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  • Partenopeus de Blois (anonymous romance)

    romance: The theme of separation and reunion: The popular Partenopeus de Blois (c. 1180), of which 10 French manuscripts and many translated versions are known, resembles the Cupid and Psyche story told in the Roman writer Apuleius’ Golden Ass (2nd century ad), although there is probably no direct connection. In the early 13th-century Galeran…

  • parterre (gardening)

    Parterre, the division of garden beds in such a way that the pattern is itself an ornament. It is a sophisticated development of the knot garden, a medieval form of bed in which various types of plant were separated from each other by dwarf hedges of box, thrift, or any low-growing controllable

  • parterre de broderie (garden)

    Broderie, type of parterre garden evolved in France in the late 16th century by Étienne Dupérac and characterized by the division of paths and beds to form an embroidery-like pattern. The patterns were flowing ribbons of form (generally of formalized foliate design) rather than the angular shapes

  • Parthasarathi Mishra (Indian philosopher)

    Indian philosophy: The logical period: …century), Shalikanatha (9th century), and Parthasarathi Mishra (10th century) belong to this age. The greatest Indian philosopher of the period, however, was Shankara. All these men defended Brahmanism against the “unorthodox” schools, especially against the criticisms of Buddhism. The debate between Brahmanism and Buddhism was continued, on a logical level,…

  • Parthaunisa (ancient city, Turkmenistan)

    Nisa, first capital of the Parthians, located near modern Ashgabat in Turkmenistan. Nisa was traditionally founded by Arsaces I (reigned c. 250–c. 211 bc), and it was reputedly the royal necropolis of the Parthian kings. Excavations at Nisa have revealed substantial buildings, many inscribed

  • Parthenium argentatum (plant)

    Guayule, (Parthenium argentatum), rubber-containing desert shrub of the family Asteraceae, native to the north-central plateau of Mexico and the Big Bend area of Texas. It has small white flowers and narrow silvery leaves that alternate along the stem. Prehistoric Indians are believed to have

  • Parthenius of Nicaea (Greek poet and grammarian)

    Parthenius of Nicaea, Greek poet and grammarian, described as the “last of the Alexandrians.” Born in Nicaea in Asia Minor, Parthenius was captured in the third Mithradatic war and taken to Italy, where he became the Roman poet Virgil’s teacher in Greek. Parthenius played an important role in

  • parthenocarpy (botany)

    Parthenocarpy, development of fruit without fertilization. The fruit resembles a normally produced fruit but is seedless. Varieties of the pineapple, banana, cucumber, grape, orange, grapefruit, persimmon, and breadfruit exemplify naturally occurring parthenocarpy. Seedless parthenocarpic fruit

  • Parthenocissus quinquefolia (plant)

    Virginia creeper, (Parthenocissus quinquefolia), woody vine in the grape family (Vitaceae). It is commonly found in eastern North America and is often grown as a covering vine for walls, fences, and trunks of large trees. Several cultivated varieties, with smaller leaves and shorter tendrils, have

  • Parthenocissus tricuspidata (plant)

    Boston ivy, clinging woody vine of the grape family (Vitaceae). Native to eastern Asia, the plant has been introduced to other regions, particularly as a climbing ornamental on stone and brick facades. The vine grows to a length of about 18 m (about 60 feet). The alternate leaves, which are either

  • parthenogenesis

    Parthenogenesis, a reproductive strategy that involves development of a female (rarely a male) gamete (sex cell) without fertilization. It occurs commonly among lower plants and invertebrate animals (particularly rotifers, aphids, ants, wasps, and bees) and rarely among higher vertebrates. An egg

  • parthenogenetic chimera (genetics)

    chimera: Other types of chimeras include parthenogenetic and androgenetic chimeras. The former may be produced when a fertilized egg generated through parthenogenesis (a form of asexual reproduction) fuses with a normal zygote. Parthenogenesis in nature generally is limited to lower plants and invertebrates and is prevented in mammals by genomic imprinting…

  • Parthenon (temple, Athens, Greece)

    Parthenon, temple that dominates the hill of the Acropolis at Athens. It was built in the mid-5th century bce and dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena Parthenos (“Athena the Virgin”). The temple is generally considered to be the culmination of the development of the Doric order, the simplest of

  • Parthenon Sculptures (Greek sculpture)

    Elgin Marbles, collection of ancient Greek sculptures and architectural details in the British Museum, London, where they are now called the Parthenon Sculptures. The objects were removed from the Parthenon at Athens and from other ancient buildings and shipped to England by arrangement of Thomas

  • Parthenope investigatoris (crab)

    spider crab: Parthenope investigatoris, a spider crab of the Indian Ocean, is camouflaged to resemble the coral on which it lives.

