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  • Parapriacanthus (fish)

    sweeper: …the fishes of the genera Parapriacanthus or Pempheris, in the family Pempheridae (order Perciformes), all of which occur in marine or brackish waters in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans. Sweepers have elongate-oval, compressed bodies with well-developed fins and tail. The eyes are unusually large. A few species have luminescent…

  • parapsychological phenomenon

    Parapsychological phenomenon, any of several types of events that cannot be accounted for by natural law or knowledge apparently acquired by other than usual sensory abilities. The discipline concerned with investigating such phenomena is called parapsychology. Parapsychological phenomena of two

  • parapsychology

    Parapsychology, Discipline concerned with investigating events that cannot be accounted for by natural law and knowledge that cannot have been obtained through the usual sensory abilities. Parapsychology studies the cognitive phenomena often called extrasensory perception, in which a person

  • paraquat (chemical compound)

    occupational disease: Organic compounds: Paraquat and diquat, the bipyridylium compounds, are deadly if ingested. Skin contact or inhalation of a concentrate of paraquat can cause fatal lung damage. Because no specific antidote is known, treatment consists of minimizing the body’s absorption of the poison.

  • Pararaton (Javanese chronicle)

    Kertanagara: Legacy: …on the two Javanese chronicles—the Pararaton (“Book of Kings”) and Nāgarakertāgama (the epic of Majapahit), which give contradictory pictures of the King.

  • parareptile (reptile group)

    reptile: Fossil distribution: …primitive group, the anapsids (or Parareptilia). The early reptiles were usually small animals and generally were not as abundant as some of the synapsids, such as the sailback pelycosaurs (Edaphosaurus, Dimetrodon, and others). Assorted parareptiles occurred throughout the Permian Period (299 million to 251 million years ago), but they largely…

  • Parareptilia (reptile group)

    reptile: Fossil distribution: …primitive group, the anapsids (or Parareptilia). The early reptiles were usually small animals and generally were not as abundant as some of the synapsids, such as the sailback pelycosaurs (Edaphosaurus, Dimetrodon, and others). Assorted parareptiles occurred throughout the Permian Period (299 million to 251 million years ago), but they largely…

  • pararhyme (linguistics)

    rhyme: …differently (cough / slough), and pararhyme, first used systematically by the 20th-century poet Wilfred Owen, in which two syllables have different vowel sounds but identical penultimate and final consonantal groupings (grand / grind). Feminine pararhyme has two forms, one in which both vowel sounds differ, and one in which only…

  • Parasakthi (motion picture)

    Sivaji Ganesan: …with the classic DMK film Parasakthi (1952). By the mid-1950s Ganesan had begun to move away from the DMK and its atheistic policies. He soon attained fame by appearing in several mythological films—one such film, Veerapandiya Kattaborman (1960), is probably his best-known work.

  • Parasaurolophus (dinosaur genus)

    dinosaur: Ornithopoda: Lambeosaurus, Parasaurolophus (and a few others), the crests were hollow, containing a series of middle and outer chambers that formed a convoluted passage from the nostrils to the trachea. Except for passing air along to the lungs, the function of these crests is not widely agreed…

  • Paraṣawara (Pakistan)

    Peshawar, city, central Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, northern Pakistan. The city (capital of the province) lies just west of the Bara River, a tributary of the Kabul River, near the Khyber Pass. The Shahji-ki Dheri mounds, situated to the east, cover ruins of the largest Buddhist stupa in the

  • Parascaris univalens (nematode)

    evolution: Chromosomal mutations: The parasitic nematode Parascaris univalens has only one pair of chromosomes, whereas many species of butterflies have more than 100 pairs and some ferns more than 600. Even closely related organisms may vary considerably in the number of chromosomes. Species of spiny rats of the South American genus…

  • parascending (gliding)

    paragliding: …boat for pleasure rides, and parascending describes the European sport of towing low-performance paragliders into the air with the object of landing on a small target. Parafoil is a trade name for certain ram-air parachutes. Additionally, small motors backpacked by the pilot can be used to drive paragliders, in which…

  • Paraschivescu, Miron (Romanian author)

    Romanian literature: After World War II: …for peace in her poetry, Miron Paraschivescu, a lyric poet who took themes from folklore, and Marcel Breslaşu, a complex writer on a wide range of subjects.

