridges, see grouse; quail. For dwarf partridges of India called bush

  • Partridge Family, The (American television series)

    The Brady Bunch: …cue from the success of The Partridge Family (1970–74), another popular situation comedy, which centred on a large family that also happened to be a rock group. The cast went on to record commercial albums and perform live.

  • Partridge, Eric (British lexicographer)

    Eric Partridge, New Zealand-born English lexicographer, best known for his A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English (1937). Partridge served with the Australian Infantry in World War I and with the Royal Air Force in World War II. He was a fellow at the University of Oxford (1921–23),

  • Partridge, Eric Honeywood (British lexicographer)

    Eric Partridge, New Zealand-born English lexicographer, best known for his A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English (1937). Partridge served with the Australian Infantry in World War I and with the Royal Air Force in World War II. He was a fellow at the University of Oxford (1921–23),

  • Partridge, Frances Catherine Marshall (British writer)

    Frances Catherine Marshall Partridge, British biographer and diarist (born March 15, 1900, London, Eng.—died Feb. 5, 2004, London), documented her experiences on the edge of the Bloomsbury group; beginning in her late 70s she published two volumes of autobiography and six diaries. She was married (

  • partridgeberry (plant)

    Partridgeberry, (Mitchella repens), North American plant of the madder family (Rubiaceae), growing in dry woods from southwestern Newfoundland to Minnesota and southward to Florida and Texas. It is evergreen, with nearly round, 18-millimetre (0.7-inch) leaves, often variegated with white lines; a

  • parts, integration by (mathematics)

    gamma function: …technique from calculus known as integration by parts, it can be proved that the gamma function has the following recursive property: if x > 0, then Γ(x + 1) = xΓ(x). From this it follows that Γ(2) = 1 Γ(1) = 1; Γ(3) = 2 Γ(2) = 2 × 1…

  • Partulacea (gastropod superfamily)

    gastropod: Classification: Superfamily Partulacea Small, generally arboreal snails found on high volcanic islands of Polynesia and Micronesia, a few in Melanesia. Order Mesurethra Ureter represented by lateral opening of very short kidney, pore of ureter opening near or behind middle of mantle cavity; about 1,500 species. Superfamily

  • parturient paresis (animal disease)

    Parturient paresis, in cattle, a disorder characterized by abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia). It occurs in cows most commonly within three days after they have calved, at a time when the cow’s production of milk has put a severe strain on its calcium stores.

  • parturition (biology)

    Birth, process of bringing forth a child from the uterus, or womb. The prior development of the child in the uterus is described in the article human embryology. The process and series of changes that take place in a woman’s organs and tissues as a result of the developing fetus are discussed in

  • party (law)

    procedural law: Parties: Every civil lawsuit involves at least two parties—a plaintiff making a claim and a defendant resisting it. Beyond this basic requirement, legal systems differ slightly in their approach to the question of whether other parties may or must be joined.

  • Party Ain’t Over, The (album by Jackson)

    Wanda Jackson: …a comeback with the album The Party Ain’t Over (2011), which was produced by Jack White of the White Stripes, and she followed that with Unfinished Business (2012). She was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2009.

  • Party for Freedom (political party, Netherlands)

    Euroskepticism: The emergence of Euroskeptic parties: … in France and the Dutch Party for Freedom (Partij voor de Vrijheid; PVV). Although the National Front and the PVV were known primarily for promoting anti-immigration and anti-Islamic policies, both were quick to capitalize on populist sentiment in the wake of the euro-zone debt crisis. In November 2013 National Front…

  • Party Girl (film by Ray [1958])

    Nicholas Ray: Films of the late 1950s: Party Girl (1958) was a return to the crime genre, starring Cyd Charisse as a 1920s Chicago showgirl who questions her ties to a syndicate boss (Lee J. Cobb) when a mob lawyer (Robert Taylor) wants her to make a break with him.

  • Party of Labour of Albania (political party, Albania)

    Enver Hoxha: …communists helped Hoxha found the Albanian Communist Party (afterward called the Party of Labour). Hoxha became first secretary of the party’s Central Committee and political commissar of the communist-dominated Army of National Liberation. He was prime minister of Albania from its liberation in 1944 until 1954, simultaneously holding the ministry…

  • party per pale (heraldry)

    heraldry: Other charges: …divisions of a shield are: party per pale (or, simply, per pale), division of the field into two equal parts by a perpendicular line (that resembles the impalement just mentioned but does not serve the same purpose of combining arms); party per fess, division into two equal parts by a…

  • party press era (United States history)

    Party press era, period (1780s–1830s) in United States history when news editors received patronage from political parties, usually in the form of government printing contracts. An editor would readily endorse a party’s candidates and champion its principles, typically in line with his own beliefs,

  • party system

    Political party, a group of persons organized to acquire and exercise political power. Political parties originated in their modern form in Europe and the United States in the 19th century, along with the electoral and parliamentary systems, whose development reflects the evolution of parties. The

  • party whip (government)

    House of Commons: Functions and operation: …exercised by members called “whips.”

