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  • papdi chaat (food)

    chaat: Papri chaat (or papdi chaat) is crispy fried-dough wafers served with typical chaat ingredients such as chickpeas, boiled potatoes, yogurt sauce, and tamarind and coriander chutneys; it may also contain pomegranate seeds

  • Pape Satàn Aleppe (work by Eco)

    Umberto Eco: Pape Satàn aleppe, a collection of Eco’s columns for an Italian magazine, was published posthumously in 2016; its title is taken from a cryptic line in Dante’s The Divine Comedy.

  • Pape, Jean-Henri (French musical instrument craftsman)

    keyboard instrument: Modifications in the action: …1826 by the Parisian builder Jean-Henri Pape, who also contributed a number of other ingenious and important improvements, but the use of felt instead of leather did not become universal until after 1855.

  • Pape, Robert (American political scientist)

    compellence: …targets, but American political scientist Robert Pape contended that compellence depends on making enemies feel that their military forces are vulnerable. Other scholars argue that carefully targeted economic sanctions can influence the behaviour of other states. In these cases, nonmilitary tools of statecraft assist national security objectives.

  • Papeete (French Polynesia)

    Papeete, commune, capital of the French overseas country of French Polynesia in the South Pacific Ocean. A gracious tropical city with tall palms and abundant flowers, Papeete lies on the northwest coast of Tahiti and is one of the largest urban centres in the South Pacific. Its excellent harbour

  • Papelbon, Jonathan (American baseball player)

    Boston Red Sox: …pitching performances by Josh Beckett, Jonathan Papelbon, and rookie Daisuke Matsuzaka—captured another World Series title in 2007, sweeping the Colorado Rockies in four games.

  • Papen, Franz von (German statesman)

    Franz von Papen, German statesman and diplomat who played a leading role in dissolving the Weimar Republic and in helping Adolf Hitler to become German chancellor in 1933. The scion of a wealthy Catholic landowning family, Papen began his career as a professional soldier. At the beginning of World

  • Papenbroeck, Daniel van (Belgian clergyman)

    Bollandist: From 1659 Daniel van Papenbroeck, perhaps the outstanding Bollandist, collaborated. This is considered the golden age of the group.

  • paper

    Paper, matted or felted sheet, usually made of cellulose fibres, formed on a wire screen from water suspension. A brief treatment of paper follows. For full treatment, see papermaking. Paper has been traced to China in about ad 105. It reached Central Asia by 751 and Baghdad by 793, and by the 14th

  • Paper Airplane (album by Krauss)

    Alison Krauss: …Grammy Award in 2012, when Paper Airplane (2011), a work that teamed her with Union Station for the first time since 2004, won best bluegrass album. With that win, Krauss tied with Quincy Jones for the title of living artist with the most Grammys. In 2017 she released Windy City,…

  • paper birch (plant)

    Paper birch, (Betula papyrifera), ornamental, shade, and timber tree of the family Betulaceae, native to northern and central North America. Usually about 18 metres (60 feet) tall but occasionally reaching 40 m, the tree has ovate, dark-green, sharp-pointed leaves about 10 centimetres long. The

  • paper blockade (warfare)

    blockade: International law regarding blockades: …and were known as “paper blockades.” A belligerent may not blockade neutral territory unless it is in the actual control or occupation of the enemy, nor may it blockade enemy territory in such a way as to prevent access to neutral territory.

  • Paper Brigade (Jewish organization)

    Avrom Sutzkever: …a member of the “Paper Brigade,” a group of Jewish intellectuals chosen to select Jewish cultural artifacts to be sent to the Institute for the Investigation of the Jewish Question, founded by Nazi ideologist Alfred Rosenberg; the remainder was sold for pulp. Both during and immediately after the war,…

  • paper cartridge (ammunition)

    small arm: The bolt action: …introduced in 1838, used a paper cartridge with a priming pellet located at the base of a solid egg-shaped bullet. A long, needle-shaped firing pin, shot forward by a spring, pierced the cartridge and powder charge to detonate the primer. This needle was housed in a steel cylinder called the…

