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  • Parry, Charles Hubert Hastings (British composer)

    Sir Hubert Hastings Parry, Baronet, composer, writer, and teacher, influential in the revival of English music at the end of the 19th century. While at Eton, where he studied composition, he took the bachelor of music degree from Oxford (1867). Among his later teachers, the pianist Edward

  • Parry, Milman (American scholar)

    Homer: Homer as an oral poet: …name of an American scholar, Milman Parry, that the Homeric tradition was an oral one—that this was a kind of poetry made and passed down by word of mouth and without the intervention of writing. Indeed Homer’s own term for a poet is aoidos, “singer.” The Odyssey describes two such…

  • Parry, R. Williams (Welsh poet)

    Celtic literature: The second revival: R. Williams Parry showed a superb gift of poetic observation, while Sir Thomas Parry-Williams combined a mystical love for his native Gwynedd with an almost scientific analysis of his own metaphysical preoccupations. Older poets, such as Cynan (A. Evans-Jones), William Morris, and Wil Ifan (William…

  • Parry, Richard Reed (Canadian musician)

    Arcade Fire: …and percussion, along with keyboardist Richard Reed Parry (b. October 4, 1977) and bassist Tim Kingsbury. The band’s ranks continued to swell, including additional drummers, violinists, and others.

  • Parry, Sir Charles Hubert Hastings, Baronet (British composer)

    Sir Hubert Hastings Parry, Baronet, composer, writer, and teacher, influential in the revival of English music at the end of the 19th century. While at Eton, where he studied composition, he took the bachelor of music degree from Oxford (1867). Among his later teachers, the pianist Edward

  • Parry, Sir Hubert Hastings (British composer)

    Sir Hubert Hastings Parry, Baronet, composer, writer, and teacher, influential in the revival of English music at the end of the 19th century. While at Eton, where he studied composition, he took the bachelor of music degree from Oxford (1867). Among his later teachers, the pianist Edward

  • Parry, Sir William (British explorer)

    Arctic: 19th-century attempts at the passage: …in command to Ross was William (later Sir William) Parry. He was not convinced that no sound existed, and in 1819–20, in HMS Hecla and Griper, he made a voyage through Lancaster Sound to Melville Island, where he wintered. Blocked by ice in M’Clure Strait, he next (1821–23) tried the…

  • Parry-Williams, Thomas (Welsh writer)

    Celtic literature: The second revival: …of poetic observation, while Sir Thomas Parry-Williams combined a mystical love for his native Gwynedd with an almost scientific analysis of his own metaphysical preoccupations. Older poets, such as Cynan (A. Evans-Jones), William Morris, and Wil Ifan (William Evans), clung to earlier lyrical models, although many others, like D. Gwenallt…

  • Pārs (ancient region, Iran)

    Persis, ancient country in the southwestern part of Iran, roughly coextensive with the modern region of Fārs. Its name was derived from the Iranian tribe of the Parsua (Parsuash; Parsumash; Persians), who settled there in the 7th century bc. Herodotus lists the leading Persian tribes as the

  • pars compacta (anatomy)

    human nervous system: Midbrain: …the pars reticulata and the pars compacta. Cells of the pars compacta contain the dark pigment melanin; these cells synthesize dopamine and project to either the caudate nucleus or the putamen. By inhibiting the action of large aspiny striatal neurons in the caudate nucleus and the putamen (described above in…

  • pars distalis (anatomy)

    hormone: Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (intermedin): …is also found in the pars distalis of bony fishes. Here neurosecretory fibres arise from a localized region of the hypothalamus, called the nucleus lateralis tuberis, and end in contact either with the various types of secretory cells or with blood capillaries related to them. The other route of chemical…

  • pars ecclesiae (Italian history)

    Italy: The factors shaping political factions: The term pars ecclesiae (“party of the church”), which became more common in the second half of the 13th century, has generally been viewed as a reference to support for the papacy, but it also referred to support for local churches. Both meanings of the term are…

