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  • Papirofsky, Joseph (American producer and director)

    Joseph Papp, American theatrical producer and director, founder of the New York Shakespeare Festival and the Public Theatre. He was a major innovative force in the American theatre in the second half of the 20th century. Papp studied acting and directing at the Actor’s Laboratory Theatre in

  • Papish v. Board of Curators of the University of Missouri (law case)

    Papish v. Board of Curators of the University of Missouri, legal case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on March 19, 1973, held in a per curiam (unsigned) opinion that the expulsion of a student from a public university for distributing on campus a newspaper that contained what the university deemed

  • Papish, Barbara (American student)

    Papish v. Board of Curators of the University of Missouri: Facts of the case: Barbara Papish, a 32-year-old graduate student majoring in journalism at the University of Missouri, was expelled for distributing an issue of the Free Press Underground newspaper, published by the nonprofit Columbia Free Press Corporation. According to university officials, the paper contained forms of what they…

  • Pápissa Ioánna, I (work by Roídis)

    Greek literature: Old Athenian School: … novel I Pápissa Ioánna (1866; Pope Joan) is a hilarious satire on medieval and modern religious practices as well as a pastiche of the historical novel. Pávlos Kalligás, in Thános Vlékas (1855), treated contemporary problems such as brigandage. In Loukís Láras (1879; Eng. trans., Loukis Laras) Dimítrios Vikélas presented a…

  • Papke, Billy (American boxer)

    Stanley Ketchel: …September 7, 1908, Ketchel faced Billy Papke in a title match. As Ketchel stepped forward to shake hands (touch gloves) with his opponent, Papke sucker punched Ketchel and staggered him. Ketchel never recovered and was badly beaten in the 1st round, although he managed to hold on until he was…

  • Papon, Maurice-Arthur-Jean (French bureaucrat)

    Maurice-Arthur-Jean Papon, French bureaucrat (born Sept. 3, 1910 , Gretz-Armainvilliers, France—died Feb. 17, 2007, Paris, France), as a high-ranking local official (1942–44) in Gironde under France’s pro-Nazi Vichy government, authorized the arrest and deportation of more than 1,600 Jews

  • Papovaviridae (virus group)

    Papovavirus, any virus in the families Papillomaviridae and Polyomaviridae. Papovaviruses are responsible for a variety of abnormal growths in animals: warts (papillomas) in humans, dogs, and other animals; cervical cancer in women; tumours (polyomas) in mice; and vacuoles (open areas) in cells of

  • papovavirus (virus group)

    Papovavirus, any virus in the families Papillomaviridae and Polyomaviridae. Papovaviruses are responsible for a variety of abnormal growths in animals: warts (papillomas) in humans, dogs, and other animals; cervical cancer in women; tumours (polyomas) in mice; and vacuoles (open areas) in cells of

  • Papp, George (American artist)

    Green Arrow: …writer Mort Weisinger and artist George Papp. Nicknamed the “Emerald Archer” for his Robin Hood-like appearance and manner, the character first appeared in More Fun Comics no. 73 (November 1941).

  • Papp, Joseph (American producer and director)

    Joseph Papp, American theatrical producer and director, founder of the New York Shakespeare Festival and the Public Theatre. He was a major innovative force in the American theatre in the second half of the 20th century. Papp studied acting and directing at the Actor’s Laboratory Theatre in

  • Papp, László (Hungarian boxer)

    László Papp, Hungarian boxer who became the first three-time Olympic boxing champion, winning gold medals in 1948, 1952, and 1956. Papp, a former railway clerk, competed as a middleweight (161 pounds [73 kg]) at the 1948 Olympic Games in London. A hard-hitting left-hander, he won the first of his

  • pappataci fever (pathology)

    Pappataci fever, acute, infectious, febrile disease caused by a phlebovirus (family Bunyaviridae) and producing temporary incapacitation. It is transmitted to humans by the bloodsucking female sand fly (notably Phlebotomus papatasii, P. perniciosus, and P. perfiliewsi) and is prevalent in the moist