  • Parthenopean Republic (historical republic, Italy)

    Parthenopean Republic, short-lived republic in Naples proclaimed on Jan. 23, 1799, after a popular uprising of pro-French republicans resulted in the ouster of King Ferdinand IV. A counterrevolution the same year, aided by a papal army and an English fleet under Horatio Nelson and marked by w

  • Parthenophil and Parthenophe (work by Barnes)

    Barnabe Barnes: …sonneteers and the author of Parthenophil and Parthenophe.

  • Parthia (ancient region, Iran)

    Parthia, ancient land corresponding roughly to the modern region of Khorāsān in Iran. The term is also used in reference to the Parthian empire (247 bc–ad 224). The first certain occurrence of the name is as Parthava in the Bīsitūn inscription (c. 520 bc) of the Achaemenian king Darius I, but

  • Parthian empire (ancient region, Iran)

    Parthia, ancient land corresponding roughly to the modern region of Khorāsān in Iran. The term is also used in reference to the Parthian empire (247 bc–ad 224). The first certain occurrence of the name is as Parthava in the Bīsitūn inscription (c. 520 bc) of the Achaemenian king Darius I, but

  • Parthian language

    Parthian language, Middle Iranian language, an extinct member of the West Iranian languages of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. Parthian languages originated in the ancient province of Parthia (the northeastern portion of modern Iran) and became the official language of the

  • Parti Canadien (political party, Canada)

    Canada: The rebellions of 1837–38: …Parti Canadien (later called the Parti Patriote) and dominant in the legislature, grew convinced that the English-speaking, Protestant Château Clique aimed to destroy their way of life. They strongly resented the increase in non-French immigrants and rioted when these immigrants were blamed for an outbreak of cholera and typhoid in…

  • Parti Communiste Français (political party, France)

    French Communist Party, French political party that espouses a communist ideology and has joined coalition governments with the French Socialist Party. Founded in 1920 by the left wing of the French Socialist Party and affiliated with the Soviet-run Communist International, the PCF did not gain

  • Parti Congolais du Travail (political party, Republic of the Congo)

    Republic of the Congo: Political process: …the most active are the Congolese Labour Party (Parti Congolais du Travail; PCT), the Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development (Mouvement Congolais pour la Démocratie et le Développement Intégral; MCDDI), the Pan-African Union for Social Development (Union Panafricaine pour la Démocratie Sociale; UPADS), Rally for Democracy and Social Progress…

  • Parti Conservateur du Canada (political party, Canada)

    Conservative Party of Canada, conservative Canadian political party. The party was formed in 2003 by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party. The idea for a merger of Canada’s main conservative parties arose in the 1990s when national support for the Progressive

  • Parti Démocrate-Chrétien Suisse (political party, Switzerland)

    Christian Democratic People’s Party, Swiss centre-right political party that endorses Christian democratic principles. With FDP. The Liberals, the Social Democratic Party, and the Swiss People’s Party, the Christian Democratic People’s Party (CVP) has governed Switzerland as part of a grand

  • Parti Démocratique de Guinée (political party, Guinea)

    Guinea: Constitutional framework: …one-party state ruled by the Democratic Party of Guinea (Parti Démocratique de Guinée; PDG). In April 1984, after Touré’s death, a military group led by Lansana Conté abolished the PDG and all associated revolutionary committees and replaced them with the Military Committee for National Recovery (Comité Militaire de Redressement National;…

  • Parti Démocratique de la Côte d’Ivoire (political party, Côte d’Ivoire)

    Félix Houphouët-Boigny: …year he also founded the Democratic Party of Côte d’Ivoire (PDCI); this party was affiliated with the French Communist Party and was an important component of the interterritorial French West African Federation party, the African Democratic Rally, of which he was also president.