  • pars flaccida (anatomy)

    human ear: Tympanic membrane: …the ring is open, the pars flaccida, is slack, but the far greater portion, the pars tensa, is tightly stretched. The appearance and mobility of the tympanic membrane are important for the diagnosis of middle-ear disease, which is especially common in young children. When viewed with the otoscope, the healthy…

  • pars intercerebralis (anatomy)

    endocrine system: Class Insecta: …brain, the largest being the pars intercerebralis. The paired corpora cardiaca (singular, corpus cardiacum) and the paired corpora allata (singular, corpus allatum) are both neurohemal organs that store brain neurohormones, but each has some endocrine cells as well. The ventral nerve cord and associated ganglia also contain neurosecretory cells and…

  • pars intermedia (anatomy)

    hormone: Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (intermedin): …route is characteristic of the pars intermedia region, in which neurosecretory fibres from the hypothalamus control the functioning of the secretory cells. If the pars intermedia is separated from its direct connection with the floor of the brain, for example, MSH secretion in amphibians increases, and prolonged darkening of the…

  • pars legitima (law)

    inheritance: Limits on freedom of testation: …share in the estate (pars legitima), of which none of them could be deprived except upon serious cause stated in the will. When, after the fall of the Roman Empire, testamentary disposition came to be recognized again in the later Middle Ages, custom generally required that some minimum share,…

  • pars reticulata (anatomy)

    human nervous system: Midbrain: …consists of two parts, the pars reticulata and the pars compacta. Cells of the pars compacta contain the dark pigment melanin; these cells synthesize dopamine and project to either the caudate nucleus or the putamen. By inhibiting the action of large aspiny striatal neurons in the caudate nucleus and the…

  • pars tensa (anatomy)

    human ear: Tympanic membrane: …the far greater portion, the pars tensa, is tightly stretched. The appearance and mobility of the tympanic membrane are important for the diagnosis of middle-ear disease, which is especially common in young children. When viewed with the otoscope, the healthy membrane is translucent and pearl-gray in colour, sometimes with a…

  • Parsa (ancient city, Iran)

    Persepolis, an ancient capital of the kings of the Achaemenian dynasty of Iran (Persia), located about 30 miles (50 km) northeast of Shīrāz in the Fars region of southwestern Iran. The site lies near the confluence of the Pulvār (Sīvand) and Kor rivers. In 1979 the ruins were designated a UNESCO

  • Parsa (ancient region, Iran)

    Persis, ancient country in the southwestern part of Iran, roughly coextensive with the modern region of Fārs. Its name was derived from the Iranian tribe of the Parsua (Parsuash; Parsumash; Persians), who settled there in the 7th century bc. Herodotus lists the leading Persian tribes as the

  • parsec (unit of measurement)

    Parsec, unit for expressing distances to stars and galaxies, used by professional astronomers. It represents the distance at which the radius of Earth’s orbit subtends an angle of one second of arc. Thus, a star at a distance of one parsec would have a parallax of one second, and the distance of an

  • Parsee (people)

    Parsi, member of a group of followers in India of the Iranian prophet Zoroaster (or Zarathustra). The Parsis, whose name means “Persians,” are descended from Persian Zoroastrians who emigrated to India to avoid religious persecution by Muslims. They live chiefly in Mumbai and in a few towns and

  • Parseeism (religion)

    Zoroastrianism: …(Persian) immigrants are known as Parsis, or Parsees.