  • Pappenheim, Bertha (Austrian psychiatric patient)

    Sigmund Freud: Early life and training: …had treated a patient named Bertha Pappenheim—or “Anna O.,” as she became known in the literature—who was suffering from a variety of hysterical symptoms. Rather than using hypnotic suggestion, as had Charcot, Breuer allowed her to lapse into a state resembling autohypnosis, in which she would talk about the initial…

  • Pappenheim, Gottfried Heinrich, Graf zu (German officer)

    Gottfried Heinrich, count zu Pappenheim, German cavalry commander conspicuous early in the Thirty Years’ War. Pappenheim served with the Catholic League, headed by the elector Maximilian I of Bavaria and commanded by Johann Tserclaes, Graf von Tilly. Idolized by his regiment of cuirassiers, the

  • pappus (plant anatomy)

    Asteraceae: Flowers: …given a different name, the pappus. The pappus consists of one to many dry scales, awns (small pointed processes), or capillary (hairlike) bristles; in some the scales may be joined by their margins to form a crownlike ring at the summit of the ovary. In a few genera (e.g., Marshallia)…

  • Pappus of Alexandria (Greek mathematician)

    Pappus of Alexandria , the most important mathematical author writing in Greek during the later Roman Empire, known for his Synagoge (“Collection”), a voluminous account of the most important work done in ancient Greek mathematics. Other than that he was born at Alexandria in Egypt and that his

  • Pappus’s projective theorem (geometry)

    projective geometry: Projective invariants: In its first variant, by Pappus of Alexandria (fl. ad 320) as shown in the figure, it only uses collinearity:

  • Pappus’s theorem (geometry)

    Pappus’s theorem, in mathematics, theorem named for the 4th-century Greek geometer Pappus of Alexandria that describes the volume of a solid, obtained by revolving a plane region D about a line L not intersecting D, as the product of the area of D and the length of the circular path traversed by

  • papri chaat (food)

    chaat: Papri chaat (or papdi chaat) is crispy fried-dough wafers served with typical chaat ingredients such as chickpeas, boiled potatoes, yogurt sauce, and tamarind and coriander chutneys; it may also contain pomegranate seeds

  • paprika (spice)

    Paprika, spice made from the pods of Capsicum annuum, an annual shrub belonging to the nightshade family, Solanaceae, and native to tropical areas of the Western Hemisphere, including Mexico, Central America, South America, and the West Indies. C. annuum is cultivated throughout most of the world

  • Papst und das Konzil, Der (work by Döllinger)

    Johann Joseph Ignaz von Döllinger: …Papst und das Konzil (1869; The Pope and the Council), under the pen name Janus. This book, which criticized the Vatican Council and the doctrine of infallibility, immediately was placed on the Vatican’s Index of Forbidden Books.

  • Papua (province, Indonesia)

    Papua, propinsi (or provinsi; province) of Indonesia, spanning roughly the eastern three-fourths of the western half of the island of New Guinea as well as a number of offshore islands—notably, Sorenarwa (Yapen), Yos Sudarso (Dolak), and the Schouten Islands. Papua is bounded by the Pacific Ocean

  • Papua Barat (province, Indonesia)

    West Papua, propinsi (or provinsi; province) of Indonesia, including the Bomberai and Doberai (Vogelkop) peninsulas on the western end of the island of New Guinea and, to the west, the Raja Ampat Islands—most notably Salawati, Waigeo, Batanta, and Misool. The province is bounded to the north by the

  • Papua New Guinea

    Papua New Guinea, island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It encompasses the eastern half of New Guinea, the world’s second largest island (the western half is made up of the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua); the Bismarck Archipelago (New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty

  • Papua New Guinea, flag of

    diagonally divided red-black national flag featuring a yellow bird-of-paradise and the Southern Cross constellation. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is 3 to 4.In the 20th century the two territories finally linked in Papua New Guinea were administered by the Germans, British, and Australians. The

  • Papua New Guinea, University of (university, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea)

    Oceanic literature: Development of written literature: …after the establishment of the University of Papua New Guinea (1965) and the University of the South Pacific (1968). The most significant works have been written in English and have come from the regions served by the two universities (Papua New Guinea and the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Niue,…

  • Papua, Gulf of (gulf, Pacific Ocean)

    Gulf of Papua, inlet of the Coral Sea (southwestern Pacific Ocean) indenting the southeast coast of the island of New Guinea. About 225 miles (360 km) wide, it extends 95 miles (150 km) into south-central New Guinea. From west to east it is entered by the Fly, Bamu, Turama, Kikori, Purari,

  • Papuan (people)

    inheritance: Inheritance and individual ownership of property: Among the Papua of New Guinea and the Damara (Bergdama) of Namibia, the hut of the dead man was abandoned or burned down so as to ban the magic of the disease of which the owner had died. Among the Herero of southwest Africa, the dead man’s…

  • Papuan languages

    Papuan languages, group of languages spoken in New Guinea and its surrounds. The area includes the entire island of New Guinea and the offshore islands of New Britain, New Ireland, Sorenarwa (Yapen), and Biak, as well as the adjoining areas of eastern Indonesia, especially the islands of Timor,

  • papule (anatomy)

    connective tissue disease: Hereditary disorders of connective tissue: …pseudoxanthoma refers to the yellowish papules (pimplelike protuberances) that occur most commonly in the folds of the skin of the neck, armpits, and groin. The colour results from the thickening and fragmentation of elastic fibres in the deep layers of the skin. Calcium deposition may occur in the skin, and…

  • Papyri, Villa of the (villa, Herculaneum, Italy)

    Herculaneum: …a suburban villa, called the Villa of the Papyri because of its having contributed a whole library of ancient papyri in Greek. These papyri, on philosophical subjects of Epicurean inspiration, are preserved in the National Library of Naples.

  • papyrology

    Papyrology, the care, reading, and interpretation of ancient documents written on papyrus, which is of prime importance in Egyptian, Middle Eastern, and Classical archaeology. Most papyrus documents have been found in Egypt, where the papyrus plant was cultivated for the manufacture of writing

  • papyrus (plant)

    papyrus: …ancient times and also the plant from which it was derived, Cyperus papyrus (family Cyperaceae), also called paper plant. The papyrus plant was long cultivated in the Nile delta region in Egypt and was collected for its stalk or stem, whose central pith was cut into thin strips, pressed together,…

  • papyrus (writing material)

    Papyrus, writing material of ancient times and also the plant from which it was derived, Cyperus papyrus (family Cyperaceae), also called paper plant. The papyrus plant was long cultivated in the Nile delta region in Egypt and was collected for its stalk or stem, whose central pith was cut into

  • Papyrus Bodmer II (biblical literature)

    biblical literature: Papyri: P66, also known as Papyrus Bodmer II, contains in 146 leaves (some having lacunae) almost all of the Gospel According to John, including chapter 21. This codex, written before 200, is thus merely one century removed from the time of the autograph, the original text. Its text, like that…

  • papyrus column (Egyptian religion)

    Papyrus column, in Egyptian religion, amulet that conveyed freshness, youth, vigour, and the continuance of life to its wearer. The amulet, made of glazed ware or various types of stone, was shaped like a papyrus stem and bud. Its significance was perhaps derived from its ideographic value

  • papyrus roll (ancient book)

    history of publishing: The Egyptian papyrus roll: The papyrus roll of ancient Egypt is more nearly the direct ancestor of the modern book than is the clay tablet. Papyrus as a writing material resembles paper. It was made from a reedy plant of the same name that flourishes in the…

