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  • Paraguay

    Paraguay, landlocked country in south-central South America. Paraguay’s recent history has been characterized by turbulence and authoritarian rule. It was involved in two of the three major wars on the continent—the War of the Triple Alliance (1864/65–70), against Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay,

  • Paraguay River (river, South America)

    Paraguay River, the fifth largest river in South America and the principal tributary of the Paraná River. Rising in the Mato Grosso region of Brazil at 980 feet (300 metres) above sea level, it crosses Paraguay to its confluence with the Paraná near the Argentine border. It is 1,584 miles (2,550

  • Paraguay River basin (basin, South America)

    Río de la Plata: Physiography of the Paraguay basin: At Paso de Patria, on the right (Paraguayan) bank, the Paraná receives its greatest tributary, the Paraguay River. The fifth largest river in South America, the Paraguay (Spanish: Río Paraguay; Portuguese: Rio Paraguai) is 1,584 miles (2,550 kilometres) long. The name Paraguay, also…

  • Paraguay tea (beverage)

    Mate, tealike beverage, popular in many South American countries, brewed from the dried leaves of an evergreen shrub or tree (Ilex paraguariensis) related to holly. It is a stimulating drink, greenish in colour, containing caffeine and tannin, and is less astringent than tea. Mate is especially

  • Paraguay, Congress of (legislative body, Paraguay)

    Paraguay: Constitutional framework: The legislative body is the Congress, composed of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. All its members are elected by popular vote for five-year terms (with the exception of former presidents, who are appointed senators for life, though they are not entitled to vote) on the same date that…

  • Paraguay, flag of

    horizontally striped red-white-blue national flag. It is distinctive among national flags in having a central coat of arms on the obverse side but a different seal on the reverse. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is 3 to 5.Isolated from much of the rest of Spanish-dominated South America, Paraguay

  • Paraguay, history of

    Paraguay: Early history: … occupied the region between the Paraguay and Paraná rivers long before the arrival of Europeans (about 2000–1000 bce). They were a Tupian-speaking people, and in most respects their customs resembled those of the other Indians in the tropical forests. The women cultivated corn (maize), cassava (manioc), and sweet potatoes, and…

  • Paraguay, Republic of

    Paraguay, landlocked country in south-central South America. Paraguay’s recent history has been characterized by turbulence and authoritarian rule. It was involved in two of the three major wars on the continent—the War of the Triple Alliance (1864/65–70), against Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay,

  • Paraguay, República del

    Paraguay, landlocked country in south-central South America. Paraguay’s recent history has been characterized by turbulence and authoritarian rule. It was involved in two of the three major wars on the continent—the War of the Triple Alliance (1864/65–70), against Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay,

  • Paraguay, Río (river, South America)

    Paraguay River, the fifth largest river in South America and the principal tributary of the Paraná River. Rising in the Mato Grosso region of Brazil at 980 feet (300 metres) above sea level, it crosses Paraguay to its confluence with the Paraná near the Argentine border. It is 1,584 miles (2,550

  • Paraguay–Paraná–Plata river system (watershed, South America)

    Brazil: Drainage: The Paraguay-Paraná-Plata is the second of the great river systems of Brazil; it also drains large parts of Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina, and Uruguay. In Brazil the system rises in the highlands of Mato Grosso, Goiás, and Minas Gerais states and flows southward in two sections—the Paraguay…

  • Paraguaya de Trabajadores, Confederación (Paraguayan trade union)

    Paraguay: Labour and taxation: …large government-recognized trade union, the Confederation of Paraguayan Workers (Confederación Paraguaya de Trabajadores; CPT). After Stroessner’s fall, a number of independent union groupings emerged, most notably the Unified Workers Central (Central Unitaria de Trabajadores; CUT). About one-eighth of workers are members of Paraguay’s more than 1,500 labour unions.