  • Parshchikov, Aleksey (Russian author)

    Russia: The 20th century: … and the meta-metaphoric poetry of Aleksey Parshchikov, Olga Sedakova, Ilya Kutik, and others. The turbulent 1990s were a difficult period for most Russian writers and poets. The publishing industry, adversely affected by the economic downturn, struggled to regain its footing in the conditions of a market economy. Nonetheless, private foundations…

  • Parshva (Jaina saint)

    Parshvanatha, the 23rd Tirthankara (“Ford-maker,” i.e., saviour) of the present age, according to Jainism, a religion of India. Parshvanatha was the first Tirthankara for whom there is historical evidence, but this evidence is intricately interwoven with legend. He is said to have preceded by about

  • Parshvanatha (Jaina saint)

    Parshvanatha, the 23rd Tirthankara (“Ford-maker,” i.e., saviour) of the present age, according to Jainism, a religion of India. Parshvanatha was the first Tirthankara for whom there is historical evidence, but this evidence is intricately interwoven with legend. He is said to have preceded by about

  • Parsi (people)

    Parsi, member of a group of followers in India of the Iranian prophet Zoroaster (or Zarathustra). The Parsis, whose name means “Persians,” are descended from Persian Zoroastrians who emigrated to India to avoid religious persecution by Muslims. They live chiefly in Mumbai and in a few towns and

  • Parsifal (opera by Wagner)

    Parsifal, music drama in three acts by German composer Richard Wagner, with a German libretto by the composer. The work was first performed at Bayreuth, Bavaria, Germany, on July 26, 1882, not long before Wagner’s death, on February 13, 1883. The Transformation Music from Act I and the Good Friday

  • Parsiism (religion)

    Zoroastrianism: …(Persian) immigrants are known as Parsis, or Parsees.

  • parsimony, law of (philosophy)

    Occam’s razor, principle stated by the Scholastic philosopher William of Ockham (1285–1347/49) that pluralitas non est ponenda sine necessitate, “plurality should not be posited without necessity.” The principle gives precedence to simplicity: of two competing theories, the simpler explanation of

  • parsimony, principle of (animal psychology)

    C. Lloyd Morgan: …come to be called the principle of parsimony: in Morgan’s words (An Introduction to Comparative Psychology, 1894), “In no case may we interpret an action as the outcome of the exercise of a higher psychical faculty, if it can be interpreted as the outcome of the exercise of one which…

  • parsing (linguistics)

    information processing: Semantic content analysis: Syntactic relations are described by parsing (decomposing) the grammar of sentences (Figure 3). For semantic representation, three related formalisms dominate. In a so-called semantic network, conceptual entities such as objects, actions, or events are represented as a graph of linked nodes (Figure 4). “Frames” represent, in a similar graph network,…

  • Parsipour, Shahrnoush (Iranian writer)

    Persian literature: Modern Iran: Best known outside Iran is Shahrnoush Parsipour’s novella Zanān bidūn-i mardān (1978; Women Without Men), which recounts the attempts of five women to overcome the limitations put upon their lives by male dominance in a traditional society. Like many other contemporary Iranian writers, Parsipour uses the narrative technique of magic…

  • Parsippany–Troy Hills (New Jersey, United States)

    Parsippany–Troy Hills, township, Morris county, northeastern New Jersey, U.S. The township extends eastward from the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains to the Passaic River swamps, 23 miles (37 km) west of New York City. Communities within the township include Manor Lakes, Lake Hiawatha, Lake

  • parsley (plant)

    Parsley, (Petroselinum crispum), hardy biennial herb of the family Apiaceae, or Umbelliferae, native to Mediterranean lands. Parsley leaves were used by the ancient Greeks and Romans as a flavouring and garnish for foods. The compound leaves—deep green, tender, and curled or deeply frilled—that

  • parsley family (plant family)

    Apiaceae, the parsley family, in the order Apiales, comprising between 300 and 400 genera of plants distributed throughout a wide variety of habitats, principally in the north temperate regions of the world. Most members are aromatic herbs with alternate, feather-divided leaves that are sheathed at

  • parsnip (vegetable)

    Parsnip, (species Pastinaca sativa), member of the parsley family (Apiaceae), cultivated since ancient times for its large, tapering, fleshy white root, which is edible and has a distinctive flavour. The root is found on roadsides and in open places in Great Britain and throughout Europe and

  • Parson Jack Russell Terrier (breed of dog)

    Jack Russell Terrier, breed of terrier developed in England in the 19th century for hunting foxes both above and below ground. It was named for the Rev. John Russell, an avid hunter who created a strain of terriers from which are also descended the Wire Fox Terrier and the Smooth Fox Terrier.

