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  • Parnate (drug)

    antidepressant: isocarboxazid, phenelzine, and tranylcypromine—in general are used only after treatment with tricyclic drugs has proved unsatisfactory, because these drugs’ side effects are unpredictable and their complex interactions are incompletely understood. Fluoxetine often relieves cases of depression that have failed to yield to tricyclics or MAOIs.

  • Parnell (film by Stahl [1937])

    John M. Stahl: In 1937 Stahl helmed Parnell. a lavish biopic with Clark Gable miscast as the 19th-century Irish politician and Myrna Loy as his mistress, Katie O’Shea. The plodding drama was notable for being Gable’s biggest box-office failure. Stahl returned to more familiar material with Letter of Introduction (1938), which starred…

  • Parnell, Charles Stewart (Irish leader)

    Charles Stewart Parnell, Irish Nationalist, member of the British Parliament (1875–91), and the leader of the struggle for Irish Home Rule in the late 19th century. In 1889–90 he was ruined by proof of his adultery with Katherine O’Shea, whom he subsequently married. During Parnell’s youth, the

  • Parnell, Mrs. Charles Stewart (Irish nationalist)

    William Henry O'Shea and Katharine O'Shea: In 1867 he married Katharine, sixth daughter of the Rev. Sir John Page Wood of Rivenhall Place, Essex. The O’Sheas had one son, Gerard, and two daughters. It is not clear when O’Shea became aware of the existence of intimate relations between his wife and Parnell, though he and…

  • Parnell, Thomas (Irish author)

    Thomas Parnell, Irish poet, essayist, and friend of Alexander Pope, who relied on Parnell’s scholarship in his translation of the Iliad. Parnell’s poetry, written in heroic couplets, was esteemed by Pope for its lyric quality and stylistic ease. Among his best poems are “An Elegy to an Old Beauty”

  • Parnes Óros (mountain, Greece)

    Mount Párnis, mountain massif just northwest of Athens, Greece. It rises to 4,636 feet (1,413 metres). Its slopes afford summer pasture and feature some forests of fir. A cable car carries visitors to a casino 1,000 feet (300 metres) below the

  • Parni (people)

    Parni, one of three nomadic or seminomadic tribes in the confederacy of the Dahae living east of the Caspian Sea; its members founded the Parthian empire. After the death of Alexander the Great (323 bc) the Parni apparently moved southward into the region of Parthia and perhaps eastward into

  • Parnicki, Teodor (Polish author)

    Teodor Parnicki, Polish historical novelist who modernized the genre through his interest in psychoanalysis and his use of innovative narrative techniques. Parnicki was the son of a civil engineer, and he lived in Russia until 1917, then in Manchuria, and settled in 1928 in Lwów, Poland (now Lviv,

  • Párnis Óros (mountain, Greece)

    Mount Párnis, mountain massif just northwest of Athens, Greece. It rises to 4,636 feet (1,413 metres). Its slopes afford summer pasture and feature some forests of fir. A cable car carries visitors to a casino 1,000 feet (300 metres) below the

  • Párnis, Mount (mountain, Greece)

    Mount Párnis, mountain massif just northwest of Athens, Greece. It rises to 4,636 feet (1,413 metres). Its slopes afford summer pasture and feature some forests of fir. A cable car carries visitors to a casino 1,000 feet (300 metres) below the

  • Pärnu (Estonia)

    Pärnu, city, Estonia, at the mouth of the Pärnu River on Pärnu Bay of the Gulf of Riga. First mentioned in 1251 as a member of the Hanseatic League, Pärnu was successively controlled by the Teutonic Knights, the Poles, the Swedes, and the Russians. It is now significant as an Estonian port, holiday

  • Pärnu River (river, Estonia)

    Estonia: Relief and drainage: The longest river, the Pärnu, stretches for about 90 miles (145 km); other important rivers are the Pedja, Narva, and Kasari. The country’s largest lake is Peipus, with a surface area of about 1,370 square miles (3,550 square km), which is shared with Russia. Lake Võrts is situated in…

  • Paro (Bhutan)

    Paro, town, western Bhutan, in the Himalayas on the Paro River. Centred on Fort Paro, a large rectangular building with a seven-story tower, it was the main cultural, commercial, and political centre of the country until the national capital was settled at Thimphu in 1962; Paro remains the summer