  • Paper Chase, The (film by Bridges [1973])

    James Bridges: More widely seen was The Paper Chase (1973), a drama about a Harvard Law School freshman (Timothy Bottoms) who struggles to survive the rigours of his course work with the demanding Professor Kingsfield (John Houseman, who won an Academy Award for his role) while courting the professor’s free-spirited daughter…

  • paper chasing (sport)

    cross-country: …early 19th century was called paper chasing, or hare and hounds—the “hares” started a few minutes before the others and left a trail of paper scraps to be followed by the “hounds.” Cross-country runners came to be known as harriers, after a small hound used to chase genuine hares. A…

  • paper chromatography (chemistry)

    Paper chromatography, in analytical chemistry, technique for separating dissolved chemical substances by taking advantage of their different rates of migration across sheets of paper. It is an inexpensive but powerful analytical tool that requires very small quantities of material. The method

  • paper cut (printmaking)

    printmaking: Cardboard (paper) cut: …introduced to printmaking by making cardboard cuts, and sophisticated artists use the same material to print complex abstract images. Cardboard and paper are not only inexpensive, readily available, and workable with simple tools but, when properly prepared, have also proved to be remarkably durable. Cardboard cuts can be made either…

  • Paper Doll (song)

    the Mills Brothers: …hit in 1943 with “Paper Doll,” which sold more than six million records and was also a best seller as sheet music. In the mid-1940s they dropped the instrumental imitations and became a more-conventional vocal group, backed by a regular rhythm section or an orchestra. Their later hits included…

  • paper folding (art)

    Origami, art of folding objects out of paper to create both two-dimensional and three-dimensional subjects. The word origami (from Japanese oru [“to fold”] and kami [“paper”]) has become the generic description of this art form, although some European historians feel it places undue weight on the

  • paper laminate (laminate)

    plastic: Sandwich laminates: …half-dozen layers of fibrous kraft paper (similar to paper used for grocery bags) together with a surface layer of paper with a printed design—the entire assembly being impregnated with a melamine-formaldehyde resin. For both plywood and the paper laminate, the cross-linking reaction is carried out with sheets of the material…

  • Paper Lion (work by Plimpton)

    Detroit Lions: …experience recounted in his book Paper Lion (1966) and later in a movie of the same name. Detroit qualified for only one playoff appearance in the 24 years between 1958 and 1981, though the team was often far from terrible, usually finishing their seasons with winning percentages around .500 during…

  • Paper Lion (film by March [1968])

    Alan Alda: …in such motion pictures as Paper Lion (1968) and The Mephisto Waltz (1971), he became a star on television in the role of Capt. “Hawkeye” Pierce, a wisecracking but soulful U.S. Army surgeon during the Korean War, in the popular television comedy M*A*S*H. Alda cowrote and directed many of the…

  • Paper Mate pen (writing implement)

    Patrick Joseph Frawley, Jr.: …in the development of the Paper Mate pen. He sold his company to Gillette for $15.5 million in 1955.

  • paper money (economics)

    Specie Circular: …directed the Treasury Department, “pet” banks, and other receivers of public money to accept only specie as payment for government-owned land after Aug. 15, 1836. But actual settlers and bona fide residents of the state in which they purchased land were permitted to use paper money until December 15 on…

  • Paper Moon (film by Bogdanovich [1973])

    Peter Bogdanovich: Films: Bogdanovich’s success continued with Paper Moon (1973), a comedy filmed in the black-and-white appropriate to the 1936 setting. O’Neal portrayed a con man temporarily saddled with a nine-year-old (played by his real-life daughter Tatum O’Neal) who may or may not be his actual daughter but who refuses to leave…

  • paper mulberry (plant)

    Paper mulberry, (Broussonetia papyrifera), fast-growing tree of the family Moraceae, native to Asia. The inner bark of the paper mulberry yields a fibre used for papermaking and in Polynesia for the manufacture of a coarse fabric called tapa cloth. The plant tolerates city conditions and is

  • Paper Music (album by McFerrin)

    Bobby McFerrin: ” In 1995 McFerrin released Paper Music, an album he collaborated on with the St. Paul (Minnesota) Chamber Orchestra that featured orchestral works by Mozart, Bach, Rossini, and other masters, with the melodies sung instead of played.