  • Parti Démocratique Gabonais (political party, Gabon)

    Gabon: Constitutional framework: …was amended to give the Gabonese Democratic Party (Parti Démocratique Gabonais; PDG), the only legal party after 1968, roles in the executive and legislative processes. In May 1990, following a national conference that was called in response to the upheaval of the previous four months, the constitution was amended to…

  • Parti Démocratique Sénégalais (political party, Senegal)

    Abdoulaye Wade: In 1974 Wade founded the Senegalese Democratic Party (Parti Démocratique Sénégalais; PDS) as an opposition party to Pres. Léopold Senghor’s Senegalese Progressive Union (Union Progressiste Sénégalaise; UPS), which was known as the Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste; PS) after 1976. The PDS became the centre of a fledgling opposition movement in…

  • Parti Libéral du Canada (political party, Canada)

    Liberal Party of Canada, centrist Canadian political party, one of the major parties in the country since the establishment of the Dominion of Canada in 1867. The Liberal Party has been the governing party at the federal level for most of the period since the late 1890s, bringing together pragmatic

  • Parti Nigérien pour ala Démocratie et le Socialisme–Tarayya (political party, Nigeria)

    Niger: Military coup and return to civilian rule: The Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism–Tarayya (Parti Nigérien pour la Démocratie et le Socialisme–Tarayya; PNDS), an established opposition party, won the greatest representation in the National Assembly by a single party with 39 seats; they were followed by the MNSD with 26 seats. No one…

  • Parti Ouvrier (political party, France)

    Fernand Pelloutier: …became a member of the Parti Ouvrier, the largest Marxist Socialist party in France at the time; but he left it in 1892 after the party’s leader repudiated the idea of the general strike as romantic and impractical. Disillusioned by leftist party politics, he turned to anarchism and in 1895…

  • Parti Ouvrier Français (political party, France)

    Socialist Party: France’s first Marxist party, the French Workers’ Party (Parti Ouvrier Français), founded in 1880, claimed to represent the proletariat; its constitution was drafted largely by the radical labour leader Jules Guesde with input from Karl Marx (who wrote the preamble), Marx’s son-in-law Paul Lafargue, and Friedrich Engels. The French Workers’…

  • Parti Patriote (political party, Canada)

    Canada: The rebellions of 1837–38: …Parti Canadien (later called the Parti Patriote) and dominant in the legislature, grew convinced that the English-speaking, Protestant Château Clique aimed to destroy their way of life. They strongly resented the increase in non-French immigrants and rioted when these immigrants were blamed for an outbreak of cholera and typhoid in…

  • Parti Populaire Algérian (Algerian revolutionary movement)

    Ahmed Messali Hadj: …the Parti Populaire Algérien (PPA; Algerian Popular Party), which was suppressed only to reemerge in 1946 as the Mouvement pour le Triomphe des Libertés Démocratiques (MTLD; Movement for the Triumph of Democratic Liberties). His influence, however, declined dramatically in the postwar period. In 1954 he formed the Mouvement National Algérian…

  • Parti Populaire Français (French political group)

    fascism: National fascisms: …the French Popular Party (Parti Populaire Français), led by Jacques Doriot; and French Action (Action Française), led by Charles Maurras. After the German invasion in 1940, a number of French fascists served in the Vichy regime of Marshal Philippe Pétain.

  • Parti Populaire Syrien (political party, Syria)

    Anṭūn Saʿādah: 16, 1932, Saʿādah founded the Syrian Social Nationalist Party, a secret society that grew from a few students to about 1,000 members by 1935. During the 1930s the party expanded into Syria, Transjordan, and Palestine. Saʿādah had created perhaps the first indigenous Arab youth organization. It stressed discipline, struggle, and…

  • Parti pris (French-Canadian literary group)

    Canadian literature: The Quiet Revolution: …André Major, founded the magazine Parti pris (1963–68; “Position Taken”) and a publishing house of the same name to press their demands for a secular, socialist, and independent Quebec. The Parti pris writers politicized joual, the Quebec working-class dialect, by using it to express their alienation in works such as…

  • Parti Progressiste-Conservateur du Canada (political party, Canada)

    Progressive Conservative Party of Canada, former national political party in Canada, historically (with the Liberal Party of Canada) one of Canada’s two major parties. In the 1990s, however, its support plummeted, and in 2003 it merged with the Canadian Alliance to form the Conservative Party of

  • Parti Québécois (political party, Canada)

    Parti Québécois, provincial Canadian political party founded in 1968 by journalist René Lévesque and other French Canadian separatists in the largely French-speaking province of Quebec. In 1968 Lévesque merged his Mouvement Souveraineté-Association (Sovereignty-Association Movement)—which advocated