  • Paroaria coronata (bird)

    cardinal: The red-crested cardinal (P. coronata), also known as the Brazilian cardinal, has a red head, a white belly, and gray wings. Though native to Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Bolivia, it occasionally can be seen visiting the eastern coast of the United States. It was introduced…

  • Paroaria gularis (bird)

    cardinal: For example, the red-capped cardinal (P. gularis), which is named for its conspicuous red head that contrasts with its black throat and wings, is native to a large portion of northern South America. The yellow-billed cardinal (P. capitata), a resident of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay, differs mainly in…

  • Parochetus communis (plant)

    shamrock: The shamrock pea (Parochetus communis), a creeping legume with bicoloured blue and pink flowers, is grown in pots and in hanging baskets.

  • Parochial and Plain Sermons (work by Newman)

    St. John Henry Newman: Association with the Oxford movement: …belief; and above all his Parochial and Plain Sermons (1834–42), which in their published form took the principles of the movement, in their best expression, into the country at large.

  • parochial education

    Parochial education, education offered institutionally by a religious group. In the United States, parochial education refers to the schooling obtained in elementary and secondary schools that are maintained by Roman Catholic parishes, Protestant churches, or Jewish organizations; that are

  • parochial political culture (political science)

    political culture: In a parochial political culture, the citizens are only indistinctly aware of the existence of central government. In a subject political culture, the citizens see themselves not as participants in the political process but as subjects of the government. In a participant political culture, the citizens believe…

  • Parodi, Filippo (Italian sculptor)

    Western sculpture: Late Baroque: …lesser extent, in those of Filippo Parodi (1630–1702) in Genoa, Venice, and Naples. Outside Venice and Sicily the true Rococo made little headway in Italy.

  • Parodia (plant)

    Ball cactus, (genus Parodia), genus of 60–70 species of cacti (family Cactaceae) native to the grasslands of South America. Several species are commonly cultivated as potted plants, including silver ball cactus (Parodia scopa) and golden ball cactus (P. leninghausii), which are especially valued

  • Parodia leninghausii (plant)

    ball cactus: …ball cactus (Parodia scopa) and golden ball cactus (P. leninghausii), which are especially valued for their woolly appearance.

  • Parodia scopa (plant)

    ball cactus: …cultivated as potted plants, including silver ball cactus (Parodia scopa) and golden ball cactus (P. leninghausii), which are especially valued for their woolly appearance.

  • Parodie, La (play by Adamov)

    Arthur Adamov: His first play, La Parodie, features a handless clock that looms eerily over characters who are constantly questioning one another about time. The world of the play is a parody of man, whom Adamov saw as helplessly searching for life’s meaning, which, although it exists, is tragically inaccessible…

  • parodos (Greek theatre)

    Old Comedy: …is explained and developed; the parodos, entry of the chorus; the contest, or agon, a ritualized debate between opposing principals, usually stock characters; the parabasis, in which the chorus addresses the audience on the topics of the day and hurls scurrilous criticism at prominent citizens; a series of farcical scenes;…

  • parody (music)

    Parody, in music, originally the creative reworking of several voice parts of a preexistent composition to form a new composition, frequently a mass; in modern musical usage, parody usually refers to the humorous imitation of a serious composition. The earliest known parody masses date from the

  • parody (literature)

    Parody, in literature, an imitation of the style and manner of a particular writer or school of writers. Parody is typically negative in intent: it calls attention to a writer’s perceived weaknesses or a school’s overused conventions and seeks to ridicule them. Parody can, however, serve a

  • parōidía (literature)

    Parody, in literature, an imitation of the style and manner of a particular writer or school of writers. Parody is typically negative in intent: it calls attention to a writer’s perceived weaknesses or a school’s overused conventions and seeks to ridicule them. Parody can, however, serve a

  • paroidia (literature)

    Parody, in literature, an imitation of the style and manner of a particular writer or school of writers. Parody is typically negative in intent: it calls attention to a writer’s perceived weaknesses or a school’s overused conventions and seeks to ridicule them. Parody can, however, serve a

  • parole (penology)

    Parole, supervised conditional release from prison granted prior to the expiration of a sentence. In French parole means “word,” and its use in connection with the release of prisoners was derived from the idea that they were released on their word of honour that they would commit no further

  • parole (linguistics)

    Ferdinand de Saussure: …become common currency in linguistics—“parole,” or the speech of the individual person, and “langue,” the system underlying speech activity. His distinctions proved to be mainsprings to productive linguistic research and can be regarded as starting points on the avenue of linguistics known as structuralism.