  • Paqari-tampu (shrine, Peru)

    Inca: …originated in the village of Paqari-tampu, about 15 miles (24 km) south of Cuzco. The founder of the Inca dynasty, Manco Capac, led the tribe to settle in Cuzco, which remained thereafter their capital. Until the reign of the fourth emperor, Mayta Capac, in the 14th century, there was little…

  • paqarina (Andean shrine)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Settlement in the Cuzco Valley: These places of origin, or paqarina, were regarded as shrines, where religious ceremonies had to be performed. The Inca paqarina was located at Paqari-tampu (Paccari Tampu), about 15 miles south of Cuzco. There are three caves at Paqari-tampu, and the founders of the Inca dynasty—Manco Capac (Manqo Qhapaq), his three…

  • Paquebot Tenacity, Le (play by Vildrac)

    Charles Vildrac: …Le Paquebot Tenacity (produced, 1920; S.S. Tenacity), is a character study of two former soldiers about to immigrate to Canada. Michel Auclair (1921) revolves around the loyalty of a man to a woman who has rejected him. La Brouille (1930; “The Misunderstanding”) traces the quarrel of an idealist and a…

  • Paquette Habana (United States law)

    international law: International law and municipal law: …of federal law in the Paquette Habana case (1900), in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that international law forbade the U.S. Navy from selling, as prizes of war, Cuban fishing vessels it had seized. Domestic legislation is supreme in the United States even if it breaches international law, though…

  • Paquier, Claudius Innocentius du (Dutch potter)

    Vienna porcelain: Claudius Innocentius du Paquier (d. 1751), a Dutchman, began making porcelain there with the help of two workmen from Meissen in Germany. In 1744 he sold the enterprise to the Austrian state. After a succession of different directors, Konrad von Sorgenthal took over the direction…

  • Paquin, Anna (Canadian actress)

    Anna Paquin, Canadian-born New Zealand actress who, as a child, won an Academy Award for best supporting actress for her portrayal of the loquacious and inquisitive daughter of the lead character, played by Holly Hunter, in the atmospheric romance film The Piano (1993). Paquin moved with her family

  • Paquin, Anna Helene (Canadian actress)

    Anna Paquin, Canadian-born New Zealand actress who, as a child, won an Academy Award for best supporting actress for her portrayal of the loquacious and inquisitive daughter of the lead character, played by Holly Hunter, in the atmospheric romance film The Piano (1993). Paquin moved with her family

  • par (golf)

    golf: Par golf: Every course has a par, which is defined as the score an expert (i.e., a scratch player) would be expected to make, and many courses also have a bogey, which is defined as the score that a moderately good golfer would be expected to make. Both par and bogey…

  • PAR (British government)

    government budget: Program budgeting and zero-base budgeting: …Kingdom in the introduction of program analysis reviews (PAR), but again attempts to evaluate systematically the whole of government expenditure were unsuccessful. The degree of inertia in the system and the vested interests of existing institutions have proved too entrenched to be overcome by administrative procedure.

  • par condicio creditorum (law)

    bankruptcy: Preferences: …equal treatment of creditors—the classical par condicio creditorum. Debtors on the eve of bankruptcy, either of their own volition or under pressure, may accord preferential treatment—by way of payment or security—to certain creditors. The bankruptcy laws of most, if not all, countries therefore contain rules aiming at the reintegration of…

  • Par fil spécial (work by Baillon)

    André Baillon: Par fil spécial (1924; “By Special Cable”) is a sardonic account of the world of journalism based on his own experiences as a newspaper editor. In Un Homme si simple . . . (1925; “Such a Simple Man . . . ”), confessional in style…

  • Par les champs et par les grèves (work by Flaubert)

    Gustave Flaubert: Early life and works: …his death under that title, Par les champs et par les grèves. This book contains some of his best writing—e.g., his description of a visit to Chateaubriand’s family estate, Combourg.