  • Paraschwagerina (fossil foraminiferan genus)

    Paraschwagerina, genus of extinct fusulinid foraminiferans (protozoans with a relatively large shell readily preservable in the fossil record), the fossils of which are restricted to marine rocks; the animal probably lived in clear water, far from the shoreline. The various species are excellent

  • Parascyllium variolatum

    carpet shark: …in the order are the necklace carpet shark (Parascyllium variolatum), the ornate wobbegong (Orectolobus ornatus), and the zebra shark. The tasseled wobbegong (Eucrossorhinus dasypogon) has an especially unusual appearance, with fringed lobes of skin on its head and a similar beard of lobes on its chin.

  • parasexuality (reproduction)

    fungus: Life cycle of fungi: …fungi exhibit the phenomenon of parasexuality, in which processes comparable to plasmogamy, karyogamy, and meiosis take place. However, these processes do not occur at a specified time or at specified points in the life cycle of the organism. As a result, parasexuality is characterized by the prevalence of heterokaryosis in…

  • Parasha (poem by Turgenev)

    Ivan Turgenev: Early life and works: …attention was a long poem, Parasha, published in 1843. The potential of the author was quickly appreciated by the critic Vissarion Belinsky, who became Turgenev’s close friend and mentor. Belinsky’s conviction that literature’s primary aim was to reflect the truth of life and to adopt a critical attitude toward its…

  • parasha (Judaism)

    sidra: …of these seven parts is parasha (plural parashot), the Hebrew word for “section.” A different person is called to the altar to read each of the parashot, and this is considered an honour for the reader.

  • Parashara (legendary Indian ascetic)

    Vyasa: …the son of the ascetic Parashara and the dasyu (aboriginal) princess Satyavati and grew up in forests, living with hermits who taught him the Vedas (ancient sacred literature of India). Thereafter he lived in the forests near the banks of the river Sarasvati, becoming a teacher and a priest, fathering…

  • Parashurama (Hindu mythology)

    Parashurama, (Sanskrit: “Rama with the Ax”) one of the 10 avatars (incarnations) of the Hindu god Vishnu. The Mahabharata and the Puranas record that Parashurama was born to the Brahman sage Jamadagni and the princess Renuka, a member of the Kshatriya class. When Jamadagni suspected Renuka of an

  • Parasitaxus ustus (plant)

    conifer: Roots: …which the only parasitic conifer, Parasitaxus ustus, attaches to the roots of its conifer hosts are an exception, but the oddest root structures are the “knees” of bald cypresses (Taxodium distichum), conical masses of woody tissue that emerge from the swamp waters around each tree. Their function is still poorly…

  • parasite (biology)

    Parasitism, relationship between two species of plants or animals in which one benefits at the expense of the other, sometimes without killing the host organism. Parasites may be characterized as ectoparasites—including ticks, fleas, leeches, and lice—which live on the body surface of the host and

  • Parasite Red Queen Theory (biology)

    William Donald Hamilton: His “Parasite Red Queen Theory,” which proposed that multicellular organisms use the process of genetic recombination that naturally occurs during meiosis to stanch attacks by parasites, is a modification of the Red Queen hypothesis, which suggested that evolution was an “arms race” between species. This hypothesis…

  • Parasite, The (work by Mendele)

    Yiddish literature: The classic writers: The Parasite). Abramovitsh wrote his most important works while residing in Berdychev (now Berdychiv), Zhitomir (now Zhytomyr), and Odessa (all now in Ukraine). He was influenced by the Haskala during the 1850s and began his literary career writing in Hebrew. At that time, however, the…

  • parasitic castration (biology)

    barnacle: …the host’s reproductive development (parasitic castration). Parasites of the order Ascothoracica, the most primitive of cirripedes, are cyprislike as adults. An example is Laura, found imbedded in cnidarians and echinoderms.