  • Parti Radical (political party, France)

    Radical-Socialist Party, the oldest of the French political parties, officially founded in 1901 but tracing back to “radical” groups of the 19th century. Traditionally a centrist party without rigid ideology or structure, it was most prominent during the Third Republic (to 1940) and the Fourth

  • Parti Radical-Démocratique Suisse (political party, Switzerland)

    FDP. The Liberals, centrist political party of Switzerland formed in 2009 by the merger of the Radical Democratic Party (German: Freisinnig-Demokratische Partei der Schweiz [FDP]) and the Liberal Party (German: Liberale Partei der Schweiz [LPS]). FDP. The Liberals assumed the role previously held

  • Parti Républicain (political party, France)

    Republican Party, French political party formed in May 1977 when the former National Foundation of Independent Republicans (Fédération Nationale des Républicains Indépendents)—founded in 1966 by Valéry Giscard d’Estaing—was merged with other small groups. It is conservative in domestic social and

  • Parti Républicain Radical et Radical-Socialiste (political party, France)

    Radical-Socialist Party, the oldest of the French political parties, officially founded in 1901 but tracing back to “radical” groups of the 19th century. Traditionally a centrist party without rigid ideology or structure, it was most prominent during the Third Republic (to 1940) and the Fourth

  • Parti Rouge (political party, Canada)

    Parti Rouge, radical party formed in Canada East (now Quebec) about 1849 and inspired primarily by the French-Canadian patriot Louis-Joseph Papineau. In general the Parti Rouge advocated a more democratic system of government, with a broadly based electorate, and the abolition of the old

  • Parti Social Démocrate (political party, Madagascar)

    Madagascar: The French Union (1946–58): …Vice-Premier Philibert Tsiranana founded the Social Democratic Party (Parti Social Démocrate; PSD), which, though most of its members were non-Merina from the coastal areas, offered to cooperate with the Merina. In 1958 France agreed to let its overseas territories decide their own fate. In a referendum on September 28, Madagascar…

  • Parti Social Français (political party, France)

    François de La Rocque: Rocque then formed the Parti Social Français, an openly fascist political party. In the mid-1940s he was arrested by the Nazis and spent more than two years in a German prison, from which he was liberated by the Allies. Officially disgraced in his homeland, he was forced to retire…

  • Parti Socialiste (political party, France)

    Socialist Party (PS), major French political party formally established in 1905. The Socialist Party traces its roots to the French Revolution. Its predecessor parties, formed in the 19th century, drew inspiration from political and social theorists such as Charles Fourier, Henri de Saint-Simon,

  • Parti Socialiste de France (political party, France)

    Socialist Party: …in progressive governments; and the Socialist Party of France (Parti Socialiste de France), led by Guesde and Édouard-Marie Vaillant, both of whom opposed any participation in bourgeois coalitions. At a congress held in Paris in 1905, the two parties merged to become the French Section of the Workers’ International (Section…

  • Parti Socialiste Destourien (political party, Tunisia)

    Democratic Constitutional Rally, Tunisian political party that led the movement for independence from France (1956) and ruled Tunisia until 2011. The Neo-Destour was formed in 1934 by discontented young members of the more conservative Destour. After a bitter struggle with the parent organization,

  • Parti Socialiste Français (political party, France)

    Socialist Party: …1901, two parties emerged: the French Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste Français), consisting of Marxists and anti-Marxists who were prepared to participate in progressive governments; and the Socialist Party of France (Parti Socialiste de France), led by Guesde and Édouard-Marie Vaillant, both of whom opposed any participation in bourgeois coalitions. At…

  • Parti Socialiste Suisse (political party, Switzerland)

    Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Swiss political party of the centre-left that supports an extensive government role in the economy. With the Christian Democratic People’s Party, FDP. The Liberals, and the Swiss People’s Party, the Social Democratic Party has governed Switzerland as part of

  • Partia Demokratike e Kosovës (political party, Kosovo)

    Kosovo: Self-declared independence: …Minister Hashim Thaçi of the Democratic Party of Kosovo (Partia Demokratike e Kosovës; PDK), prompting the dissolution of the body and the scheduling of elections. The fall of the government followed the September resignation of Pres. Fatmir Sejdiu, who in October withdrew his Democratic League of Kosovo (Lidhja Demokratike e…

  • Partia Demokratyczna (political party, Poland)

    Tadeusz Mazowiecki: …2005 he helped found the Democratic Party (Partia Demokratyczna [PD]; not to be confused with Poland’s other Democratic Party, Stronnictwo Demokratyczne [SD], founded in 1939). From 1992 to 1995 Mazowiecki represented the former Yugoslavia as a special reporter to the United Nations Human Rights Commission.