  • Paraguayan People’s Army (guerrilla group, Paraguay)

    Paraguay: Paraguay in the 21st century: …been carried out by the Paraguayan People’s Army (EPP), which was formally organized in 2008 but had been active for some two decades. The tiny Marxist group (thought to comprise only several dozen members) may have killed as many as 60 people since beginning its rebellion, which was carried out…

  • Paraguayan War (South American history)

    War of the Triple Alliance, (1864/65–70), the bloodiest conflict in Latin American history, fought between Paraguay and the allied countries of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. Paraguay had been involved in boundary and tariff disputes with its more powerful neighbours, Argentina and Brazil, for

  • Paraguayan Workers, Confederation of (Paraguayan trade union)

    Paraguay: Labour and taxation: …large government-recognized trade union, the Confederation of Paraguayan Workers (Confederación Paraguaya de Trabajadores; CPT). After Stroessner’s fall, a number of independent union groupings emerged, most notably the Unified Workers Central (Central Unitaria de Trabajadores; CUT). About one-eighth of workers are members of Paraguay’s more than 1,500 labour unions.

  • Paragymnomma (fly genus)

    orchid: Natural history: …female flies of the genus Paragymnomma to a remarkable degree. The column and base of the lip are narrow, barred with yellow and red-brown, and they extend laterally to simulate the extended wings of a sitting fly. The base of the lip has no particular similarity to the head and…

  • Parahippus (fossil mammal genus)

    horse: Evolution of the horse: …first representative of this line, Parahippus, appeared in the early Miocene. Parahippus and its descendants marked a radical departure in that they had teeth adapted to eating grass. Grasses were at this time becoming widespread across the North American plains, providing Parahippus with a vast food supply. Grass is a…

  • parahormone (hormone)

    hormone: The evolution of hormones: …as carbon dioxide are called parahormones to distinguish them from true hormones, which are specialized secretions.

  • Parahoué plateau (plateau, Benin)

    Benin: Relief: …the environs of Abomey, Kétou, Aplahoué (or Parahoué), and Zagnanado. The plateaus consist of clays on a crystalline base. The Abomey, Aplahoué, and Zagnanado plateaus are from 300 to 750 feet high, and the Kétou plateau is up to 500 feet in height.

  • Parahyaena brunnea (mammal)

    hyena: The smaller brown hyena weighs about 40 kg; the coat is shaggy and dark with an erectile white mane over the neck and shoulders and horizontal white bands on the legs. The brown hyena lives in Southern Africa and western coastal deserts, where it is called the…

  • Parahyba (state, Brazil)

    Paraíba, estado (state) of northeastern Brazil. Primarily an agricultural state, Paraíba is bounded by the states of Rio Grande do Norte on the north, Ceará on the west, and Pernambuco on the south and by the Atlantic Ocean on the east. Its chief river, the Paraíba, rises on the Pernambuco border

  • Parahyba do Norte (state, Brazil)

    Paraíba, estado (state) of northeastern Brazil. Primarily an agricultural state, Paraíba is bounded by the states of Rio Grande do Norte on the north, Ceará on the west, and Pernambuco on the south and by the Atlantic Ocean on the east. Its chief river, the Paraíba, rises on the Pernambuco border

  • Paraíba (state, Brazil)

    Paraíba, estado (state) of northeastern Brazil. Primarily an agricultural state, Paraíba is bounded by the states of Rio Grande do Norte on the north, Ceará on the west, and Pernambuco on the south and by the Atlantic Ocean on the east. Its chief river, the Paraíba, rises on the Pernambuco border

  • Paraíba (Brazil)

    João Pessoa, port city, capital of Paraíba estado (state), northeastern Brazil. It is situated at an elevation of 148 feet (45 metres) above sea level on the right bank of the Paraíba do Norte River, 11 miles (18 km) above its mouth, 75 miles (121 km) north of Recife, and about 100 miles [160 km]

  • Paraíba do Sul River (river, Brazil)

    Paraíba do Sul River, river, in eastern Brazil, formed by the junction of the Paraibuna and Paraitinga rivers, east of São Paulo, between Mogi das Cruzes and Jacareí. It flows east-northeastward, receiving tributaries from the Serra da Mantiqueira and the Serra do Mar and forming part of the border

  • Paraibuna (Brazil)