  • parasitic catfish (fish)

    Candiru, (Vandellia cirrhosa), scaleless, parasitic catfish of the family Trichomycteridae found in the Amazon River region. A translucent, eellike fish about 2.5 cm (1 inch) long, the candiru feeds on blood and is commonly found in the gill cavities of other fishes. It sometimes also attacks

  • parasitic disease

    Parasitic disease, in humans, any illness that is caused by a parasite, an organism that lives in or on another organism (known as the host). Parasites typically benefit from such relationships, often at the expense of the host organisms. Parasites of humans include protozoans, helminths, and

  • parasitic drag (mechanics)

    airplane: Aerodynamics: Parasitic drag is that caused by form resistance (due to shape), skin friction, interference, and all other elements that are not contributing to lift; induced drag is that created as a result of the generation of lift.

  • parasitic jaeger (bird)

    jaeger: …in body size is the parasitic jaeger (S. parasiticus).

  • parasitic moth (insect family)

    lepidopteran: Annotated classification: Family Epipyropidae (parasitic moths) 40 chiefly Asian species; larvae live as external parasites on plant hoppers; related family: Cyclotornidae (Australian; larvae live similarly when young, then move to ants’ nests). Superfamily Yponomeutoidea More than 1,500 species worldwide; a limited and not

  • parasitic plant (botany)

    Parasitic plant, plant that obtains all or part of its nutrition from another plant (the host) without contributing to the benefit of the host and, in some cases, causing extreme damage to the host. The defining structural feature of a parasitic plant is the haustorium, a specialized organ that

  • parasitic skua (bird)

    jaeger: …in body size is the parasitic jaeger (S. parasiticus).

  • Parasitiformes (arachnid superorder)

    arachnid: Annotated classification: Superorder Parasitiformes (mites and ticks) at least 11,000 species. Body usually hardened; 1st pair of legs have sensory organs. Superorder Opilioacariformes or order Opilioacarida found in North America and parts of the Mediterranean region, all of 1 family. Body of 12 segments, divided into hairy

  • parasitism (biology)

    Parasitism, relationship between two species of plants or animals in which one benefits at the expense of the other, sometimes without killing the host organism. Parasites may be characterized as ectoparasites—including ticks, fleas, leeches, and lice—which live on the body surface of the host and

  • parasitoid (biology)

    Parasitoid, an insect whose larvae feed and develop within or on the bodies of other arthropods. Each parasitoid larva develops on a single individual and eventually kills that host. Most parasitoids are wasps, but some flies and a small number of beetles, moths, lacewings, and even one caddisfly

  • parasitoidism (biology)

    Parasitoid, an insect whose larvae feed and develop within or on the bodies of other arthropods. Each parasitoid larva develops on a single individual and eventually kills that host. Most parasitoids are wasps, but some flies and a small number of beetles, moths, lacewings, and even one caddisfly

  • parasitology (biology)

    Parasitology, the study of animal and plant parasitism as a biological phenomenon. Parasites occur in virtually all major animal groups and in many plant groups, with hosts as varied as the parasites themselves. Many parasitologists are concerned primarily with particular taxonomic groups and

  • Paraskevaidis, Christos (Greek archbishop)

    Christodoulos, archbishop of Athens and All Greece and head of the Orthodox Church of Greece (1998–2008), the youngest man ever to be named head of the church. He was a controversial participant in Greek politics and one of the most popular figures in Greece. The future archbishop was the son of a

  • Paráskhos, Akhilléfs (Greek poet)

    Akhilléfs Paráskhos, Greek poet who was the central figure of the Greek Romantic school of poetry in its second and last period (c. 1850–80). His models were Alfred de Musset, Victor Hugo, and Lord Byron, but he fell short of their achievement. Paráskhos’ unrestrained manner and grandiloquent

  • Parasnath (peak, India)

    Jharkhand: Relief, drainage, and soils: …the conical granite peak of Parasnath, which rises to 4,477 feet (1,365 metres) on the Hazaribag plateau; it is sacred in the Jain religion and to the Santhal people. Lowland plains flank the plateaus in the northwestern and northeastern parts of the state.