  • parole in libertà (poetry)

    Futurism: Literature: …genres, the most significant being parole in libertà (“words-in-freedom”), also referred to as free-word poetry. It was poetry liberated from the constraints of linear typography and conventional syntax and spelling. A brief extract from Marinetti’s war poem “Battaglia peso + odore” (1912; “Battle Weight + Smell”) was appended to one…

  • Paroles (work by Prévert)

    Jacques Prévert: …poems,” which were collected in Paroles (1945; “Words”). Many were put to music by Josef Kosma and reached a vast audience of young people who liked Prévert’s anticlerical, anarchistic, iconoclastic tones, crackling with humour. He lashed out at stupidity, hypocrisy, and war, and he sang of lovers in the street…

  • Paronian, Hakob (Armenian author)

    Armenia: Cultural life: …19th and early 20th centuries, Hakob Paronian and Ervand Otian were notable satirical novelists, and Grigor Zohrab wrote realist short stories. Paronian was also a comic playwright, whose plays still entertain Armenian audiences. The most celebrated novelist was Hakob Meliq-Hakobian, called Raffi, and perhaps the best dramatist of recent times…

  • paronomasia (word play)

    Pun, a humorous use of a word in such a way as to suggest different meanings or applications, or a play on words, as in the use of the word rings in the following nursery rhyme: Common as jokes and in riddles, puns also may be used seriously, as in John Donne’s “A Hymne to God the Father”: This

  • Paropamisus Range (mountain range, Afghanistan)

    Herāt: …largest of these is the Selseleh-ye Safīd Kūh (Paropamisus Range). The province is traversed from east to west by the Harīrūd (river), along which most of the people live in agricultural oases. The capital, located in the largest oasis, is a centre of Afghan trade with Iran and Turkmenistan and…

  • Paropia (insect)

    homopteran: Sound production: The female of Paropia has a striated tymbal that is poorly developed in the male. The sound-producing organ in the female is probably a primitive condition. Unlike cicadas, several leafhopper males produce calls in darkness and commonly produce mating calls when females are near. Rivalry calls between males…

  • Páros (island, Greece)

    Páros, island, one of the Cyclades (Modern Greek: Kykládes) in the Aegean Sea, Greece, separated from Náxos (Náchos) on the east by a channel 4 miles (6 km) wide. It constitutes a dímos (municipality) in the South Aegean (Nótio Aigaío) periféreia (region). With an area of 75 square miles (194

  • parotid gland (anatomy)

    salivary gland: The parotid salivary glands, the largest of the three, are located between the ear and ascending branch of the lower jaw. Each gland is enclosed in a tissue capsule and is composed of fat tissue and cells that secrete mainly serous fluids. Each gland’s major duct…

  • parotid salivary gland (anatomy)

    salivary gland: The parotid salivary glands, the largest of the three, are located between the ear and ascending branch of the lower jaw. Each gland is enclosed in a tissue capsule and is composed of fat tissue and cells that secrete mainly serous fluids. Each gland’s major duct…

  • parotitis, epidemic (disease)

    Mumps , acute contagious disease caused by a virus and characterized by inflammatory swelling of the salivary glands. It frequently occurs as an epidemic and most commonly affects young persons who are between 5 and 15 years of age. The incubation period is about 17 to 21 days after contact; danger

  • Parousia (Christianity)

    Second Coming, in Christianity, the future return of Christ in glory, when it is understood that he will set up his kingdom, judge his enemies, and reward the faithful, living and dead. Early Christians believed the Advent to be imminent (see millennium), and most Christian theologians since then

  • paroxysmal atrial tachycardia (pathology)

    childhood disease and disorder: Cardiovascular disorders: An exception is paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, a disorder characterized by a steady, rapid heart rate, which in infants may exceed 300 beats per minute. If the disorder persists, it may lead to heart failure. Treatment with digitalis usually restores normal rhythm.

  • paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (pathology)

    hemolysis:

  • paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (pathology)

    cardiovascular disease: Ventricular dysfunction in heart failure: …of breath while sleeping (paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea) that is related to circulatory inadequacy and fluid overload. When this occurs, the patient is awakened suddenly and suffers severe anxiety and breathlessness that may require half an hour, or longer, from which to recover.

  • paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (pathology)

    Dombrock blood group system: …a rare condition known as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, in which red blood cells undergo premature destruction by immune cells.

  • Parque da Pena (park, Sintra, Portugal)

    Sintra: …the castle, Ferdinand created the Parque da Pena, a series of gardens and walking paths that incorporated more than 2,000 species of domestic and nonnative plants. Loosely adopting the conventions established by the English garden movement in the 18th century, the park incorporates natural elements throughout, adapting to the area’s…

  • Parque Nacional de Turismo Laguna San Rafael (national park, Chile)

    San Rafael National Park, national park, southern Chile, on the Pacific coast. Established in 1945, it occupies an area of 2,300 sq mi (5,900 sq km). One of its great attractions is Laguna San Rafael (Lake San Rafael), a fjord more than 10 mi (16 km) long between Península de Taitao and the

  • Parque Nacional del Iguazú (national park, Argentina)

    Iguaçu Falls: …Park (1939) in Brazil and Iguazú National Park (1934) in Argentina. Both parks were created to preserve the vegetation, wildlife, and scenic beauty associated with the falls. In 1984 the Argentine park was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site, and two years later the Brazilian park was also granted World…

  • Parque Nacional do Iguaçu (national park, Brazil)

    Iguaçu Falls: …established, one by each country—Iguaçu National Park (1939) in Brazil and Iguazú National Park (1934) in Argentina. Both parks were created to preserve the vegetation, wildlife, and scenic beauty associated with the falls. In 1984 the Argentine park was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site, and two years later…

  • Parque Nacional Los Glaciares (national park, Argentina)

    Los Glaciares National Park, national park in Santa Cruz provincia, southwestern Argentina, in the Andes surrounding the western extensions of Lakes Argentino and Viedma, at the Chilean border. It has an area of 1,722 square miles (4,459 square km) and was established in 1937. The park has two

  • Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapí (national park, Argentina)

    Nahuel Huapí National Park, national park in Río Negro and Neuquén provinces, southwestern Argentina. It encompasses Lake Nahuel Huapí in the Andes adjacent to the Chilean border. It originated as a reserve in 1903 with a private donation of 18,500 acres (7,500 hectares). It became Argentina’s

  • Parque Zoológico de Chapultepec (zoo, Mexico City, Mexico)

    Chapultepec Zoological Park, zoo located in Mexico City on the original site of Montezuma’s game reserve. Opened in 1926, the zoo is administered by the municipal government. Its grounds cover 13.5 hectares (33 acres) and house nearly 2,000 specimens of about 280 species, mostly in V

  • parquet flooring (flooring)

    floor covering: Early floor coverings: …was later used decoratively in parquetry designs.

  • Parquet, Jacques-Dyel du (French governor of Martinique)

    Grenada: French settlement: The French governor of Martinique, Jacques-Dyel du Parquet, purchased Grenada from a French company in 1650 and established a settlement at St. George’s. Grenada remained French until 1762, when it capitulated to the British. It was formally ceded to Britain in 1763 by the Treaty of Paris. In 1779 it…

  • parquetry (flooring)

    floor covering: Early floor coverings: …was later used decoratively in parquetry designs.

  • Parr, Catherine (queen of England)

    Catherine Parr, sixth and last wife of King Henry VIII of England (ruled 1509–47). Catherine was a daughter of Sir Thomas Parr of Kendall, an official of the royal household. She had been widowed twice—in marriages to Edward Borough (b. c. 1508–d. c. 1533) and to John Neville, Lord Latimer (b.