  • Parson Russell Terrier (breed of dog)

    Jack Russell Terrier, breed of terrier developed in England in the 19th century for hunting foxes both above and below ground. It was named for the Rev. John Russell, an avid hunter who created a strain of terriers from which are also descended the Wire Fox Terrier and the Smooth Fox Terrier.

  • Parson Weems (United States minister and writer)

    Mason Locke Weems, American clergyman, itinerant book agent, and fabricator of the story of George Washington’s chopping down the cherry tree. This fiction was inserted into the fifth edition (1806) of Weems’s book The Life and Memorable Actions of George Washington (1800). Weems was ordained in

  • parson’s bench (furniture)

    settle: …sometimes called a schoolmaster’s, or parson’s, bench.

  • Parson’s Cause (American colonial history)

    Parson’s Cause, dispute involving Anglican clergy in colonial Virginia, arising (1755, 1758) when laws commuted clerical salaries, previously paid in tobacco, to currency at the rate of twopence a pound when tobacco was selling at sixpence a pound. A royal veto (1759) encouraged the clergy to sue

  • Parson’s chameleon (lizard)

    chameleon: …chameleon in the world is Parson’s chameleon (Calumma parsonii), which may grow up to 69.5 cm (about 27 inches) long. On the other hand, the world’s shortest chameleon, Brookesia micra, has a maximum length of 29 mm (about 1 inch). Most chameleons, however, are 17–25 cm (7–10 inches) long. The…

  • Parson’s Tale, The (story by Chaucer)

    The Parson’s Tale, the final of the 24 stories in The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer. The tale is a lengthy prose sermon on the seven deadly sins. Chaucer may have intended this tale, with its plethora of pious quotations, as a fitting close to the stories of the religious pilgrims. After

  • Pärson, Anja (Swedish skier)

    Anja Pärson, Swedish skier who in 2007 became the first person to win world championship races in each of the five disciplines of Alpine ski racing. Pärson was coached by her father at the same ski club in tiny Tärnaby, Sweden, that had produced Ingemar Stenmark, who during his career (1973–89) won

  • Parsonfield Academy (college, Lewiston, Maine, United States)

    Bates College, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Lewiston, Maine, U.S. It is a liberal arts college that offers bachelor’s degree programs in literature, languages, social sciences, life and physical sciences, philosophy, and other areas. Research facilities include the

  • Parsons School of Design (art school, Paris, France)

    Parsons table: …the Paris branch of the Parsons School of Design in the 1920s and early 1930s.

  • Parsons Seminary (college, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, United States)

    Coe College, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, U.S. It is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church (USA), though it maintains an ecumenical outlook. Coe offers an undergraduate curriculum in the liberal arts that includes off-campus programs in Washington,

  • Parsons table

    Parsons table, simple, sturdy rectangular table having straight lines, overall flush surfaces, and square legs that form the four corners of the top and whose diameter is identical with the thickness of the top. It is not certain who designed the Parsons table, and it may have been the result of a

  • Parsons turbine

    turbine: Development of modern steam turbines: …first practical large marine steam turbines. During the 1880s Carl G.P. de Laval of Sweden constructed small reaction turbines that turned at about 40,000 revolutions per minute to drive cream separators. Their high speed, however, made them unsuitable for other commercial applications. De Laval then turned his attention to single-stage…

  • Parsons, Alzina Ann (American labour leader)

    Alzina Parsons Stevens, American labour leader and journalist known for her contributions to union organization and child-welfare reform. Parsons was forced by family poverty to work in a textile factory at 13; by the age of 18, she had learned the printers’ trade. In 1877 she organized the Working