  • parasocial sequence (behaviour)

    animal social behaviour: Categorizing the diversity of social behaviour: … following two routes, called the parasocial sequence and the subsocial sequence. This classification is based primarily on the involvement of insect parents with their young, whereas classifications of vertebrate sociality are frequently based on spacing behaviour or mating system. Both routes culminate in “eusociality,” a system in which the young…

  • parasol (protective device)

    umbrella: …sun became known as a parasol and was a standard element of fashionable women’s outdoor attire in the 18th and 19th centuries. The traditional construction of umbrellas using cane ribs was replaced in the 1850s by modern umbrellas using a very light but strong steel frame. Men in the West…

  • parasol ant (insect tribe)

    Leafcutter ant, (tribe Attini), any of 39 ant species abundant in the American tropics, easily recognized by their foraging columns composed of hundreds or thousands of ants carrying small pieces of leaves. These moving trails of cut foliage often stretch over 30 metres (100 feet) across the forest

  • parasol pine (tree)

    Umbrella pine, (Sciadopitys verticillata), coniferous evergreen tree native to Japan, the only member of the umbrella pine family (Sciadopityaceae). Historically, this genus was classified variously in Cupressaceae or Taxodiaceae, but subsequent studies confirmed its structural uniqueness. Although

  • parasol shaft (ritualistic object)

    ceremonial object: Places of worship and sacrifice: …or initiation hut; or a parasol shaft (chattravali) in the Buddhist stupas (buildings) and the Japanese and Chinese pagodas. If represented in stone, the tree evolved into a column gnomon (a perpendicular shaft), such as the Buddhist lat, the sacred pillar (matzeva) of the ancient Hebrews, or the

  • parasol wing (aircraft)

    wing: Parasol wings, placed on struts high above the fuselage of seaplanes, help keep the engine from water spray.

  • parastatal (government company)

    Djibouti: Manufacturing: …overcome this handicap by launching parastatals (government-owned enterprises) in specifically targeted industries, such as a mineral-water-bottling plant at Tadjoura and a dairy plant outside Djibouti city. It has also attempted to exploit significant geothermal activity in the hopes of making the country energy self-sufficient. However, the parastatal sector was plagued…

  • parasuchian (fossil reptile)

    Phytosaur, heavily armoured semiaquatic reptiles found as fossils from the Late Triassic Period (about 229 million to 200 million years ago). Phytosaurs were not dinosaurs; rather both groups were archosaurs, a larger grouping that also includes crocodiles and pterosaurs (flying reptiles).

  • Parasurama (Hindu mythology)

    Parashurama, (Sanskrit: “Rama with the Ax”) one of the 10 avatars (incarnations) of the Hindu god Vishnu. The Mahabharata and the Puranas record that Parashurama was born to the Brahman sage Jamadagni and the princess Renuka, a member of the Kshatriya class. When Jamadagni suspected Renuka of an

  • Paraśurāma-Khetram (region, India)

    Kerala Plains, narrow strip of coastland, southwestern India, fronting the Arabian Sea to the west and constituting almost all of Kerala state and most of the Malabar Coast. Narrow in the north and wide in the south, the plains are about 330 miles (530 km) long and from 12 to 60 miles (19 to 96 km)

  • parasympathetic nervous system (anatomy)

    Parasympathetic nervous system, division of the nervous system that primarily modulates visceral organs such as glands. The parasympathetic system is one of two antagonistic sets of nerves of the autonomic nervous system; the other set comprises the sympathetic nervous system. While providing

  • parasympathetic neuron (physiology)

    human nervous system: Enteric nervous system: …thoracic and lumbar levels; and parasympathetic neurons, which originate in the nodose ganglion of the vagus nerve or in dorsal-root ganglia at sacral levels S2–S4. The former innervate the gastrointestinal tract from the pharynx to the left colic flexure, and the latter innervate the distal colon and rectum. Each portion…

  • parasympathetic outflow (anatomy)

    human nervous system: Enteric nervous system: …over the gut, arises from parasympathetic preganglionic neurons found in the dorsal vagal nucleus of the medulla oblongata and from sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the lateral horns of the spinal cord. These pathways provide modulatory commands to the intrinsic enteric motor system and are nonessential in that basic functions can…

  • parasympatholytic drug (drug)

    antiemetic: Anticholinergic drugs and antihistamines are effective against motion sickness. Although many are available for use, none is entirely free from side effects (e.g., dry mouth and blurred vision with the anticholinergics, drowsiness with the antihistamines). The most-effective drugs in this group are the anticholinergic drug…

  • parasympathomimetic drug (drug)

    Cholinergic drug, any of various drugs that inhibit, enhance, or mimic the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, the primary transmitter of nerve impulses within the parasympathetic nervous system—i.e., that part of the autonomic nervous system that contracts smooth muscles, dilates blood

  • paratantra-svabhava (Buddhism)

    trisvabhava: Paratantra-svabhava (“the form arising under certain conditions”), the real form of phenomenal existence free from verbal expression; the world of dependent origination (pratitya-samutpada).