  • par value (economics)

    international payment and exchange: Determination of exchange rates: …a standard, government-determined price, or par value. This par value may be quoted in terms of another currency; for example, the par value of the pound was £1 = $2.80 between 1949 and 1967. In 1973 many governments abandoned their par values and let their exchange rates be determined by…

  • par-three golf

    golf: Par-three golf: Par-three golf courses, on which each hole measures 100 yards (90 metres) more or less and plays at par three, were developed as a result of the shortage of available open land in congested urban areas. Whereas a regulation 18-hole course may stretch…

  • Pará (Brazil)

    Belém, city and port, capital of Pará estado (state), northern Brazil. It is situated on Guajará Bay, part of the vast Amazon River delta, near the mouth of the Guamá River, about 80 miles (130 km) up the Pará River from the Atlantic Ocean. Its climate is equatorial, with an average annual

  • Pará (state, Brazil)

    Pará, estado (state) of northern Brazil through which the lower Amazon River flows to the sea. It is bounded to the north by Guyana, Suriname, and the Brazilian state of Amapá, to the northeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the east by the Brazilian states of Maranhão and Tocantins, to the south by

  • para (Finnish folklore)

    Para, in Finnish folklore, a spirit who was believed to bring wealth to the farm that was lucky enough to harbour him. The term is derived from the Swedish word bjära (“bearer”). Underlying belief in the para was a notion that there was only a limited amount of good fortune available to all members

  • pāra (section of Qurʾān)

    surah: …30 equal sections known as juzʾ (Persian and Urdu sipāra, or pāra). These break up the surahs arbitrarily, without regard to content, into 30 parts in order to facilitate the systematic reading of the entire Qurʾān in 30 days, or one lunar month.

  • para adumma (Judaism)

    Red heifer, in Jewish history, unblemished, never-before-yoked animal that was slaughtered and burned to restore ritual purity to those who had become unclean through contact with the dead (Numbers 19). Certain spoils of war and captives were also purified in this way. After the blood of the red h

  • Para el cielo y los altares (work by Benavente y Martínez)

    Jacinto Benavente y Martínez: In 1928 his play Para el cielo y los altares (“Toward Heaven and the Altars”), prophesying the fall of the Spanish monarchy, was prohibited by the government. During the Spanish Civil War Benavente lived in Barcelona and Valencia and was for a time under arrest. In 1941 he reestablished…

  • Para leer al Pato Donald (work by Dorfman and Mattelart)

    comic strip: Comics in Latin America: …leer al Pato Donald (1971; How to Read Donald Duck) by Ariel Dorfman and Armand Mattelart. This was a highly critical Marxist examination of the ubiquitous Disney comic (in the English-language edition of 1975, the subtitle Imperialist Ideology in the Disney Comic was added). This book was a rare example…

  • Para nut (food)

    Brazil nut, (Bertholletia excelsa), edible seed of a large South American tree (family Lecythidaceae) found in the Amazonian forests of Brazil, Peru, Colombia, and Ecuador. The Brazil nut is particularly well known in the Brazilian state of Pará, where it is called castanha-do-pará (Pará nut) and

  • Pará nut (food)

    Brazil nut, (Bertholletia excelsa), edible seed of a large South American tree (family Lecythidaceae) found in the Amazonian forests of Brazil, Peru, Colombia, and Ecuador. The Brazil nut is particularly well known in the Brazilian state of Pará, where it is called castanha-do-pará (Pará nut) and

  • Para nut tree (plant)

    Amazon River: Plant life: Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa), sapucaia trees (Lecythis), and sucupira trees (Bowdichia). Below the canopy are two or three levels of shade-tolerant trees, including certain species of palms—of the genera Mauritia, Orbignya, and Euterpe. Myrtles, laurels, bignonias, figs, Spanish

  • Pará River (river, Brazil)