  • Parsons, Benny (American race–car driver)

    Benny Parsons, (“B.P.”; “The Professor”), American racecar driver (born July 12, 1941 , Wilkes county, N.C.—died Jan. 16, 2007 , Charlotte, N.C.), was named (1988) by the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing among the all-time 50 greatest NASCAR drivers. He captured 21 NASCAR titles

  • Parsons, Elsie Clews (American anthropologist)

    Elsie Clews Parsons, American sociologist and anthropologist whose studies of the Pueblo and other Native American peoples of the southwestern United States remain standard references. Elsie Clews attended private schools and graduated from Barnard College (1896). She then studied history and

  • Parsons, Estelle (American actress)

    Bonnie and Clyde: …his timid wife, Blanche (Estelle Parsons), and a dim-witted henchman named C.W. Moss (Michael J. Pollard). The gang thwarts all police efforts to capture them, until a fateful encounter on a lonely country road.

  • Parsons, Gram (American musician)

    the Byrds: 19, 1993, Treasure Island, Florida), Gram Parsons (original name Ingram Cecil Connor III; b. November 5, 1946, Winter Haven, Florida—d. September 19, 1973, Yucca Valley, California), and Clarence White (b. June 6, 1944, Lewiston, Maine—d. July 14, 1973, Palmdale, California).

  • Parsons, Louella (American newspaper writer)

    Louella Parsons, American newspaper writer, the first—and, for many years, most powerful—movie columnist in the United States. Parsons obtained her first newspaper job—drama editor for the Dixon (Illinois) Morning Star—while still in high school. In 1912 she had her first contact with the movie

  • Parsons, Richard (American executive)

    Richard Parsons, American businessman and attorney who was CEO (2002–07) of AOL Time Warner (now WarnerMedia) and later chairman (2009–12) of Citigroup. After growing up near Brooklyn, New York, Parsons studied at the University of Hawaii (B.A., 1968) and graduated first in his class from Albany

  • Parsons, Richard Dean (American executive)

    Richard Parsons, American businessman and attorney who was CEO (2002–07) of AOL Time Warner (now WarnerMedia) and later chairman (2009–12) of Citigroup. After growing up near Brooklyn, New York, Parsons studied at the University of Hawaii (B.A., 1968) and graduated first in his class from Albany

  • Parsons, Robert (English Jesuit)

    Robert Parsons, Jesuit who, with Cardinal William Allen, organized Roman Catholic resistance in England to the Protestant regime of Queen Elizabeth I. He favoured armed intervention by the continental Catholic powers as a means of restoring Catholicism in England, and he probably encouraged the

  • Parsons, Sir Charles Algernon (British engineer)

    Sir Charles Algernon Parsons, British engineer whose invention of a multi-stage steam turbine revolutionized marine propulsion. Parsons entered the Armstrong engineering works at Newcastle upon Tyne in 1877. In 1889, after working for several other companies, he established his own works at

  • Parsons, Talcott (American sociologist)

    Talcott Parsons, American sociologist and scholar whose theory of social action influenced the intellectual bases of several disciplines of modern sociology. His work is concerned with a general theoretical system for the analysis of society rather than with narrower empirical studies. He is

  • Parsons, Timothy (Canadian biologist)

    Timothy Parsons, Canadian marine biologist who advocated a holistic approach to studying ocean environments. Parsons attended McGill University, Montreal, where he earned a bachelor’s degree in agriculture (1953), a master’s degree in agricultural chemistry (1955), and a doctorate in biochemistry

  • Parsons, Timothy Richard (Canadian biologist)

    Timothy Parsons, Canadian marine biologist who advocated a holistic approach to studying ocean environments. Parsons attended McGill University, Montreal, where he earned a bachelor’s degree in agriculture (1953), a master’s degree in agricultural chemistry (1955), and a doctorate in biochemistry