  • Parr, Thomas (English centenarian)

    life span: Actual versus possible life span: …physician, performed an autopsy on Thomas Parr and the account of the autopsy was cited for many years as evidence that Harvey—in his paper—had confirmed Parr’s age. Quite apart from the fact that it is impossible to accurately determine the age of a person by an autopsy, Harvey made no…

  • Parr, William (English noble)

    William Parr, Marquess Northampton, brother of Henry VIII’s queen Catherine Parr, and Protestant supporter of Lady Jane Grey and Queen Elizabeth I. He took part in suppressing the uprising in the north of England in 1537 and, after serving as member of Parliament for Northamptonshire, was made

  • Parra Sandoval, Violeta del Carmen (Chilean musician and activist)

    Violeta Parra, Chilean composer, folk singer, and social activist, best known as one of the founders of the politically inflected Nueva Canción (“New Song”) movement. In addition, she painted, wrote poetry, sculpted, and wove arpilleras (folk tapestries). Her best-known song, “Gracias a la Vida”

  • Parra, Nicanor (Latin-American poet)

    Nicanor Parra, one of the most important Latin American poets of his time, the originator of so-called antipoetry (poetry that opposes traditional poetic techniques or styles). Parra studied mathematics and physics at the University of Chile in Santiago; at Brown University, Providence, Rhode

  • Parra, Violeta (Chilean musician and activist)

    Violeta Parra, Chilean composer, folk singer, and social activist, best known as one of the founders of the politically inflected Nueva Canción (“New Song”) movement. In addition, she painted, wrote poetry, sculpted, and wove arpilleras (folk tapestries). Her best-known song, “Gracias a la Vida”

  • parrakeet (bird)

    Parakeet, any of numerous seed-eating parrots of small size, slender build, and long, tapering tail. In this sense the name is given to some 115 species in 30 genera of the subfamily Psittacinae (family Psittacidae) and has influenced another parrot name, lorikeet (see parrot). To indicate size

  • Parral (Mexico)

    Hidalgo del Parral, city, south-central Chihuahua estado (state), north-central Mexico. The city, renamed in honour of the patriot Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, lies on the Parral River 5,449 feet (1,661 metres) above sea level and south of Chihuahua, the state capital. An important mining town in the

  • Parramatta (New South Wales, Australia)

    Parramatta, city within the Sydney metropolitan area, eastern New South Wales, Australia. It lies along the 15-mile- (24-km-) long Parramatta River (which enters Port Jackson harbour). The second European settlement in Australia, it was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip as a western

  • Parratt, Sir Walter (British musician)

    Sir Walter Parratt, organist who exerted great influence by his understanding of Bach. At age 11 he was organist at a local church, and later held positions as organist of Magdalen College, Oxford (1872) and St. George’s Chapel, Windsor (1882); professor of music, Oxford (1908–18); and teacher of

  • Parrhasius (Greek artist)

    Parrhasius, one of the greatest painters of ancient Greece. Parrhasius was born in Ephesus, Ionia (now part of Turkey), and later settled in Athens. He was praised by ancient critics as a master of outline drawing, and he apparently relied on subtle contours rather than the new technique of

  • Parri, Ferruccio (Italian politician)

    Italy: Birth of the Italian republic: …and Party of Action leader Ferruccio Parri. The CLNs continued to administer the northern regions and the larger northern factories for a short time. Up to 15,000 Fascists were purged or killed, and in some areas (such as Emilia and Tuscany) reprisals continued through 1946. Women “collaborators” had their heads…

  • Parrington, Vernon L. (American literary historian)

    Vernon L. Parrington, American literary historian and teacher noted for his far-reaching appraisal of American literary history. Parrington grew up in Emporia, Kan., and was educated at the College of Emporia and Harvard University. He taught English and modern languages at the College of Emporia

  • Parrington, Vernon Louis (American literary historian)

    Vernon L. Parrington, American literary historian and teacher noted for his far-reaching appraisal of American literary history. Parrington grew up in Emporia, Kan., and was educated at the College of Emporia and Harvard University. He taught English and modern languages at the College of Emporia

  • Parris Island (island, South Carolina, United States)

    Parris Island, one of the Sea Islands on the Atlantic coast, in Port Royal Sound, just south of the island and town of Port Royal, in Beaufort county, southern South Carolina, U.S. Spanish Franciscans and Jesuits came there in the 1520s and attempted to establish missions among the Native

  • Parris, Alexander (American architect)

    Alexander Parris, American architect, a principal exponent of the Greek Revival style in early 19th-century Massachusetts. Parris was apprenticed to a carpenter as a boy and subsequently studied design in Portland, Maine. His houses in that city include the Hunnewell-Shepley House (1805) and the

  • Parris, Betty (American colonist)