  • Partia e Punes se Shqiperise (political party, Albania)

    Enver Hoxha: …communists helped Hoxha found the Albanian Communist Party (afterward called the Party of Labour). Hoxha became first secretary of the party’s Central Committee and political commissar of the communist-dominated Army of National Liberation. He was prime minister of Albania from its liberation in 1944 until 1954, simultaneously holding the ministry…

  • partial (acoustics)

    wind instrument: The production of sound: …harmonic series are known as partials and are numbered in the order in which they appear. The following example shows the harmonic series for the fundamental pitch C. (Asterisked notes are noticeably out of tune with the tempered chromatic scale, which contains 12 equal semitones.)

  • partial abruptio placentae (medicine)

    pregnancy: Abruptio placentae: …the uterus, a condition called partial abruptio placentae, blood either collects in a pool between the uterus and the placenta (concealed hemorrhage) or seeps out of the uterus into the vagina (external hemorrhage). When the entire placenta separates from the uterus, there is massive hemorrhage into the uterine cavity and…

  • partial acid hydrolysis (biochemistry)

    Frederick Sanger: Insulin research: …to its constituent amino acids, partial acid hydrolysis generated insulin peptides composed of several amino acids. Using another recently introduced technique, paper chromatography, Sanger was able to sequence the amino-terminal peptides of each chain, demonstrating for the first time that a protein has a specific sequence at a specific site.…

  • partial derivative (mathematics)

    Partial derivative, In differential calculus, the derivative of a function of several variables with respect to change in just one of its variables. Partial derivatives are useful in analyzing surfaces for maximum and minimum points and give rise to partial differential equations. As with ordinary

  • partial differential equation (mathematics)

    Partial differential equation, in mathematics, equation relating a function of several variables to its partial derivatives. A partial derivative of a function of several variables expresses how fast the function changes when one of its variables is changed, the others being held constant (compare

  • partial eclipse (astronomy)

    eclipse: Eclipses of the Sun: …the eclipse is then called partial for that observer. The umbral cone is narrow at the distance of Earth, and a total eclipse is observable only within the narrow strip of land or sea over which the umbra passes. A partial eclipse may be seen from places within the large…

  • partial Empiricism (philosophy)

    empiricism: Partial empiricism: …in degree, can be termed partial empiricism. According to this view, the realm of the a priori includes some concepts that are not formal and some propositions that are substantially informative about the world. The theses of the transcendental idealism of Immanuel Kant (1720–1804), the general scientific conservation laws, the…

  • partial geometry (mathematics)

    combinatorics: Characterization problems of graph theory: A partial geometry (r, k, t) is a system of two kinds of objects, points and lines, with an incidence relation obeying the following axioms:

  • partial indulgence (Roman Catholicism)

    indulgence: …the existing obligation, while “partial” indulgences remitted only a portion of it. People naturally wanted to know how much debt was forgiven (just as modern students want to know exactly what they need to study for examinations), so set periods of days, months, and years came gradually to be…

  • partial integration (economics)

    income tax: Integration: Partial integration (or dividend relief) may be attained by lessening or eliminating the so-called double taxation of distributed profits resulting from separate income taxes on corporations and shareholders. Full integration could be achieved only by overlooking the existence of the corporation for income tax purposes…

  • partial miscibility (physics)

    liquid: Partial miscibility: Only pairs of liquids that are completely miscible have been considered so far. Many pairs of liquids, however, are only partially miscible in one another, the degree of miscibility often depending strongly on temperature. In most cases, rising temperature produces enhanced solubility, but…

  • partial phase (astronomy)

    eclipse: Solar eclipse phenomena: The partial phase of the eclipse then begins as a small indentation in the western rim of the Sun becomes noticeable. The dark disk of the Moon now gradually moves across the Sun’s disk, and the bright area of the Sun is reduced to a crescent.…