  • Parsons, William, 3rd earl of Rosse (Irish astronomer)

    William Parsons, 3rd earl of Rosse, Irish astronomer and builder of the largest reflecting telescope, the “Leviathan,” of the 19th century. In 1821 Parsons was elected to the House of Commons. He resigned his seat in 1834 but in 1841 inherited his father’s title, becoming the 3rd earl of Rosse, and

  • Parsua (Iranian tribe)

    Persis: …the Iranian tribe of the Parsua (Parsuash; Parsumash; Persians), who settled there in the 7th century bc. Herodotus lists the leading Persian tribes as the Pasargadae, to which the Achaemenians, the royal family of Persia, belonged; the Maraphii; and the Maspii. It was these three that Cyrus II the Great…

  • Parsuhanda (ancient city, Turkey)

    Anatolia: Middle Bronze Age: …as Acemhöyük (probably the ancient Purushkhanda) and Hattusas (site of the later Hittite capital), which, together with a number of other cities in central Anatolia, were also violently destroyed. It is not clear who was responsible for the destruction. The Middle Bronze Age sites of western Anatolia were largely unaffected…

  • Parsumash (ancient region, Iran)

    Achaemenes: Although Achaemenes probably ruled only Parsumash, a vassal state of the kingdom of Media, many scholars believe that he led armies from Parsumash and Anshan (Anzan, northwest of Susa in Elam) against the Assyrian king Sennacherib in 681.

  • part book (music)

    Partbook, usual form in which vocal or instrumental polyphonic music was handwritten or printed in the 15th and 16th centuries. Each partbook contained the notation of only one voice, or part. The parts of madrigals, however, were sometimes published crosswise on single sheets, which allowed each

  • Part of His Story (novel by Corn)

    Alfred Corn: Corn also wrote the novels Part of His Story (1997), about an American playwright who moves to London after his lover’s death from AIDS, and Miranda’s Book (2014), in which a novelist writes about his imprisoned niece. His other books included The Poem’s Heartbeat: A Manual of Prosody (1997) and…

  • part of speech (linguistics)

    linguistics: The European Middle Ages: …the study of categories and parts of speech is all about. Thus the study of sentences should lead one to the nature of reality by way of the modes of signifying.

  • Pärt, Arvo (Estonian composer)

    Arvo Pärt, Estonian composer. A devout Orthodox Christian, he developed a style based on the slow modulation of sounds such as those produced by bells and pure voice tones, a technique reminiscent of the medieval Notre-Dame school and the sacred music of Eastern Orthodoxy. His major works include

  • part-insertion machine (technology)

    automation: Numerical control: …machines using numerical control include component-insertion machines used in electronics assembly, drafting machines that prepare engineering drawings, coordinate measuring machines that perform accurate inspections of parts, and flame cutting machines and similar devices. In these applications, the term numerical control is not always used explicitly, but the operating principle is…

  • Part-Time Wife (film by McCarey [1930])

    Leo McCarey: Feature films: …had even more success with Part Time Wife (1930), a comedy about an estranged couple (Edmund Lowe and Leila Hyams) who reconnect through golf. It was cowritten by McCarey, who contributed to the story or screenplay for most of his films. Next came Indiscreet (1931), a largely forgettable musical despite…

  • part-whole calculus (logic)

    Mereology, branch of logic, founded by the 20th-century logician Stanisław Leśniewski, that tries to clarify class expressions and theorizes on the relation between parts and wholes. It attempts to explain Bertrand Russell’s paradox of the class of all those classes that are not elements of

  • Partabgarh (district, India)

    Pratapgarh, district, southeast-central Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. Part of the great alluvial Indo-Gangetic Plain, it is bounded on the southwest by the Ganges (Ganga) River and drained by one of its tributaries, the Sai River. The district is fertile and partially forested, although

  • Partabgarh (India)