    Salem witch trials: Fits and contortions: …them by Tituba, Parris’s daughter Betty (age 9), his niece Abigail Williams (age 11), and their friend Ann Putnam, Jr. (about age 12), began indulging in fortune-telling. In January 1692 Betty’s and Abigail’s increasingly strange behaviour (described by at least one historian as juvenile deliquency) came to include fits. They…

  • Parris, Samuel (American minister)

    Salem witch trials: Setting the scene: …the influence of the Putnams, Samuel Parris, a merchant from Boston by way of Barbados, became the pastor of the village’s Congregational church. Parris, whose largely theological studies at Harvard College (now Harvard University) had been interrupted before he could graduate, was in the process of changing careers from business…

  • Parrish, Anne (American philanthropist)

    Anne Parrish, American philanthropist whose school for indigent girls, founded in the late 18th century, existed well into the 20th. Parrish grew up in a Quaker home where charitable works were greatly valued. When her parents fell victim to the yellow fever epidemic of 1793, she vowed that if they

  • Parrish, Celestia Susannah (American educator)

    Celestia Susannah Parrish, American educator who worked in the South to open higher education to women and to promote progressive education for children. Parrish was orphaned during the Civil War and thereafter was reared by relatives. She received an irregular education but had a strong desire for

  • Parrish, Frederick Maxfield (American artist)

    Maxfield Parrish, American illustrator and painter who was perhaps the most popular commercial artist in the United States in the first half of the 20th century. The son of an artist, Parrish was educated at Haverford College, Pennsylvania, and studied art at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine

  • Parrish, Maxfield (American artist)

    Maxfield Parrish, American illustrator and painter who was perhaps the most popular commercial artist in the United States in the first half of the 20th century. The son of an artist, Parrish was educated at Haverford College, Pennsylvania, and studied art at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine

  • Parrish, Robert (American actor and director)

    Robert Parrish, U.S. child actor who appeared as a newsboy in Charlie Chaplin’s City Lights and later earned an Academy Award for film editing for Body and Soul and plaudits for his direction of such films as Cry Danger and The Purple Plain (b. Jan. 4, 1916--d. Dec. 4,

  • parrocchie di Regalpetra, Le (work by Sciascia)

    Leonardo Sciascia: …Le parrocchie di Regalpetra (1956; Salt in the Wound), chronicles the history of a small Sicilian town and the effect of politics on the lives of the townspeople. He further examined what he termed sicilitudine (“Sicilian-ness”) in the four stories of Gli zii di Sicilia (1958; Sicilian Uncles). Although Sicilian…

  • parrolet (bird)

    psittaciform: macaws, and parrotlets (or parrolets), in addition to the lorikeets (including lories) as well as the kea and the kakapo of New Zealand. Members of the cockatoo family, Cacatuidae, live only in the region of Australia and New Guinea. This group also includes

  • Parrondo, Gil (Spanish-American art director)
  • parrot (bird)

    Psittaciform, (order Psittaciformes), any member of the group of more than 360 species of generally brightly coloured noisy birds to which the general name parrot may be applied. All belong to just two families. In the family Psittacidae are parakeets (including the budgerigars, rosellas, and

  • parrot (bird family)

    Parrot, term applied to a large group of gaudy, raucous birds of the family Psittacidae. Parrot also is used in reference to any member of a larger bird group, order Psittaciformes, which includes cockatoos (family Cacatuidae) as well. Parrots have been kept as cage birds since ancient times, and

  • Parrot and Olivier in America (work by Carey)

    Peter Carey: Parrot and Olivier in America (2009) is a picaresque work set in the early 19th century. It presents the adventures of two men—one a young French aristocrat (whose portrait is based largely on Alexis de Tocqueville) and the other an Englishman traveling as his servant…

  • parrot fever (pathology)

    Psittacosis, infectious disease of worldwide distribution caused by a bacterial parasite (Chlamydia psittaci) and transmitted to humans from various birds. The infection has been found in about 70 different species of birds; parrots and parakeets (Psittacidae, from which the disease is named),

  • parrot fish (fish)

    Parrot fish, any of about 80 species of fishes of the family Scaridae, a group sometimes regarded as a subfamily of Labridae (order Perciformes), found on tropical reefs. Parrot fishes are elongated, usually rather blunt-headed and deep-bodied, and often very brightly coloured. They have large