  • partial placentae abruptio (medicine)

    pregnancy: Abruptio placentae: …the uterus, a condition called partial abruptio placentae, blood either collects in a pool between the uterus and the placenta (concealed hemorrhage) or seeps out of the uterus into the vagina (external hemorrhage). When the entire placenta separates from the uterus, there is massive hemorrhage into the uterine cavity and…

  • partial pressure (physics)

    human respiratory system: High altitudes: …by a fall in the partial pressure of oxygen, both in the ambient air and in the alveolar spaces of the lung, and it is this fall that poses the major respiratory challenge to humans at high altitude. Humans and some other mammalian species, such as cattle, adjust to the…

  • partial pressure, law of (physical science)

    Dalton’s law, the statement that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the individual component gases. The partial pressure is the pressure that each gas would exert if it alone occupied the volume of the mixture at the same temperature. This

  • partial recursive function (mathematics)

    automata theory: The generalized automaton and Turing’s machine: …to machines, namely, the so-called partial recursive functions, has the same membership as the class of computable functions. For the present purposes, then, no effort need be made to define the partial recursive functions.

  • partial seizure (pathology)

    epilepsy: Partial-onset seizures: A partial seizure originates in a specific area of the brain. Partial seizures consist of abnormal sensations or movements, and a lapse of consciousness may occur. Epileptic individuals with partial seizures may experience unusual sensations called auras that precede the onset of a…

  • partial sum (mathematics)

    infinite series: …n terms, is called a partial sum of the series. If sn approaches a fixed number S as n becomes larger and larger, the series is said to converge. In this case, S is called the sum of the series. An infinite series that does not converge is said to…

  • partial thermoremanent magnetization (physics)

    rock: Types of remanent magnetization: In PTRM (partial thermoremanent magnetization) a sample is cooled from a temperature below the Curie point to yet a lower temperature.

  • partial thromboplastin time (biochemistry)

    bleeding and blood clotting: Intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation: …simple laboratory test called the partial thromboplastin time (PTT), or, more accurately, the activated partial thromboplastin time. Plasma is collected and anticoagulated with citrate buffer; the citrate binds and effectively removes functional calcium ions from the plasma. Under these conditions, a fibrin clot cannot be generated. A negatively charged material,…

  • partial tone (acoustics)

    wind instrument: The production of sound: …harmonic series are known as partials and are numbered in the order in which they appear. The following example shows the harmonic series for the fundamental pitch C. (Asterisked notes are noticeably out of tune with the tempered chromatic scale, which contains 12 equal semitones.)

  • partial-birth abortion

    health law: Termination of pregnancy: …was labeled by Congress as “partial-birth” abortion (a surgical abortion in which a late-term fetus is removed through the cervix). In a 5–4 opinion, the Supreme Court permitted Congress to entirely outlaw this procedure on the basis that Congress could determine that its use undercut medical ethics and that other…

  • partial-onset seizure (pathology)

    epilepsy: Partial-onset seizures: A partial seizure originates in a specific area of the brain. Partial seizures consist of abnormal sensations or movements, and a lapse of consciousness may occur. Epileptic individuals with partial seizures may experience unusual sensations called auras that precede the onset of a…

  • partial-syndrome anorexia (pathology)

    anorexia nervosa: Classification: However, partial-syndrome anorexia is far more common. Researchers report that close to 5 percent of adolescent girls have this “mild form” of anorexia nervosa, displaying some, but not all, of the clinical symptoms of the disorder.

  • partial-thickness skin graft (medicine)

    transplant: Split or partial-thickness skin grafts: Split, or partial-thickness, skin grafts are by far the most commonly used grafts in plastic surgery. Superficial slices of skin the thickness of tissue paper are cut with a hand or mechanical razor. The graft, which contains living cells, is…

  • partially balanced incomplete block design (mathematics)

    combinatorics: PBIB (partially balanced incomplete block) designs: Given υ objects 1, 2, · · ·, υ, a relation satisfying the following conditions is said to be an m-class partially balanced association scheme:

  • partially hydrogenated fat (food product)

    Trans fat, fat produced from the industrial process of hydrogenation, in which molecular hydrogen (H2) is added to vegetable oil, thereby converting liquid fat to semisolid fat. The synthesis of hydrogenated compounds originated in the 1890s, when French chemist Paul Sabatier discovered that metal