    Juiz de Fora, city, southeastern Minas Gerais estado (state), Brazil. It is situated in the deep Paraibuna River valley between the Orgãos and Mantiqueira ranges. Formerly known as Paraibuna, Juiz de Fora is the centre of a highly developed agricultural region producing rice, bananas, sugarcane,

  • parainfluenza virus (infectious agent)

    croup: …frequent being those with the parainfluenza and influenza viruses. Such infections are most prevalent among children under the age of three years, and they strike most frequently in late fall and winter. Generally, the onset of viral croup is preceded by the symptoms of the common cold for several days.…

  • Paraíso Express (album by Sanz)

    Alejandro Sanz: …of his eighth studio release, Paraíso Express (2009). It won the Grammy for best Latin pop album in 2011 and spawned the crossover hit “Looking for Paradise,” a duet with American rhythm-and-blues singer Alicia Keys.

  • Paraíso, El (archaeological site, Peru)

    El Paraíso, Late Preceramic site in the present-day Chillón Valley on the central Peruvian coast, generally believed to date just before the beginning of the Initial Period (c. 2100–1800 bc). It is notable for its large mud and rock apartment-like dwelling units. It is believed to be roughly c

  • Parajapygidae (arthropod family)

    dipluran: Members of Parajapygidae also have pincerlike cerci but usually are phytophagous (plant-eating). Members of the family Campodeidae have two long slender abdominal cerci that are sensitive to vibrations.

  • parakeet (bird)

    Parakeet, any of numerous seed-eating parrots of small size, slender build, and long, tapering tail. In this sense the name is given to some 115 species in 30 genera of the subfamily Psittacinae (family Psittacidae) and has influenced another parrot name, lorikeet (see parrot). To indicate size

  • Parakidograptus acuminatus (fossil graptolite)

    Silurian Period: Ordovician-Silurian boundary: …use the base of the Parakidograptus acuminatus biozone (a group of concurrent graptolite species) as the base of the Silurian System. The stratotype was fixed at a horizon in Dob’s Linn near Moff in the Southern Uplands of Scotland. The effect on sea level of Late Ordovician glaciation, combined with…

  • parakiya-rati (Hinduism)

    Vaishnava-Sahajiya: The Vaishnava-Sahajiyas elevated parakiya-rati (literally, “the love of a man for a woman who legally belongs to another”) above svakiya-rati (conjugal love) as the more intense of the two. Parakiya-rati, it was said, was felt without consideration for the conventions of society or for personal gain and thus…

  • Parakou (Benin)

    Parakou, town located in central Benin, western Africa. It is the terminus of the so-called Benin-Niger Railway, which was originally planned to extend to the Niger River. The railway runs northward from Cotonou, Benin’s major port and commercial centre on the Gulf of Guinea, to Parakou, whence

  • Pārakrama Paṇḍita (Sinhalese writer)

    South Asian arts: Sinhalese literature: 10th century ad to 19th century: …of the Great Stupa”), by Pārakrama Paṇḍita. Subsequent chronicles, or genealogies of places, comprise the history of all of the major Buddhist monuments. Several chronicles were also inspired by the Tooth Relic, received from Kaliṅga in the 4th century by King Kīrtiśrīmēghavarṇa. Such chronicling included that of the kings who…

  • Parakrama Samudra (irrigation system, Sri Lanka)

    Sri Lanka: The advent and impact of irrigation: …most noteworthy was the magnificent Parakrama Samudra in Polonnaruwa, the crowning glory of Parakramabahu I’s reign, with a storage area of more than 5,000 acres (2,000 hectares) for the irrigation of 18,000 acres (7,300 hectares).

  • Parākramabāhu I (king of Sri Lanka)

    Parākramabāhu I, Sinhalese king of Ceylon (1153–86) who united the island under one rule, reformed Buddhist practices, and sent successful expeditionary forces to India and Burma. The son of Manabharana (one of Ceylon’s four regional lords), who controlled the south and who died while Parākrama w

  • Parakramabahu II (king of Sri Lanka)

    Sri Lanka: Political changes: Under Parakramabahu II (reigned 1236–70) the Dambadeniya kingdom achieved great power; it was able to expel the Kalingas from the island with Pandyan help and to repel an invasion by Malays from Southeast Asia.