  • parrot pitcher plant (plant)

    pitcher plant: Sarraceniaceae: The parrot pitcher plant (S. psittacina) has small, fat, red-veined leaves that are topped by beaklike lids and bears dark red flowers. The sweet pitcher plant (S. rubra) produces dull red, violet-scented flowers. The crimson pitcher plant (S. leucophylla) has white trumpet-shaped pitchers with ruffled upright…

  • parrot’s bill (plant)

    Clianthus: …bill, or red kowhai (Clianthus puniceus), and kakabeak (C. maximus) are native to New Zealand and Australia, respectively. Both plants are grown as ornamentals but are considered endangered species in the wild.

  • Parrot, André (French archaeologist)

    André Parrot, French archaeologist, Protestant theologian, and museum director noted for having discovered the ancient Mesopotamian city of Mari (now in Syria), previously known only from references in Babylonian texts. Parrot began excavations in 1933 at Tall al-Ḥarīrī and, from a temple

  • parrotbill (bird)

    Parrotbill, (family Paradoxornithidae), any of several species of small to medium titmouselike birds, mostly brown and gray with soft, loose plumage and distinctive strongly arched, parrotlike bills. They live in brushy grasslands of Central and Eastern Asia. A well-known garden bird in Chinese

  • Parrotia persica (plant)

    Hamamelidaceae: …also an outstanding trait of Persian ironwood (Parrotia persica), a small tree from northern Iran. Its flowers, produced before the leaves, have drooping stamens, lack petals, and have brown leaflike bracts. This tree’s close-grained wood is very strong, as are the twigs of the related Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana, which is used…

  • Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana (plant)

    Hamamelidaceae: …the twigs of the related Parrotiopsis jacquemontiana, which is used in its native Himalayan area for making baskets and bridges. A deciduous tree with petalless flowers, white bracts, and erect stamens, it is taller than Persian ironwood, reaching about 6 metres (20 feet). The still taller Japanese shrub Disanthus cercidifolius…

  • parrotlet (bird)

    psittaciform: macaws, and parrotlets (or parrolets), in addition to the lorikeets (including lories) as well as the kea and the kakapo of New Zealand. Members of the cockatoo family, Cacatuidae, live only in the region of Australia and New Guinea. This group also includes

  • Parrott, Robert Parker (American inventor)

    Robert Parker Parrott, American inventor who developed the rifled cannon known as the Parrott gun, the most formidable cannon of its time. Parrott was graduated from the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, New York, in 1824 but resigned from the army in 1836 to become superintendent of the West

  • Parry (computer program)

    artificial intelligence: English dialogue: …early AI programs, Eliza and Parry, gave an eerie semblance of intelligent conversation. (Details of both were first published in 1966.) Eliza, written by Joseph Weizenbaum of MIT’s AI Laboratory, simulated a human therapist. Parry, written by Stanford University psychiatrist Kenneth Colby, simulated a human paranoiac. Psychiatrists who were asked…

  • Parry Island (island, Cook Islands, Pacific Ocean)

    Mauke, easternmost of the southern Cook Islands, a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand in the South Pacific Ocean. Known for its rich soil, Mauke is called the “garden” of the Cook Islands. It is a raised coral atoll of low formation (100 feet [30 metres] high) and oval in

  • Parry Islands (archipelago, Nunavut and Northwest Territories, Canada)

    Parry Islands, archipelago in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, Canada. The archipelago is part of the Queen Elizabeth Islands. It lies south and west of Ellesmere Island in the Arctic Ocean. Major islands are Devon, Cornwallis, Bathurst, Melville, and Prince

  • Parry piñon (tree)

    pine: Major North American pines: The Parry piñon (P. quadrifolia) is the four-needle piñon of southern California and northern Baja California. Nut pine, or pinyon pine (P. edulis), is the most widely distributed tree of this nut group. The seeds of the group are large and tasty and are sold in…

  • Parry Sound (Ontario, Canada)

    Parry Sound, town, seat of Parry Sound district, southeastern Ontario, Canada. It lies on the eastern shore of Georgian Bay of Lake Huron, at the mouth of the Seguin River, 120 miles (190 km) north of Toronto. Named in honour of the Arctic explorer Sir William Parry, the town was founded in the

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