    Pará River, channel of the Amazon delta and estuary of the Tocantins River. It passes to the south and east of Marajó Island, in northeastern Pará estado (state), northern Brazil. It carries a small part of the discharge of the Amazon River eastward and northward to the Atlantic Ocean, off Cape

  • Para rubber tree (plant)

    Rubber tree, (Hevea brasiliensis), South American tropical tree of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae). Cultivated on plantations in the tropics and subtropics, especially in Southeast Asia and western Africa, it replaced the rubber plant in the early 20th century as the chief source of natural

  • para-aminobenzenesulfonamide (drug)

    pharmaceutical industry: Early efforts in the development of anti-infective drugs: …metabolized in the patient to sulfanilamide, which was the active antibacterial molecule. In 1933 Prontosil was given to the first patient, an infant with a systemic staphylococcal infection. The infant underwent a dramatic cure. In subsequent years many derivatives of sulfonamides, or sulfa drugs, were synthesized and tested for antibacterial…

  • para-aminobenzoic acid (chemical compound)

    Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), a vitamin-like substance and a growth factor required by several types of microorganisms. In bacteria, PABA is used in the synthesis of the vitamin folic acid. The drug sulfanilamide is effective in treating some bacterial diseases because it prevents the bacterial

  • para-aminohippuric acid (chemical compound)

    renal system: Quantitative tests: Para-aminohippuric acid (PAH), when introduced into the bloodstream and kept at relatively low plasma concentrations, is rapidly excreted into the urine by both glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Sampling of blood from the renal vein reveals that 90 percent of PAH is removed by a…

  • para-aminosalicylic acid (chemical compound)

    history of medicine: Antituberculous drugs: …the two most important being para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) and isoniazid. With a combination of two or more of these preparations, the outlook in tuberculosis improved immeasurably. The disease was not conquered, but it was brought well under control.

  • para-carborane (chemical compound)

    carborane: Reactions and synthesis of carboranes: ortho-, meta-, and para-carborane.

  • para-cresol (chemical compound)

    cresol: cresol, meta- (m-) cresol, and para- (p-) cresol.

  • para-hydrogen (chemistry)

    hydrogen: Ortho-hydrogen and para-hydrogen: Two types of molecular hydrogen (ortho and para) are known. These differ in the magnetic interactions of the protons due to the spinning motions of the protons. In ortho-hydrogen, the spins of both protons are aligned in the same direction—that is, they are parallel.…

  • Para-Nilotic languages

    Nilo-Saharan languages: Gender: …to these languages as “Nilo-Hamitic.” But, as Greenberg pointed out in his classificatory work, the mere presence of gender points only toward typological similarities between languages. What is at the heart of a genetic relationship (and a presumed common historical origin from the same ancestral language) is a resemblance…

  • para-xylene (isomer)

    chemical industry: Xylene: Para-xylene leads to polyesters, which reach the ultimate consumer as polyester fibres under various trademarked names.

  • Parabasalia (protist)

    protozoan: Annotated classification: Parabasalia Possess a unique parabasal Golgi body; the 2 major parabasalid groups are the trichomonads and the hypermastigotes. Preaxostyla Oxymonadida Articulate axostyle, made of microtubules, is unique. Known only as symbionts of wood-digesting insects; some have a holdfast called a rostellum, used to

  • parabasis (literature)

    Parabasis, an important choral ode in Greek Old Comedy delivered by the chorus at an intermission in the action while facing and moving toward the audience. It was used to express the author’s views on political or religious topics of the

  • Parabel (river, Russia)

    Ob River: Physiography: …include the Chaya and the Parabel (both left), the Ket (right), the Vasyugan (left), and the Tym and Vakh rivers (both right). Down to the Vasyugan confluence the river passes through the southern belt of the taiga, thereafter entering the middle belt. Below the Vakh confluence the middle Ob changes…

  • Parabellum pistol (weapon)