  • partially mixed estuary (hydrology)
  • partially oriented yarn (fibre manufacturing)

    man-made fibre: Drawing techniques: …yield what is known as partially oriented yarns (POY)—i.e., filaments that are partially drawn and partially crystallized and that can be drawn at a later time during textile operations. Many fibres, such as PET, require that a hot-drawing step follow the spinning process fairly soon, or they will become brittle.…

  • participant observation (anthropology)

    ethnography: This method, called participant-observation, while necessary and useful for gaining a thorough understanding of a foreign culture, is in practice quite difficult. Just as the anthropologist brings to the situation certain inherent, if unconscious, cultural biases, so also is he influenced by the subject of his study. While…

  • participant political culture (political science)

    political culture: In a participant political culture, the citizens believe both that they can contribute to the system and that they are affected by it. Almond and Verba’s work attracted the attention of generations of scholars who replicated the findings, criticized the conceptualizations, and refined the theory.

  • participating policy

    insurance: Other provisions: …life insurance policies, known as participating policies, return dividends to the insured. The dividends, which may amount to 20 percent of the premiums, may be accumulated in cash left with the insurer at interest, used to buy additional life insurance, used to reduce premium payments, or used to pay up…

  • participating provider option (health insurance)

    health insurance: …to the HMO is the preferred provider organization (PPO), also known as a participating provider option, which offers features of traditional fee-for-service insurance plans, such as the ability of patients to choose their own health care providers, but also follows the lower-cost strategies of HMOs. For example, those enrolled in…

  • participation (philosophy)
  • Participation and Democratic Theory (work by Pateman)

    Carole Pateman: In Participation and Democratic Theory (1970), she criticized leading theorists of democracy, such as Robert Dahl and Giovanni Sartori, for justifying elite power on the basis of the perceived apathy and incompetence of the many. Those theorists, Pateman demonstrated, engaged in circular logic and promoted a…

  • participative management (industry)

    Herman Miller, Inc.: …also an early pioneer in participative management, an approach popularized by such social scientists as Rensis Likert. In 1950 Herman Miller’s employees were given opportunities to structure their workloads and comment on corporate decision making, and in 1983 the company introduced an employee stock-ownership program. In the 1990s the company…

  • participatory anthropic principle (cosmology)

    anthropic principle: Forms of the anthropic principle: A participatory anthropic principle (PAP) was proposed by the American physicist John Archibald Wheeler. He suggested that if one takes the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics seriously, one may conclude that, because no phenomenon can be said to exist until it is observed, “observers” may be…

  • participatory management (industry)

    Herman Miller, Inc.: …also an early pioneer in participative management, an approach popularized by such social scientists as Rensis Likert. In 1950 Herman Miller’s employees were given opportunities to structure their workloads and comment on corporate decision making, and in 1983 the company introduced an employee stock-ownership program. In the 1990s the company…

  • Participatory Technology Development

    Participatory Technology Development (PTD), an approach to development that emerged during the 1980s and ’90s, involving collaboration between experts and citizens of less-developed countries to analyze problems and find solutions that are appropriate for specific rural communities. PTD was created

  • Ω- particle (subatomic particle)

    subatomic particle: SU(3) symmetry: …known as the Ω− (or omega-minus), had not yet been observed. Its discovery early in 1964, at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York, confirmed the validity of the SU(3) symmetry of the hadrons.

  • particle (matter)

    separation and purification: Particle separations: Separations of particles are also important in both industry and research. Particle separations are performed for one of two purposes: (1) to remove particles from gases or liquids, or (2) to separate particles of different sizes or properties. The first reason underlies many important applications. The electronics…

  • particle (grammar)

    Polynesian languages: …Samoa (formerly Western Samoa), and Tongan is the official tongue of the Kingdom of Tonga.

  • Λ particle (subatomic particle)

    subatomic particle: The development of quark theory: …strange particle known as the lambda (Λ) particle contains uds, which gives the correct total charge of 0 and a strangeness of −1. Using this system, the lambda can be viewed as a neutron with one down quark changed to a strange quark; charge and spin remain the same, but…

  • particle accelerator (instrument)

    Particle accelerator, any device that produces a beam of fast-moving, electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles. Physicists use accelerators in fundamental research on the structure of nuclei, the nature of nuclear forces, and the properties of nuclei not found in nature, as in the

  • particle beam (physics)

    particle accelerator: Classical cyclotrons: The beam current in a classical cyclotron operated at high voltages can be as high as five milliamperes; intensities of this magnitude are very useful in the synthesis of radioisotopes.

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