  • party-column ballot (politics)

    election: Balloting: On party-column ballots, it is possible to vote a “straight ticket” for all of a party’s candidates by entering a single mark, though voting for individual candidates is usually possible. Conversely, on the office-bloc ballot, voters choose individual candidates grouped by office rather than party, which…

  • party-list system (voting)

    List system, a method of voting for several electoral candidates, usually members of the same political party, with one mark of the ballot. It is used to elect the parliaments of many western European countries, including Switzerland, Italy, the Benelux countries, and Germany. Electors vote for o

  • Partyka, Natalia (Polish table-tennis player)
  • Paru River (river, Brazil)

    Paru River, river, northern Brazil, rising on the southern slopes of the Tumuc-Humac Mountains, on the Suriname border, and flowing for about 500 miles (800 km) south-southeastward through Pará state. It empties into the lower Amazon River just above Almeirim. The Paru is navigable for 50 miles (80

  • Parufamet Distribution Company (German-American film company)

    history of the motion picture: Germany: …in the founding of the Parufamet (Paramount-UFA-Metro) Distribution Company in early 1926 and the almost immediate emigration of UFA film artists and technicians to Hollywood, where they worked for a variety of studios. This first Germanic migration was temporary. Many of the filmmakers went back to UFA disgusted at the…

  • Parula americana (bird)

    wood warbler: …or American, parula warbler (Parula americana), which breeds in eastern North America, is pale blue with white wing bars, a partial white eye ring, and a yellow breast crossed by a narrow dark band. The black-and-white warbler (Mniotilta varia), common east of the Rockies, is streaked and has creeperlike…

  • Parulidae (bird)

    Wood warbler, any of the species in the songbird family Parulidae. Wood warblers are New World birds, distinct from the true warblers of the Old World, which represent a taxonomically diverse group. Because most wood warblers are brightly coloured and active, they are known as the “butterflies of

  • Parun, Vesna (Croatian author)

    Croatian literature: Vesna Parun, an important and fruitful poet, was recognized most notably for her collection of poems Crna maslina (1955; “Black Olive Tree”). The younger prose writer Antun Šoljan took more cosmopolitan themes for his work, as did the poet Ivan Slamnig of the same generation.…

  • parure (jewelry)

    Parure, matched set of jewelry consisting of such pieces as earrings, bracelet, brooch, necklace, and ring. By the mid-17th century, jewels had ceased to be created as individual works of art expressing some idea or fancy and had instead become mere personal ornaments that were beautiful but

  • Parus atricapillus (bird)

    animal social behaviour: Dominance: …role in mating patterns in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), where more dominant males tend to mate with more dominant females. Higher-status pairs then experience greater overwinter survival, presumably compete more effectively for high-quality breeding space, and produce more offspring.

  • Parus bicolor (bird)

    titmouse: …10 North American species, the tufted titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor, formerly Parus bicolor) is the best known, ranging widely over the eastern United States, where its cheery whistled “peter-peter-peter” rings through deciduous woodlands, orchards, and suburbs. Often attracted to bird feeders, this handsome crested little bird relishes sunflowers, although insects make…

  • Parus major (bird)

    titmouse: …other tits, such as the great tit (Parus major). This widespread, adaptable species is found from Great Britain through Russia to Japan and southern Asia. It is a common visitor to backyards and lays its eggs in drainpipes, mailboxes, and hollow trees.

  • Parus montanus (bird)

    Paridae: …Europe there is the similar willow tit (P. montanus), immortalized by Gilbert and Sullivan.

  • Parva naturalia (work by Aristotle)

    dream: Dreams as extensions of the waking state: …his work Parva naturalia (On the Senses and Their Objects), the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384–322 bce), despite the practice of divination and incubation among his contemporaries, attributed dreams to sensory impressions from “external objects…pauses within the body…eddies…of sensory movement often remaining like they were when they first started, but…

  • Pârvan, Vasile (Romanian archaeologist)

    Romanian literature: Between the wars: The archaeologist Vasile Pârvan commemorated the sacrifices of the war generation in Parentalia (1922); the historian and politician Nicolae Iorga founded literary periodicals and a people’s university (an adult education centre unaffiliated with the Romanian general educational system), wrote literary works, and was a great influence on…

  • Parvanov, Georgi (president of Bulgaria)

    Georgi Parvanov, Bulgarian politician who served as president of his country (2002–12). He was the first former communist to be elected president of Bulgaria since the fall of communism in the country and the first Bulgarian head of state to be reelected. Parvanov obtained a master’s degree in

  • Parvanov, Georgi Sedefchov (president of Bulgaria)

    Georgi Parvanov, Bulgarian politician who served as president of his country (2002–12). He was the first former communist to be elected president of Bulgaria since the fall of communism in the country and the first Bulgarian head of state to be reelected. Parvanov obtained a master’s degree in

  • Parvati (Hindu deity)