  • paper nautilus (cephalopod)

    nautilus: The paper nautilus is usually found near the surface of tropical and subtropical seas feeding on plankton; the females differ from other members of the order Octopoda in that they can secrete a thin, unchambered, coiled shell, formed by large flaps, or membranes, on the dorsal…

  • Paper Planes (song by M.I.A.)

    M.I.A.: …Kala spawned the hit “Paper Planes,” which catapulted to success when it was used in the theatrical trailer for the 2008 Judd Apatow film Pineapple Express.

  • paper plant (plant)

    papyrus: …ancient times and also the plant from which it was derived, Cyperus papyrus (family Cyperaceae), also called paper plant. The papyrus plant was long cultivated in the Nile delta region in Egypt and was collected for its stalk or stem, whose central pith was cut into thin strips, pressed together,…

  • paper pulp

    Paper pulp, raw material for paper manufacture that contains vegetable, mineral, or man-made fibres. It forms a matted or felted sheet on a screen when moisture is removed. Rags and other fibres, such as straw, grasses, and bark of the mitsumata and paper mulberry (kozo), have been used as paper

  • paper recovery system

    papermaking: Wastepaper and paperboard: …are two distinct types of paper recovery systems: (1) recovery based upon de-inking and intended for printing-grade or other white papers, accounting for about 5 to 6 percent of the total, and (2) recovery without de-inking, intended for boxboards and coarse papers, accounting for the remainder.

  • paper son

    Angel Island Immigration Station: …vocations or as the “paper sons” and “paper daughters” of Chinese Americans. The immigration authorities’ rigorous efforts to expose fraud resulted in protracted, exhaustive interrogations and related interviews of corroborating parties that sometimes kept the immigrants captive on the island for weeks or months. Boards of Special Inquiry grilled…

  • Paper Soul (work by Rodgers)

    Carolyn M. Rodgers: …her first volume of poetry, Paper Soul. The free-verse collection was noted for its frequent use of black vernacular and even obscenities as part of a vivid illustration of African American female identity during a time of revolutionary social upheaval. Rodgers went on to publish Songs of a Black Bird…

  • Paper Trail: Selected Prose, 1965–2003 (essays by Howard)

    Richard Howard: …works included the essay collection Paper Trail: Selected Prose, 1965–2003 (2004).

  • paper wasp (insect)

    Paper wasp, (genus Polistes), any of a group of wasps in the family Vespidae (order Hymenoptera) that are striking in appearance, about 16 mm (0.63 inch) long, with orange antennae, wings, and tarsi. The body may be jet black or brown with narrow yellow bands and paired segmental spots. The sting

  • Paper, The (film by Howard [1994])

    Glenn Close: …Allende; and the journalism comedy The Paper (1994). In 1996 she took such varied roles as the first lady in Tim Burton’s Mars Attacks! and Cruella De Vil in a live-action remake of the Disney film 101 Dalmatians. The following year Close starred as the vice president, alongside Harrison Ford,…

  • paper-casting process (materials processing)

    advanced ceramics: Tape casting: …the waterfall technique and the paper-casting process. In the waterfall technique a conveyor belt carries a flat surface through a continuous, recirculated waterfall of slurry. This method—which is commonly employed to coat candy with chocolate—has also been used to form thin-film dielectrics for capacitors as well as thick-film porous electrodes…

  • paperback book

    history of publishing: The Great Depression: …his pioneer Penguin series of paperbacks. It was a risky operation, involving speculatively high initial printings to keep down the unit cost. But, despite the strongly held belief that paperbacks would not appeal outside the Continent, where they had sold freely, and the resistance of booksellers, who feared a sharp…

  • paperbark maple (plant)

    maple: triflorum) and the paperbark maple (A. griseum) have tripartite leaves and attractive peeling bark, in the former tannish and in the latter copper brown.