  • Parakramabahu the Great (king of Sri Lanka)

    Parākramabāhu I, Sinhalese king of Ceylon (1153–86) who united the island under one rule, reformed Buddhist practices, and sent successful expeditionary forces to India and Burma. The son of Manabharana (one of Ceylon’s four regional lords), who controlled the south and who died while Parākrama w

  • Parakramabahu VI (king of Sri Lanka)

    Kotte: Its king, Parākramabāhu VI (1412–67), was the last native sovereign to unify all of Ceylon under one rule. By 1450, Parākramabāhu VI had, with his conquest of the kingdom of Jaffna in northern Ceylon, unified all of Ceylon. By 1477, however, 10 years after the death of…

  • Parakumbasirita (Sinhalese poem)

    South Asian arts: Sinhalese literature: 10th century ad to 19th century: …earliest of which is the Parakumbasirita (“History of Parakramabahu VI,” king in Jayavardhanapura from 1410 to 1468). Again reminiscent of the mainland and the religious tradition are the plentiful eulogies of the Buddha. Popular, too, was didactic verse, among the most notable of which is the Kusajātaka, 687 stanzas of…

  • paraldehyde (chemical compound)

    Paraldehyde, colourless liquid of disagreeable taste and pungent odour used in medicine as a sedative–hypnotic drug and in chemistry in the manufacture of organic chemicals. When administered as a medicine, it is largely excreted by the lungs and gives an unpleasant odour to the breath. It is most

  • paralegal (law)

    legal profession: Contemporary trends: …effected the emergence of the paralegal profession. A paralegal is an individual who serves as a legal assistant to one or more attorneys during the provision of legal services. Paralegals perform many of the same tasks as lawyers, including conducting legal research, obtaining affidavits, assisting in the preparation of legal…

  • Paralelle des anciens et des modernes (work by Perrault)

    art criticism: Art criticism in the 17th century: Programmatic theory: In Paralelle des anciens et des modernes (1688–97; “Parallels Between the Ancients and the Moderns”), the French critic Charles Perrault argues for the superiority of 16th-century Italian painters over ancient artists and of contemporary (17th-century) painting over 16th-century painting. This idea that there was artistic progress…

  • Paralepididae (fish)

    Barracudina, any of about 50 species of marine fishes of the family Paralepididae, found almost worldwide in deep waters. Barracudinas are long-bodied, slender fishes with large eyes, pointed snouts, and large mouths provided with both small and larger, fanglike teeth. Barracudinas grow to about

  • paraliageosyncline (geology)

    geosyncline: …of sediment accumulation, and the paraliageosyncline, a deep geosyncline that passes into coastal plains along continental margins.

  • Paralichthodidae (fish family)

    pleuronectiform: Annotated classification: Family Paralichthodidae (measles flounders) One species, Paralichthodes algoensis, from Southern Africa. Family Rhombosoleidae (rhombosoleids) 9 genera, 19 species. Family Poecilopsettidae (bigeye flounders) 3 genera, 20 species Family

  • Paralichthyidae (fish family)

    pleuronectiform: Annotated classification: Family Paralichthyidae (sand flounders) Eyes usually sinistral; pelvic fin bases short, pectoral rays branched. About 16 genera and 105 species. Marine, present in all oceans, rarely in fresh water. Family Samaridae (crested flounders) Origin of dorsal in front of eyes; lateral line well developed or rudimentary; pelvic…

  • Paralichthys dentatus (fish)

    flounder: …the better-known flounders include the summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus), an American Atlantic food fish growing to about 90 cm (35 inches); the peacock flounder (Bothus lunatus), a tropical American Atlantic species attractively marked with many pale blue spots and rings; the brill (Scophthalmus rhombus), a relatively large commercial European species,…

  • Paralipomena of Jeremiah (Pseudepigrapha)

    biblical literature: Paralipomena of Jeremiah: In the last chapter of the Greek text of the Paralipomena (additional stories) of Jeremiah, there is a hint of the Christian part of the Ascension of Isaiah: the people stoned Jeremiah to death because he, like Isaiah before him, prophesied the…