    Luger pistol, semiautomatic German hand weapon first manufactured in 1900 for both military and commercial use. It was made in 7.65- and 9-millimetre calibres and had a toggle-joint breech mechanism. On recoil after firing, the mechanism opened to receive a new cartridge from an eight-round, r

  • Parablastoidea (fossil echinoderm class)

    echinoderm: Annotated classification: †Class Parablastoidea Lower to Middle Ordovician about 460,000,000–500,000,000 years ago; resemble Blastoidea but differ in structure of ambulacra and in numbers of thecal plates. †Class Rhombifera Lower Ordovician to Upper Devonian about 350,000,000–500,000,000 years ago; theca globular; respiratory structures rhomboid sets of folds or canals.

  • parable (literature)

    fable, parable, and allegory: Parable: Like fable, the parable also tells a simple story. But, whereas fables tend to personify animal characters—often giving the same impression as does an animated cartoon—the typical parable uses human agents. Parables generally show less interest in the storytelling and more in the analogy…

  • Parable of the Blind, The (painting by Bruegel)

    Pieter Bruegel, the Elder: Artistic evolution and affinities: …successive stages of falling in The Parable of the Blind. The perfect unity of form, content, and expression marks this painting as a high point in European art.

  • parabola (mathematics)

    Parabola, open curve, a conic section produced by the intersection of a right circular cone and a plane parallel to an element of the cone. As a plane curve, it may be defined as the path (locus) of a point moving so that its distance from a fixed line (the directrix) is equal to its distance from

  • Parábola del náufrago (work by Delibes)

    Spanish literature: The novel: …in the Civil War, and Parábola del náufrago (1969; “Parable of the Shipwrecked Man”), which examines the individual’s plight in a dehumanized technocracy. A publisher, lawyer, teacher, and journalist, Delibes was the author of more than 50 volumes of novels, memoirs, essays, and travel and hunting books and received the…

  • parabolic antenna (electronics)

    radar: Antennas: …of radar antenna is the parabolic reflector, the principle of which is shown in cross section in part A of the figure. A horn antenna (not shown) or other small antenna is placed at the focus of the parabola to illuminate the parabolic surface of the reflector. After being reflected…

  • parabolic cooker

    solar oven: Types of solar ovens: Parabolic cookers—which use a parabolic mirror to focus the sunlight to a central point at which the cooking container is placed—are capable of generating high temperatures, but they are more difficult than the box cooker to construct. Panel cookers are the least-expensive type of solar…

  • parabolic equation

    Parabolic equation, any of a class of partial differential equations arising in the mathematical analysis of diffusion phenomena, as in the heating of a slab. The simplest such equation in one dimension, uxx = ut, governs the temperature distribution at the various points along a thin rod from

  • parabolic microphone (instrument)

    sound: Reflection: Such reflectors are used in parabolic microphones to collect sound from a distant source or to choose a location from which sound is to be observed and then focus it onto a microphone. An elliptical shape, on the other hand, can be used to focus sound from one point onto…

  • parabolic orbit (astronomy)

    comet: Ancient Greece to the 19th century: …of gravity to calculate a parabolic orbit for the comet of 1680. A parabolic orbit is open, with an eccentricity of exactly 1, meaning the comet would never return. (A circular orbit has an eccentricity of 0.) Any less-eccentric orbits are closed ellipses, which means a comet would return.