  • paperbark tree (plant)

    Paperbark tree, any of several small trees belonging to the genus Melaleuca, in the myrtle family (Myrtaceae), characterized by their whitish papery bark. They are native to Australia and nearby islands. Melaleuca quinquenervia, also called punk tree and tea tree, grows to a height of 8 metres (25

  • paperboard

    paper: and newsprint, kraft, paperboard, and sanitary.

  • Paperboy, The (film by Daniels [2012])

    Nicole Kidman: Roles from the early 2010s: …Florida in the pulp drama The Paperboy. In the psychological horror film Stoker (2013), Kidman appeared as the emotionally distant mother of a troubled teenage girl.

  • paperflower (plant)

    bougainvillea: glabra, from Brazil, is called paperflower; the bracts are purple or magenta to lighter tints in certain varieties. The stem of B. glabra may be 20 to 30 metres (about 60 to 100 feet) long in warm climates, and the plant is in flower throughout most of the year. The…

  • papermaker’s alum (chemical compound)

    aluminum: Compounds: Another major compound is aluminum sulfate, a colourless salt obtained by the action of sulfuric acid on hydrated aluminum oxide. The commercial form is a hydrated crystalline solid with the chemical formula Al2(SO4)3. It is used extensively in paper manufacture as a binder for dyes and as a surface…

  • papermaking

    Papermaking, formation of a matted or felted sheet, usually of cellulose fibres, from water suspension on a wire screen. Paper is the basic material used for written communication and the dissemination of information. In addition, paper and paperboard provide materials for hundreds of other uses,

  • Papert, Seymour (South African-born mathematician and computer scientist)

    Seymour Papert, South African-born mathematician and computer scientist who was best known for his contributions to the understanding of children’s learning processes and to the ways in which technology can support learning. He invented Logo, a computer-programming language that was an educational

  • Papert, Seymour Aubrey (South African-born mathematician and computer scientist)

    Seymour Papert, South African-born mathematician and computer scientist who was best known for his contributions to the understanding of children’s learning processes and to the ways in which technology can support learning. He invented Logo, a computer-programming language that was an educational

  • paperweight (decorative arts)

    Baccarat glass: Baccarat began production of paperweights in 1846. Although they exhibited virtually all techniques of ornamental glassmaking, including millefiori, cameo, sculpture, engraving, and casings, the Baccarat paperweights were relatively inexpensive and became great favourites with collectors. Today Baccarat manufactures many lines of tableware in historical patterns.

  • Papes, Palais des (building, Avignon, France)

    Avignon: …and the interior of the Palais des Papes (Popes’ Palace) was wrecked. The palace, a formidable eight-towered fortress on a rock 190 feet (58 metres) above Avignon, was used as a barracks from 1822 to 1906.

  • Paphiopedilum (plant genus)

    lady's slipper: Genera: Species of Paphiopedilum, a genus of about 70 tropical Asian lady’s slippers, have mottled or greenish leaves with a leathery texture and large waxy flowers of various colours. Many hybrids have been developed.

  • Paphlagonia (ancient district, Anatolia)

    Paphlagonia, ancient district of Anatolia adjoining the Black Sea, bounded by Bithynia in the west, Pontus in the east, and Galatia in the south. The Paphlagonians were one of the most ancient peoples of Anatolia. Passing under the rule of Lydia and Persia, they submitted to Alexander the Great

  • Paphos (Cyprus)

    Paphos, town, southwestern Republic of Cyprus. Paphos was also the name of two ancient cities that were the precursors of the modern town. The older ancient city (Greek: Palaipaphos) was located at modern Pírgos (Kouklia); New Paphos, which had superseded Old Paphos by Roman times, was 10 miles (16

  • PAPI

    airport: Navigational aids: … (VASIS) and the more modern precision approach path indicator (PAPI). Both work on the principle of guiding lights that show white when the pilot is above the proper glide slope and red when below.