  • Paralipomenon I and II (Old Testament)

    Books of the Chronicles, two Old Testament books that were originally part of a larger work that included the books of Ezra and Nehemiah. These three (Ezra and Nehemiah were one book in the Jewish canon) were the final books of the Hebrew Bible. Together they survey Israel’s history from Adam to

  • Paralithodes camtschaticus (crustacean)

    King crab, (Paralithodes camtschaticus), marine crustacean of the order Decapoda, class Malacostraca. This edible crab is found in the shallow waters off Japan, along the coast of Alaska, and in the Bering Sea. The king crab is one of the largest crabs, weighing 5 kg (11 pounds) or more. Its size

  • parallax (optics)

    Parallax, in astronomy, the difference in direction of a celestial object as seen by an observer from two widely separated points. The measurement of parallax is used directly to find the distance of the body from Earth (geocentric parallax) and from the Sun (heliocentric parallax). The two

  • Parallax View, The (film by Pakula [1974])

    Alan J. Pakula: Films of the 1970s: More impressive was The Parallax View (1974), a masterpiece of paranoia that drew on the conspiracy theories associated with the assassination of U.S. Pres. John F. Kennedy. Warren Beatty played an investigative reporter who uncovers evidence about a group of political assassins following the killing of a senator.…

  • parallel (geography)

    Parallel, imaginary line extending around the Earth parallel to the equator; it is used to indicate latitude. The 38th parallel, for example, has a latitude of 38° N or 38° S. See latitude and

  • parallel ATA (computer science)

    SATA: …designed to replace the long-standing PATA (parallel ATA) interface.

  • parallel bars (sports)

    Parallel bars, gymnastics apparatus invented in the early 19th century by the German Friedrich Jahn, usually considered the father of gymnastics. It is especially useful in improving upper-body strength. The two bars, made of wood, are oval in cross section, 5 cm (2 inches) thick, 3.5 metres (11.5

  • parallel bus (computer science)

    peripheral device: …can be either serial or parallel, depending on whether the data path carries one bit at a time (serial) or many at once (parallel). Serial connections, which use relatively few wires, are generally simpler and slower than parallel connections. Universal serial bus (USB) is a common serial bus. A common…

  • parallel cinema (Indian film style)

    Shyam Benegal: …New Wave Indian cinema, or parallel cinema.

  • parallel circuit (electronics)

    electric circuit: A parallel circuit comprises branches so that the current divides and only part of it flows through any branch. The voltage, or potential difference, across each branch of a parallel circuit is the same, but the currents may vary. In a home electrical circuit, for instance,…

  • parallel computer (computing)

    computer science: Parallel and distributed computing: The simultaneous growth in availability of big data and in the number of simultaneous users on the Internet places particular pressure on the need to carry out computing tasks “in parallel,” or simultaneously. Parallel and distributed computing occurs across many different…

  • parallel cousin (anthropology)

    cross-cousin: …are parallel cousins (sometimes called ortho-cousins); and the children of a father’s sister or of a mother’s brother are cross-cousins.

  • parallel displacement (mathematics)

    Tullio Levi-Civita: …introduction of the concept of parallel displacement in general curved spaces. This concept immediately found many applications and in relativity is the basis of the unified representation of electromagnetic and gravitational fields. In pure mathematics as well, his concept was instrumental in the development of modern differential geometry.

  • parallel distributed processing (psychological model)

    artificial intelligence: Conjugating verbs: Another name for connectionism is parallel distributed processing, which emphasizes two important features. First, a large number of relatively simple processors—the neurons—operate in parallel. Second, neural networks store information in a distributed fashion, with each individual connection participating in the storage of many different items of information. The know-how that…

  • parallel distributed-information processor (computer science)

    information processing: Basic concepts: …contributed to the development of neurocomputers, a new class of parallel, distributed-information processors that mimic the functioning of the human brain, including its capabilities for self-organization and learning. So-called neural networks, which are mathematical models inspired by the neural circuit network of the human brain, are increasingly finding applications in…