    Pratapgarh, town, southern Rajasthan state, northwestern India. It lies in an upland region about 40 miles (64 km) northeast of Banswara. The town was founded in 1689 and was the capital of the princely state of Partabgarh (founded in the 15th century), which became part of the state of Rajasthan

  • Partage de midi (work by Claudel)

    Paul Claudel: …his subsequent works beginning with Partage de midi (published 1906). In this searching, autobiographical work, Claudel appears torn between human and divine love. The conflict is resolved in L’Annonce faite à Marie (1912; Tidings brought to Mary, 1916), a medieval mystery in tone, in which Claudel expounds on woman’s place…

  • Partai Demokrasi Indonesia (political party, Indonesia)

    Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle: …and two opposition parties, the Indonesian Democratic Party (later the PDI-P) and the United Development Party. The Indonesian Democratic Party was created from three nationalist groups and two Christian-based parties: the Indonesian Nationalist Party, the Movement for the Defense of Indonesian Independence, the People’s Party, the Catholic Party, and the…

  • Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan (political party, Indonesia)

    Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P), political party in Indonesia formed in 1973 through the forced merger of five non-Islamic political parties. In the final three decades of the 20th century, it was one of two opposition parties officially recognized by the government. Although it

  • Partai Demokrat (political party, Indonesia)

    Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono: …the principal founder of the Democrat Party (Partai Demokrat; PD), which became his political vehicle for the rest of his career in public service.

  • Partai Gerkan Indonesia Raya (political party, Indonesia)

    Indonesia: Indonesia after Suharto: …Party (Partai Gerkan Indonesia Raya; Gerindra) in the July 2014 presidential election. Jokowi faced a legislative challenge, however, because Gerindra, led by Prabowo, was able to form a large-majority coalition in the parliament that included the PD, Golkar, and the Muslim PPP. In 2015 Indonesia’s economic performance was solid but…

  • Partai Golongan Karya (political party, Indonesia)

    Golkar, social and political organization in Indonesia that evolved into a political party after it was founded as the Sekretariat Bersama Golongan Karya (Joint Secretariat of Functional Groups) by a group of army officers in 1964. Golkar, established ostensibly to counterbalance the growing power

  • Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (political party, Indonesia)

    National Awakening Party, moderate Islamic political party in Indonesia. The PKB was formed in 1998 by Abdurrahman Wahid—a Muslim cleric and head of the Council of Scholars (Nahdlatul-ʿUlama), the country’s largest Muslim organization— and his supporters. Its opposition to an Islamic government,

  • Partai Komunis Indonesia (political party, Indonesia)

    Indonesia: The rise of nationalism: …1920 and adopted the name Indonesian Communist Party (Partai Komunis Indonesia; PKI) in 1924.

  • Partai Nasional Indonesia (political party, Indonesia)

    Indonesia: The rise of nationalism: …Indonesian Nationalist Association, later the Indonesian Nationalist Party (Partai Nasional Indonesia; PNI), was formed under the chairmanship of Sukarno. The PNI was based on the idea of noncooperation with the government of the East Indies and was thus distinguished from those groups, such as Sarekat Islam, that were prepared to…

  • Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (political party, Indonesia)

    United Development Party, moderate Islamist political party in Indonesia. The PPP was formed in 1973 through the merger of four Islamic groups—the Council of Scholars (Nahdlatul Ulama), the Indonesian Islamic Party (Partai Muslimin Indonesia), the United Islamic Party of Indonesia (Partai Syarikat

  • Partai Sosialis Indonesia (political party, Indonesia)

    Sutan Sjahrir: …he formed a Socialist party, Partai Sosialis Indonesia (PSI), which opposed the Communist Party, but it failed to win popular support and was banned by Sukarno in 1960. On Jan. 17, 1962, Sjahrir was arrested on charges of conspiracy. He was held without trial until 1965, when he was allowed…

  • Partap Singh Kairon, Sardar (Indian politician)