  • parathion (insecticide)

    Parathion, an organic phosphorus compound well known as an insecticide that is extremely toxic to humans. The compound acts in mammals, as in insects, as a cholinesterase inhibitor (cholinesterase being the enzyme that controls the normal functioning of the nervous system), causing death by

  • parathormone (hormone)

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH), substance produced and secreted by the parathyroid glands that regulates serum calcium concentration. Under the microscope the PTH-producing cells, called chief cells, isolated from the parathyroid glands, occur in sheets interspersed with areas of fatty tissue.

  • parathyroid adenoma (pathology)

    Parathyroid adenoma, disorder characterized by loss of mineral materials from the skeleton, the development of kidney stones, and occasionally progressive kidney insufficiency. Increase in the number (hyperplasia) of secretory cells of one or more of the parathyroid glands results in an excess of

  • parathyroid chief cell (biology)

    parathyroid hormone: microscope the PTH-producing cells, called chief cells, isolated from the parathyroid glands, occur in sheets interspersed with areas of fatty tissue. Occasionally the cells are arranged in follicles similar to but smaller than those present in the thyroid gland. As with other protein hormones, PTH is synthesized as a large…

  • parathyroid gland (anatomy)

    Parathyroid gland, endocrine gland occurring in all vertebrate species from amphibia upward, usually located close to and behind the thyroid gland. Humans usually have four parathyroid glands, each composed of closely packed epithelial cells separated by thin fibrous bands and some fat cells. The

  • parathyroid hormone (hormone)

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH), substance produced and secreted by the parathyroid glands that regulates serum calcium concentration. Under the microscope the PTH-producing cells, called chief cells, isolated from the parathyroid glands, occur in sheets interspersed with areas of fatty tissue.

  • Paratitla (work by Cujas)

    Jacques Cujas: …Cujas specialized in Justinian; his Paratitla, or summaries of Justinian’s Digest and Codex, expresses in short, clear axioms the elementary principles of Roman law. He also edited the Codex Theodosianus. A complete edition of Cujas’s works, in 10 volumes (1658), was prepared by Charles Annibal Fabrot.

  • paratrooper (soldier)

    D-Day in pictures: …hours before dawn, thousands of paratroopers descended on the Normandy countryside behind the German defenses. At about 6:30 am some 3,000 Allied landing craft began discharging men onto a stretch of beaches between Cherbourg and Le Havre. The Allied plan was to seize a beachhead within range of fighter coverage…

  • paratuberculosis (livestock disease)

    Johne’s disease, serious infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis. Although principally a disease of cattle, it can affect sheep, deer, and goats, and it occurs worldwide. Cows may not show signs of the disease for as long as a year after exposure to it. Chronic diarrhea

  • paratype (biology)

    taxonomy: Verification and validation by type specimens: Paratypes are specimens used, along with the holotype, in the original designation of a new form; they must be part of the same series (i.e., collected at the same immediate locality and at the same time) as the holotype.

  • paratyphoid fever (disease)

    Paratyphoid fever, infectious disease similar to typhoid, though usually milder, caused by any of several organisms: Salmonella paratyphi (paratyphoid A), S. schottmulleri (paratyphoid B), or S. hirschfeldii (paratyphoid C). The means of infection, spread, clinical course, pathology, diagnosis,

  • parauque (bird)

    Pauraque, (Nyctidromus albicollis), nocturnal bird of brushlands from southern Texas to northern Argentina. It is a relative of the nightjar (q.v.), belonging to the family Caprimulgidae. The pauraque is about 30 cm (about 12 inches) long, with rounded wings and a longish tail. It is mottled brown

  • Parautoptic lock

    lock: Development of modern types.: …most interesting was Robert Newell’s Parautoptic lock, made by the firm of Day and Newell of New York City. Its special feature was that not only did it have two sets of lever tumblers, the first working on the second, but it also incorporated a plate that revolved with the…

  • Paravents, Les (work by Genet)