  • parallel drain system (agriculture)

    irrigation and drainage: Types of drainage systems: …two most widely used are parallel drains and random drains. Parallel drains are channels running parallel to one another at a uniform spacing of a few to several hundred metres apart, depending on the soil and the slope of the land. Random drains are channels that run to any low…

  • parallel evolution (biology)

    Parallel evolution, the evolution of geographically separated groups in such a way that they show morphological resemblances. A notable example is the similarity shown by the marsupial mammals of Australia to the placental mammals elsewhere. Through the courses of their evolution they have come to

  • parallel lines (geometry)

    projective geometry: Parallel lines and the projection of infinity: A theorem from Euclid’s Elements (c. 300 bc) states that if a line is drawn through a triangle such that it is parallel to one side (see the figure), then the line will divide the other two sides…

  • Parallel Lines (album by Blondie)

    Blondie: Parallel Lines (1978) broke the band into the rock mainstream thanks to hits such as “Picture This,” “One Way or Another,” and the disco-influenced “Heart of Glass.” Eat to the Beat (1979) was similarly successful.

  • Parallel Lives (work by Plutarch)

    Parallel Lives, influential collection of biographies of famous Greek and Roman soldiers, legislators, orators, and statesmen written as Bioi parallëloi by the Greek writer Plutarch near the end of his life. By comparing a famous Roman with a famous Greek, Plutarch intended to provide model

  • parallel magnetic circuit (physics)

    magnetic circuit: …the magnetic circuit is called parallel. If all the flux is confined to a single closed loop, as in a ring-shaped electromagnet, the circuit is called a series magnetic circuit.

  • parallel motion (technology)

    James Watt: The Watt engine: …with his invention of the parallel motion—an arrangement of connected rods that guided the piston rod in a perpendicular motion—which he described as “one of the most ingenious, simple pieces of mechanism I have contrived.” Four years later his application of the centrifugal governor for automatic control of the speed…

  • parallel ohmmeter (instrument)

    ohmmeter: If in parallel (parallel ohmmeter), the instrument will draw more current as resistance increases. If in series (series ohmmeter), current will decrease as resistance rises. Ratio meters measure the ratio of the voltage across the resistance to the current flowing through it. For high resistances, the scale is…

  • parallel perspective (art)

    perspective: Another kind of system—parallel perspective combined with a viewpoint from above—is traditional in Chinese painting. When buildings rather than natural contours are painted and it is necessary to show the parallel horizontal lines of the construction, parallel lines are drawn parallel instead of converging, as in linear perspective.…

  • parallel polarization (physics)

    radiation: The photoelectric effect: Parallel polarization (polarization in the plane of incidence) gives higher yield than does perpendicular polarization, in some instances by almost 10 times.

  • parallel postulate (geometry)

    Parallel postulate, One of the five postulates, or axioms, of Euclid underpinning Euclidean geometry. It states that through any given point not on a line there passes exactly one line parallel to that line in the same plane. Unlike Euclid’s other four postulates, it never seemed entirely

  • parallel processing (computing)

    computer science: Parallel and distributed computing: The simultaneous growth in availability of big data and in the number of simultaneous users on the Internet places particular pressure on the need to carry out computing tasks “in parallel,” or simultaneously. Parallel and distributed computing occurs across many different…

  • parallel runway (airport)

    airport: Runway configurations: …the use of a close parallel runway configuration. Most very large airports must be assured of adequate capacity even under IFR conditions, and this can be achieved by separating the parallel runways by a minimum of 1,035 metres (3,400 feet), which was the distance approved by the International Civil Aviation…

  • Parallel Stories (novel by Nádas)

    Péter Nádas: …three-volume novel, Párhuzamos történetek (2005; Parallel Stories), formidable in its length—over 1,000 pages both in the original Hungarian and the English translation—and its variety of content. The scattered narrative, focusing seemingly randomly on events and experiences since the World War II era, intersperses surrealistic visions and graphic sexuality. In 2010…

  • parallel straightedge (drawing instrument)

    drafting: Equipment: protractor, and compass; the parallel straightedge is an alternative to the T square. The drafting machine, introduced about 1930, allows a straightedge to be moved while maintaining any desired angle between it and the edge of the drawing board. Combining the functions of the T square, triangle, protractor, and…

  • parallel transport (mathematics)

    Tullio Levi-Civita: …introduction of the concept of parallel displacement in general curved spaces. This concept immediately found many applications and in relativity is the basis of the unified representation of electromagnetic and gravitational fields. In pure mathematics as well, his concept was instrumental in the development of modern differential geometry.