  • Papiamento (language)

    Papiamentu, creole language based on Portuguese but heavily influenced by Spanish. In the early 21st century, it was spoken by about 250,000 people, primarily on the Caribbean islands of Curaçao, Aruba, and Bonaire. It is an official language of Curaçao and Aruba. Papiamentu developed in Curaçao

  • Papiamentu (language)

    Papiamentu, creole language based on Portuguese but heavily influenced by Spanish. In the early 21st century, it was spoken by about 250,000 people, primarily on the Caribbean islands of Curaçao, Aruba, and Bonaire. It is an official language of Curaçao and Aruba. Papiamentu developed in Curaçao

  • Papiamentu (islands, Caribbean Sea)

    Netherlands Antilles, group of five islands in the Caribbean Sea that formerly constituted an autonomous part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The group is composed of two widely separated subgroups approximately 500 miles (800 km) apart. The southern group comprises Curaçao and Bonaire, which

  • Papian Code of Gundobad (Germanic law)

    Germanic law: The Lex Burgundiorum and the Lex Romana Burgundiorum of the same period had similar functions, while the Edictum Rothari (643) applied to Lombards only.

  • Papias (early Christian writer and bishop)

    Papias, bishop of Hierapolis, Phrygia (now in Turkey), whose work “Explanation of the Sayings of the Lord,” although extant only in fragments, provides important apostolic oral source accounts of the history of primitive Christianity and of the origins of the Gospels. According to the 2nd-century

  • papier collé (art form)

    collage: In the 19th century, papiers collés were created from papers cut out and put together to form decorative compositions. In about 1912–13 Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque extended this technique, combining fragments of paper, wood, linoleum, and newspapers with oil paint on canvas to form subtle and interesting abstract…

  • papier-mâché

    Papier-mâché, repulped paper that has been mixed with glue or paste so that it can be molded. The art of making articles of papier-mâché, beautifully decorated in Oriental motifs and handsomely lacquered, was known in the East centuries before its introduction in Europe. Molded-paper products were

  • Papilio (butterfly genus)

    caterpillar: …of many swallowtail butterflies (Papilio) are white and brown and resemble bird droppings on leaves, but, as the caterpillars grow, their appearance changes such that their colours eventually serve as camouflage enabling them to blend in with the leaves and stems of plants. In some caterpillars, coloration is conspicuous…

  • Papilio dardanus (butterfly)

    lepidopteran: Protection against danger: …notably the African swallowtail (Papilio dardanus). The occurrence of different species of inedible butterfly models in various geographic regions has been accompanied by the evolution of correspondingly different mimetic females of this single species of swallowtail. In North America the tiger swallowtail (P. glaucus) has mostly black females wherever…

  • Papilio glaucus (butterfly)

    lepidopteran: Protection against danger: In North America the tiger swallowtail (P. glaucus) has mostly black females wherever it coexists with the distasteful pipevine swallowtail (Battus philenor), which is also black. However, where B. philenor does not occur, P. glaucus females tend to be all nonmimetic yellow forms like the males because, without the…

  • Papilio machaon (butterfly)

    community ecology: Specialization in parasites: …Old World swallowtail group (Papilio machaon). In the Old World swallowtail group are several species that feed on plants in the carrot family Apiaceae (also called Umbelliferae), with different populations feeding on different plant species. However, one species within this group, the Oregon swallowtail (Papilio oregonius), has become specialized…

  • Papilio marcellus (insect)

    Zebra swallowtail butterfly, (Eurytides marcellus), species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae (order Lepidoptera) that has wing patterns reminiscent of a zebra’s stripes, with a series of longitudinal black bands forming a pattern on a greenish white or white background. There are several

  • Papilio oregonius (butterfly)

    community ecology: Specialization in parasites: …group, the Oregon swallowtail (Papilio oregonius), has become specialized to feed on tarragon sagebrush (Artemisia dracunculus), which is in the plant family Asteracaea (Compositae of some sources). Among the tiger swallowtail group, various members have become specialized to different plant hosts. The eastern tiger swallowtail (Papilio glaucus) has a…