    Parvati, (Sanskrit: “Daughter of the Mountain”) wife of the Hindu god Shiva. Parvati is a benevolent goddess. Born the daughter of a mountain called Himalaya, she won Shiva’s affection only after undergoing severe ascetic discipline. The couple had two children. The Mahabharata, the Ramayana,

  • Pārvatī Devī (temple, Nācnā Kuṭthārā, India)

    South Asian arts: The Gupta period (4th–6th centuries ad): The Pārvatī Devī temple at Nācnā Kuṭthārā, also of this period, is interesting for the covered circumambulatory provided around the sanctum and the large hall in front. When first discovered, the temple had an entire chamber above the sanctum (which subsequently collapsed). Though provided with a…

  • parve (Judaism)

    Pareve, (Yiddish: “neutral”), in the observance of Jewish dietary laws (kashrut), those foods that may be eaten indiscriminately, with either meat dishes or dairy products—two general classes of food that may not be consumed at the same meal. Fruits and vegetables are classified as pareve unless

  • parveh (Judaism)

    Pareve, (Yiddish: “neutral”), in the observance of Jewish dietary laws (kashrut), those foods that may be eaten indiscriminately, with either meat dishes or dairy products—two general classes of food that may not be consumed at the same meal. Fruits and vegetables are classified as pareve unless

  • Parvīn Eʿteṣāmī (Persian author)

    Islamic arts: Persian literatures: The lyrics of Parvīn Eʿteṣāmī (died 1940) are regarded as near classics, despite a trace of sentimentality in their sympathetic treatment of the poor. Some Persian writers whose left-wing political ideas brought them into conflict with the government left for what is now Tajikistan. Of these, the gifted…

  • parvocellular layer (anatomy)

    photoreception: Central processing of visual information: …layers contain small cells (the parvocellular [P] layers). This division reflects a difference in the types of ganglion cells that supply the M and P layers. The M layers receive their input from so-called Y-cells, which have fast responses, relatively poor resolution, and weak or absent responses to colour. The…

  • Parvoviridae (virus)

    Parvovirus, any virus belonging to the family Parvoviridae. Parvoviruses have small nonenveloped virions (virus particles), and the icosahedral capsid (the protein shell surrounding the viral nucleic acids) is made up of 32 capsomeres (capsid subunits) measuring 18–26 nm (1 nm = 10−9 metre) in

  • Parvovirinae (virus subfamily)

    parvovirus: Parvoviruses fall into two subfamilies: Parvovirinae, which infect vertebrates, and Densovirinae, which infect insects. Type species of the Parvovirinae include minute virus of mice, human parvovirus, and Aleutian mink disease virus. Whereas many species of Parvovirinae replicate autonomously, the genus Dependovirus contains viruses that replicate only in the presence of…

  • parvovirus (virus)

    Parvovirus, any virus belonging to the family Parvoviridae. Parvoviruses have small nonenveloped virions (virus particles), and the icosahedral capsid (the protein shell surrounding the viral nucleic acids) is made up of 32 capsomeres (capsid subunits) measuring 18–26 nm (1 nm = 10−9 metre) in

  • Parvus (Russian socialist)

    Alexander Israel Helphand, Russian-German socialist who helped enable Lenin to reenter Russia in 1917 from exile in Switzerland, thus helping to ignite the Russian Revolution of October 1917. Helphand, the son of Jewish parents, grew up in Odessa, on the Black Sea. He was attracted to revolutionary

  • parwa (literature)

    Southeast Asian arts: Shadow-puppet theatre: …Mahabharata epics, while the majority—the Pandawa (Pāṇḍav in Sanskrit) cycle of about 100 plays—are essentially Javanese creations in which the five heroic Pandawa brothers are placed in different situations. Three and sometimes four god-clown-servants and a set of ogre-antagonists who are not in the epics at all suggest how far…

  • Parwan (Afghanistan)

    Afghanistan: Dūst Moḥammad (1826–39; 1843–63): In a battle at Parwan on November 2, 1840, Dūst Moḥammad had the upper hand, but the next day he surrendered to the British in Kabul. He was deported to India with the greater part of his family.

  • paryapti (philosophy)

    Indian philosophy: The new school: …direct and indirect temporal relations, paryapti relation (in which a number of entities reside, in sets rather than in individual members of those sets), svarupa relation (which holds, for example, between an absence and its locus), and relation between a knowledge and its object.

  • Parys (South Africa)

    Parys, resort town, northern Free State province, South Africa. It is situated on the southern bank of the Vaal River. Parys was founded in 1873 and most likely named by a German surveyor named Schilbach, who had fought in the siege of Paris in 1870. Parys officially became a town in 1887. Tobacco,

  • Parysatis (queen of Persia)

    Cyrus The Younger: …Darius II and his wife, Parysatis.

  • Paryuṣaṇa (Jaina festival)

    Paryuṣaṇa, a popular eight-day festival in Jainism, a religion of India. It generally is celebrated by members of the Śvetāmbara sect from the 13th day of the dark half of the month Bhādrapada (August–September) to the 5th day of the bright half of the month. Among Digambaras, a corresponding

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