  • parallel turn (skiing)

    Sondre Norheim: …the first skier to perform parallel turns. In 1868 Norheim and some friends skied 322 km (200 miles) from Telemark to Christiania (later Oslo), where he made a jump of 18 metres (59 feet). He is credited with developing in 1870 the first modern sidecut in skis, producing a ski…

  • parallel universe (fiction)

    science fiction: Alternate histories and parallel universes: By contrast, the “parallel universe” was entirely conjectural and hypothetical. Initially, readers found parallel worlds an amusing but inconsequential conceit, just as they had once found works set within the future academic or absurd. They soon realized, however, that the notion of uchronia (or “no-times”) offered certain pleasures…

  • parallel-flow heat exchanger

    heat exchanger: This flow arrangement is called parallel flow. Heat is transferred from the warm fluid through the wall of the inner tube (the so-called heating surface) to the cold fluid. A heat exchanger can also be operated in counterflow, in which the two fluids flow in parallel but opposite directions. Concentric…

  • parallel-plate capacitor (electronics)

    electricity: Capacitance: …a storage device is the parallel-plate capacitor. If positive charges with total charge +Q are deposited on one of the conductors and an equal amount of negative charge −Q is deposited on the second conductor, the capacitor is said to have a charge Q. As shown in Figure 11, it…

  • Parallèlement (work by Verlaine)

    Pierre Bonnard: …Verlaine’s book of Symbolist poetry, Parallèlement, published by Vollard in 1900. He undertook the illustration of other books during the 1900s.

  • parallelism (biblical interpretation)

    biblical literature: Parallelism: Parallelism, the interpretation of scripture by means of scripture, is a corollary of the belief in the unity of scripture. But as a hermeneutical principle it must be employed sparingly, since the unity of scripture should be based on comprehensive exegetical study rather than…

  • parallelism (literature and rhetoric)

    Parallelism, in rhetoric, component of literary style in both prose and poetry, in which coordinate ideas are arranged in phrases, sentences, and paragraphs that balance one element with another of equal importance and similar wording. The repetition of sounds, meanings, and structures serves to

  • parallelism, psychophysical

    Psychophysical parallelism, in the philosophy of mind, a theory that excludes all causal interaction between mind and body inasmuch as it seems inconceivable that two substances as radically different in nature could influence one another in any way. Mental and physical phenomena are seen as two

  • parallelistic song (poetry)

    Portuguese literature: Poetry: …Leon, is the earliest extant parallelistic song—a brief, repetitive lyrical poem marked by a wistful sadness that runs throughout Portuguese literature. Of the many later poems that survive, most belong to the major categories of cantigas de amor (“songs of love”; a male voice singing of problems of love), cantigas…

  • parallelogram (mathematics)

    vector: …the origin and complete the parallelogram formed by the two vectors; v + w is then one diagonal vector of the parallelogram, and v − w is the other diagonal vector.

  • parallels (geography)

    Parallel, imaginary line extending around the Earth parallel to the equator; it is used to indicate latitude. The 38th parallel, for example, has a latitude of 38° N or 38° S. See latitude and

  • parallels of latitude (geography)

    Parallel, imaginary line extending around the Earth parallel to the equator; it is used to indicate latitude. The 38th parallel, for example, has a latitude of 38° N or 38° S. See latitude and

  • Paralycopodites (fossil plant genus)

    Lepidodendron: Bothrodendron, and Paralycopodites—were related to modern club mosses. They grew up to 40 metres (130 feet) in height and 2 metres (about 7 feet) in diameter. During their juvenile stages, these plants grew as unbranched trunks with a shock of long, thin leaves that sprouted near the…

  • Paralympic Games (sports)

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  • paralysis (pathology)

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