  • Papilionaceae (plant family)

    Fabaceae, pea family of flowering plants (angiosperms), within the order Fabales. Fabaceae, which is the third largest family among the angiosperms after Orchidaceae (orchid family) and Asteraceae (aster family), consists of more than 700 genera and about 20,000 species of trees, shrubs, vines, and

  • Papilionidae (insect family)

    butterfly: …known for their mass migrations; Papilionidae, the swallowtails and parnassians; Lycaenidae, including the blues, coppers, hairstreaks, and gossamer-winged butterflies; Riodinidae, the metalmarks, found chiefly in the American tropics;

  • Papilioninae (insect)

    Swallowtail butterfly, (subfamily Papilioninae), any of a group of butterflies in the family Papilionidae (order Lepidoptera). The swallowtail butterflies (Papilio) are found worldwide except in the Arctic. They are named for the characteristic tail-like extensions of the hindwings, although many

  • Papilionoidea (insect)

    Butterfly, (superfamily Papilionoidea), any of numerous species of insects belonging to multiple families. Butterflies, along with the moths and the skippers, make up the insect order Lepidoptera. Butterflies are nearly worldwide in their distribution. The wings, bodies, and legs, like those of

  • Papilionoideae (plant subfamily)

    Fabales: Classification of Fabaceae: The subfamily Faboideae, also called Papilionoideae (classified as a family, Fabaceae or Papilionaceae, by some authorities), is the largest group of legumes, consisting of about 475 genera and nearly 14,000 species grouped in 14 tribes. The name of the group probably originated because of the flower’s resemblance to a butterfly…

  • papilla amphibiorum (anatomy)

    sound reception: Sound reception in vertebrates— auditory mechanisms of fishes and amphibians: Only the amphibians have a papilla amphibiorum, which is located near the junction of the utricle and the saccule. In some amphibians and in all reptiles, birds, and mammals, there is a papilla basilaris, which is usually called a cochlea in the higher forms, in which it is highly detailed.…

  • papilla basilaris (anatomy)

    human ear: Structure of the cochlea: …the basilar membrane is the organ of Corti, which contains the hair cells that give rise to nerve signals in response to sound vibrations. The side of the triangle is formed by two tissues that line the bony wall of the cochlea: the stria vascularis, which lines the outer wall…

  • papilla, mantle (anatomy)

    mollusk: The nervous system and organs of sensation: Pluricellular mantle papillae, which penetrate the cuticle, the valves, and the shell in some conchifers, are differentiated in placophores as photoreceptors. Aside from the well-developed, vertebrate-like eyes of cephalopods, there are photoreceptors on the mantle margins of scallops and related bivalves. Orientation in different gastropods is…

  • papillary carcinoma (pathology)

    thyroid tumour: …four types of thyroid cancer: papillary carcinoma, which accounts for about 90 percent of cases, and follicular carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, and medullary carcinoma, which together account for the remaining 10 percent of cases. Papillary and follicular carcinomas are very slow-growing tumours, and, while they can spread to lymph nodes in…

  • papillary muscle (anatomy)

    ventricle: The papillary muscles project like nipples into the cavities of the ventricles. They are attached by fine strands of tendon to the valves between the atria and ventricles and prevent the valves from opening when the ventricles contract. See also heart.

  • papilledema (medicine)

    eye disease: Disorders of the optic nerve: …head of each eye (called papilledema) is one of the most important signs of increased intracranial pressure. If the swelling persists, damage to the fibres of the optic nerve can take place, with subsequent loss of vision.

  • papillitis (pathology)

    optic neuritis: …nerve from the eye (papillitis), or it may be in the nerve shaft behind the eyeball (retrobulbar neuritis).