    Punjab: History: …enlarged Punjab was provided by Sardar Partap Singh Kairon, chief minister of the state from 1956 to 1964. The call for a separate Indian state containing the predominantly Punjabi-speaking areas intensified in the wake of Punjab’s expansion. Eventually, the government of India met the demand. On November 1, 1966, Punjab…

  • Partapgarh (district, India)

    Pratapgarh, district, southeast-central Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. Part of the great alluvial Indo-Gangetic Plain, it is bounded on the southwest by the Ganges (Ganga) River and drained by one of its tributaries, the Sai River. The district is fertile and partially forested, although

  • Partapgarh (India)

    Pratapgarh, town, southern Rajasthan state, northwestern India. It lies in an upland region about 40 miles (64 km) northeast of Banswara. The town was founded in 1689 and was the capital of the princely state of Partabgarh (founded in the 15th century), which became part of the state of Rajasthan

  • partbook (music)

    Partbook, usual form in which vocal or instrumental polyphonic music was handwritten or printed in the 15th and 16th centuries. Each partbook contained the notation of only one voice, or part. The parts of madrigals, however, were sometimes published crosswise on single sheets, which allowed each

  • Partch, Harry (American composer)

    Harry Partch, visionary and eclectic composer and instrument builder, largely self-taught, whose compositions are remarkable for the complexity of their scores (each instrument has its own characteristic notation, often involving 43 tones to each octave) and their employment of unique instruments

  • parte del león, La (film by Aristarain [1978])

    Adolfo Aristarain: …La parte del león (1978; The Lion’s Share). This was the first of a series of films that came to be known as Aristarain’s “thriller trilogy,” filmed during Argentina’s military dictatorship. These films earned him the respect of the critics and a growing audience. Among his later films were Un…

  • Parteciaco family (Venetian family)

    Parteciaco family, noted Venetian family that produced seven doges between 810 and 942, as well as many bishops and church officials. The first dux, or doge, in the family was one Ursus (or Orso I Parteciaco), who ruled from 727 to 739; but the real founder of the dynasty was Agnello Parteciaco

  • Parteciaco, Agnello (doge of Venice)

    Parteciaco family: …founder of the dynasty was Agnello Parteciaco (died 827). Opposing a faction that had placed Venice under the control of Charlemagne’s son Pippin, the Frankish king of Italy, Agnello moved the government from the island of Malamocco (now Lido) to its present site on the Rialto group of islands, where…

  • Parteciaco, Giustiniano (doge of Venice)

    Parteciaco family: …was succeeded by his sons Giustiniano and Giovanni I. Giustiniano is known to economic historians because of his will, which contained large bequests of pepper and other spices, demonstrating that Venice was already engaged in large-scale trade with the Levant in the early 9th century. In 828, during Giustiniano’s reign,…

  • Partecipazio (Venetian family)

    Parteciaco family, noted Venetian family that produced seven doges between 810 and 942, as well as many bishops and church officials. The first dux, or doge, in the family was one Ursus (or Orso I Parteciaco), who ruled from 727 to 739; but the real founder of the dynasty was Agnello Parteciaco

  • Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus (political party, Germany)

    Germany: The reunification of Germany: …the SED, now renamed the Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS), suffered a crushing defeat. The eastern counterpart of Kohl’s CDU, which had pledged a speedy reunification of Germany, emerged as the largest political party in East Germany’s first democratically elected People’s Chamber. A new East German government headed by Lothar…

  • Partenkirchen (Germany)

    Garmisch-Partenkirchen: …ancient villages of Garmisch and Partenkirchen, was chartered in 1935 and retains much of its rural character.

  • Partenopea, Repubblica (historical republic, Italy)

    Parthenopean Republic, short-lived republic in Naples proclaimed on Jan. 23, 1799, after a popular uprising of pro-French republicans resulted in the ouster of King Ferdinand IV. A counterrevolution the same year, aided by a papal army and an English fleet under Horatio Nelson and marked by w

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