  • parabolic partial differential equation

    Parabolic equation, any of a class of partial differential equations arising in the mathematical analysis of diffusion phenomena, as in the heating of a slab. The simplest such equation in one dimension, uxx = ut, governs the temperature distribution at the various points along a thin rod from

  • parabolic reflector (electronics)

    radar: Antennas: …of radar antenna is the parabolic reflector, the principle of which is shown in cross section in part A of the figure. A horn antenna (not shown) or other small antenna is placed at the focus of the parabola to illuminate the parabolic surface of the reflector. After being reflected…

  • parabolic ski (sports equipment)

    skiing: Skiing equipment: Parabolic skis began to be widely used in the 1990s and are now standard for all Alpine skis. The unique shape of parabolic skis allows novices and intermediate skiers to master difficult turns more easily. Participation in recreational and competitive skiing continues to increase in…

  • paraboloid

    Paraboloid, an open surface generated by rotating a parabola (q.v.) about its axis. If the axis of the surface is the z axis and the vertex is at the origin, the intersections of the surface with planes parallel to the xz and yz planes are parabolas (see Figure, top). The intersections of the

  • Parabuteo unicinctus (bird)

    hawk: …other buteos are the following: Harris’s, or the bay-winged, hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), a large black bird with inconspicuous brown shoulders and flashing white rump, is found in South America and northward into the southwestern United States. The broad-winged hawk (B. platypterus), a crow-sized hawk, gray-brown with a black-and-white-banded tail, is…

  • paracanthopterygian (fish superorder)

    Paracanthopterygian, (superorder Paracanthopterygii), any member of a large group of predatory, primarily marine fishes that forms one of about six major branches of the Teleostei, or bony fishes. Approximately 1,340 living species of paracanthopterygian fishes have been described. They range in

  • Paracanthopterygii (fish superorder)

    Paracanthopterygian, (superorder Paracanthopterygii), any member of a large group of predatory, primarily marine fishes that forms one of about six major branches of the Teleostei, or bony fishes. Approximately 1,340 living species of paracanthopterygian fishes have been described. They range in

  • Paracas (ancient South American culture)

    Paracas, culture centred on the peninsula of the same name, located in present-day southern Peru in the vicinity of Ica, during the Early Horizon and the Early Intermediate periods (c. 900 bc–ad 400). The Paracas culture’s earlier phase, called Paracas Cavernas, is related to the Chavín culture (c.

  • Paracatu (river, Brazil)

    São Francisco River: Physiography: …receives its main left-bank tributaries—the Paracatu, Urucuia, Corrente, and Grande rivers—and its main right-bank tributaries—the Verde Grande, Paramirim, and Jacaré.

  • Paracel Islands (islands, South China Sea)

    Paracel Islands, group of about 130 small coral islands and reefs in the South China Sea. They lie about 250 miles (400 km) east of central Vietnam and about 220 miles (350 km) southeast of Hainan Island, China. Apart from a few isolated, outlying islands (Triton in the south, Lincoln in the east),

  • Paracelsus (poem by Browning)

    Robert Browning: Life.: In 1835 he published Paracelsus and in 1840 Sordello, both poems dealing with men of great ability striving to reconcile the demands of their own personalities with those of the world. Paracelsus was well received, but Sordello, which made exacting demands on its reader’s knowledge, was almost universally declared…

  • Paracelsus (German-Swiss physician)

    Paracelsus, German-Swiss physician and alchemist who established the role of chemistry in medicine. He published Der grossen Wundartzney (Great Surgery Book) in 1536 and a clinical description of syphilis in 1530. Paracelsus, who was known as Theophrastus when he was a boy, was the only son of an

  • Paracentrotus (sea urchin)

    sea urchin: …known rock borer) and other Paracentrotus species; and, on the U.S. Pacific coast, the eggs of the giant purple (or red) urchin (Strongylocentrotus franciscanus) are similarly considered a delicacy. The slightly smaller S. purpuratus, of the same region, is known to excavate holes in steel pilings. See also cake urchin;…

  • Paracentrotus lividus (sea urchin)

    sea urchin: … is the egg mass of Paracentrotus lividus (the best known rock borer) and other Paracentrotus species; and, on the U.S. Pacific coast, the eggs of the giant purple (or red) urchin (Strongylocentrotus franciscanus) are similarly considered a delicacy. The slightly smaller S. purpuratus, of the same region, is known to…

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