    Jean Genet: …Blacks), and Les Paravents (1961; The Screens), are large-scale, stylized dramas in the Expressionist manner, designed to shock and implicate an audience by revealing its hypocrisy and complicity. This “Theatre of Hatred” attempts to wrest the maximum dramatic power from a social or political situation without necessarily endorsing the political…

  • paravertebral ganglion (anatomy)

    human nervous system: The peripheral nervous system: …are referred to as paravertebral ganglia. Prevertebral motor ganglia are located near internal organs innervated by their projecting fibres, while terminal ganglia are found on the surfaces or within the walls of the target organs themselves. Motor ganglia have multipolar cell bodies, which have irregular shapes and eccentrically located…

  • Paraves (theropod)

    Archaeopteryx: …could be applied to the Paraves, a more inclusive collection of theropod dinosaurs that includes birds and the deinonychosaurs (a group that contains the troodontids and the dromaeosaurs).

  • Paravicino, Fray Hortensio (Spanish monk)

    El Greco: Middle years: Fray Hortensio Paravicino, the head of the Trinitarian order in Spain and a favourite preacher of Philip II of Spain, dedicated four sonnets to El Greco, one of them recording his own portrait by the artist. Luis de Góngora y Argote, one of the major…

  • paraxial image (optics)

    optics: Paraxial, or first-order, imagery: In a lens that has spherical aberration, the various rays from an axial object point will in general intersect the lens axis at different points after emerging into the image space. By tracing several rays entering the lens at different heights…

  • paraxial ray (optics)

    optics: Paraxial, or first-order, imagery: …close to the axis (a paraxial ray) would intersect the axis, although such a ray could not be traced directly by the ordinary trigonometrical formulas because the angles would be too small for the sine table to be of any use. Because the sine of a small angle is equal…

  • paraxial rod (biology)

    protist: Cilia and flagella:

  • Parazoa (animal subkingdom)

    animal: Parazoa: a cellular level of organization: Although the two phyla in this subkingdom, Porifera (sponges) and Placozoa, lack clearly defined tissues and organs, their cells specialize and integrate their activities. Their simplicity has been adaptive, and sponges have remained important in benthic marine habitats since…

  • Parazoanthus axinellae (coral)

    sponge: Associations with other organisms: , the coral Parazoanthus axinellae grows on the sponge Axinella. The organisms that live in the cavities of sponges include crustaceans, nematode and polychaete worms, ophiuroid echinoderms (brittle stars), and bivalve mollusks; some inhabit a sponge for occasional shelter or nourishment, others establish more intimate associations as parasites…

  • Parbate (people)

    Pahāṛī, people who constitute about three-fifths the population of Nepal and a majority of the population of neighbouring Himalayan India (in Himachal Pradesh and northern Uttar Pradesh). They speak languages belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European family. The people are

  • Párbeszéd: négy nap ezerkilencszáznyolcvankilencben (work by Nádas)

    Péter Nádas: …to the present day, and Párbeszéd: négy nap ezerkilencszáznyolcvankilencben (1992; “Dialogue: Four Days in Nineteen Eighty-nine”), a transcript of a conversation with a Swedish journalist friend about the differences between eastern and western Europe that had come about because of the Iron Curtain. He continued to publish essays and short…

  • Parbhani (India)

    Parbhani, city, east-central Maharashtra state, western India. It lies in an upland plateau region about 10 miles (16 km) south of the Dudna River. The city’s name refers to the Prabhavati Temple, which was forcibly converted to a mosque during the Mughal period. Parbhani is a commercial and

  • parblanching (cooking)

    boiling: Parblanching or parboiling consists in immersing the food in cold water and then bringing it slowly to a simmer or boil.

  • parboiling (cooking)

    boiling: Parblanching or parboiling consists in immersing the food in cold water and then bringing it slowly to a simmer or boil.

  • PARC (research centre, Palo Alto, California, United States)

    Xerox PARC, division established in 1970 by Xerox Corporation in Palo Alto, California, U.S., to explore new information technologies that were not necessarily related to the company’s core photocopier business. Many innovations in computer design were developed by PARC researchers, including the

  • Parc National de Waza (national park, Cameroon)

    Cameroon: Plant and animal life: Waza National Park in the north, which was originally created for the protection of elephants, giraffes, and antelope, abounds in both forest and savanna animals, including monkeys, baboons, lions, leopards, and birds that range from white and gray pelicans to spotted waders. To the south…

  • Parc National des Garamba (national park, Democratic Republic of the Congo)

    Garamba National Park, large natural area in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, bordering on South Sudan. The park, created in 1938, has an area of 1,900 square miles (4,920 square km) and is a continuation of the South Sudanese savanna fed by the Garamba and Dungu rivers; it was

  • Parc Provincial de la Gaspésie (park, Quebec, Canada)

    Gaspesian Provincial Park, park in eastern Quebec province, Canada. The park occupies 500 square miles (1,295 square km) on the Gaspé Peninsula, near the mouth of the St. Lawrence River. It was established in 1937 to protect the fast-diminishing herds of caribou as well as to preserve the natural b

  • Parc Zoologique de Clères (zoo, Clères, France)

    Clères Zoological Park, specialty zoo that has one of the world’s finest bird collections. The park was founded in 1919 by Jean Delacour, a widely known aviculturist and ornithologist, on his 26-hectare (65-acre) estate in Clères, Fr. Its bird collection comprises 1,800 specimens representing s

  • Parc Zoologique de Paris (zoo, Paris, France)

    Paris Zoo: …Jardin des Plantes) and the Zoological Park of Paris (Parc Zoologique de Paris), both services of the French National Museum of Natural History.

  • Parc, Thérèse Du (French actress)

    Jean Racine: Life: …even seduced Molière’s leading actress, Thérèse du Parc, into joining him personally and professionally—and from this point onward all of Racine’s secular tragedies would be presented by the actors of the Hôtel de Bourgogne.

  • Parca (Greek and Roman mythology)

    Fate, in Greek and Roman mythology, any of three goddesses who determined human destinies, and in particular the span of a person’s life and his allotment of misery and suffering. Homer speaks of Fate (moira) in the singular as an impersonal power and sometimes makes its functions interchangeable

  • Parcae (Greek and Roman mythology)

    Fate, in Greek and Roman mythology, any of three goddesses who determined human destinies, and in particular the span of a person’s life and his allotment of misery and suffering. Homer speaks of Fate (moira) in the singular as an impersonal power and sometimes makes its functions interchangeable

  • parcel post

    postal system: International postal reform: the Universal Postal Union: …such as money orders (1878), parcel post (1885), postal checks (1920), cash on delivery (1947), and savings banks (1957). The UPU has been a specialized agency of the United Nations since 1948.

  • Parcells, Bill (American football coach and executive)

    Bill Parcells, American professional gridiron football coach and executive who coached the New York Giants of the National Football League (NFL) to Super Bowl victories in 1987 and 1991. Parcells spent most of his childhood in New Jersey, where he acquired the nickname “Bill” from teachers who

  • Parcells, Duane Charles (American football coach and executive)

    Bill Parcells, American professional gridiron football coach and executive who coached the New York Giants of the National Football League (NFL) to Super Bowl victories in 1987 and 1991. Parcells spent most of his childhood in New Jersey, where he acquired the nickname “Bill” from teachers who

  • Parcham Party (political party, Afghanistan)

    Afghan War: Insurgency against communist rule (1978–92): …People’s (Khalq) Party and the Banner (Parcham) Party, which had earlier emerged from a single organization, the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan, and had reunited in an uneasy coalition shortly before the coup. The new government, which had little popular support, forged close ties with the Soviet Union, launched ruthless…

  • Parcheesi (game)

    Pachisi, board game, sometimes called the national game of India. Four players in opposing partnerships of two attempt to move pieces around a cross-shaped track. Moves are determined by throws of cowrie shells or dice. Each player has four pieces, which begin at the centre space, move down the

  • parchment (writing material)

    Parchment, the processed skins of certain animals—chiefly sheep, goats, and calves—that have been prepared for the purpose of writing on them. The name apparently derives from the ancient Greek city of Pergamum (modern Bergama, Turkey), where parchment is said to have been invented in the 2nd

  • parchment worm (polychaete genus)

    Parchment worm, (genus Chaetopterus), any of several species of segmented worms of the class Polychaeta (phylum Annelida), especially C. variopedatus of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. They live on the sea bottom in U-shaped tubes that are lined with parchmentlike material. Parchment worms grow to

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