  • papilloma (pathology)

    nasal tumour: Epithelial papilloma is one of the more common benign nasal tumours. It affects the nasal mucous membrane and is composed of tall column-shaped cells, mucous cells, which have small hairlike structures called cilia. The tumour grows in small nipplelike protrusions. Nasal carcinoma, a malignant growth, also…

  • papilloma virus (infectious agent)

    Papillomavirus, any of a subgroup of viruses belonging to the family Papillomaviridae that infect birds and mammals, causing warts (papillomas) and other benign tumours, as well as malignant cancers of the genital tract and the uterine cervix in humans. They are small polygonal viruses containing

  • Papillomaviridae (infectious agent)

    Papillomavirus, any of a subgroup of viruses belonging to the family Papillomaviridae that infect birds and mammals, causing warts (papillomas) and other benign tumours, as well as malignant cancers of the genital tract and the uterine cervix in humans. They are small polygonal viruses containing

  • papillomavirus (infectious agent)

    Papillomavirus, any of a subgroup of viruses belonging to the family Papillomaviridae that infect birds and mammals, causing warts (papillomas) and other benign tumours, as well as malignant cancers of the genital tract and the uterine cervix in humans. They are small polygonal viruses containing

  • Papillon (work by Charrière)

    Henri Charrière: …and escapes in an autobiography, Papillon (1969).

  • papillon (breed of dog)

    Papillon, breed of toy dog known from the 16th century, when it was called a dwarf spaniel. A fashionable dog, it was favoured by Madame de Pompadour and Marie-Antoinette, and it appeared in paintings by some of the Old Masters. The name papillon (French: “butterfly”) was given to the breed in the

  • Papillon (film by Schaffner [1973])

    Franklin J. Schaffner: Even more popular was Papillon (1973), which was based on the autobiography of Henri Charrière, a French prisoner who escaped from Devils Island. Steve McQueen starred in the title role, and Dustin Hoffman portrayed a fellow prisoner. Although considered overly long, the drama was a critical and commercial success.…

  • Papillon (French criminal)

    Henri Charrière, French criminal and prisoner in French Guiana who described a lively career of imprisonments, adventures, and escapes in an autobiography, Papillon (1969). Charrière’s nickname derived from the design of a butterfly (French: “papillon”) tattooed on his chest. As a young man he was

  • Papin, Denis (British physicist)

    Denis Papin, French-born British physicist who invented the pressure cooker and suggested the first cylinder and piston steam engine. Though his design was not practical, it was improved by others and led to the development of the steam engine, a major contribution to the Industrial Revolution.

  • Papineau, Louis-Joseph (Canadian politician)

    Louis-Joseph Papineau, politician who was the radical leader of the French Canadians in Lower Canada (now Quebec) in the period preceding an unsuccessful revolt against the British government in 1837. Papineau was elected a member of the House of Assembly of Lower Canada in 1809. During the War of

  • Papineau-Couture, Jean (Canadian composer)

    Jean Papineau-Couture, Canadian composer (born Nov. 12, 1916, Outremont, Que.—died Aug. 11, 2000, Montreal, Que.), was one of the country’s foremost contemporary music composers and was highly influential as a teacher at the Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf, the Conservatoire de musique de Montréal, and t

  • Papini, Giovanni (Italian author)

    Giovanni Papini, journalist, critic, poet, and novelist, one of the most outspoken and controversial Italian literary figures of the early and mid-20th century. He was influential first as a fiercely iconoclastic editor and writer, then as a leader of Italian Futurism, and finally as a spokesman

  • Papinian (Roman jurist)

    Papinian, Roman jurist who posthumously became the definitive authority on Roman law, possibly because his moral high-mindedness was congenial to the worldview of the Christian rulers of the post-Classical empire. Papinian held high public office under the emperor Septimius Severus (reigned 193–211

  • Papinianus (work by Gryphius)

    Andreas Gryphius: …Celinde (all printed 1657), and Papinianus (1659). These plays deal with the themes of stoicism and religious constancy unto martyrdom, of the Christian ruler and the Machiavellian tyrant, and of illusion and reality, a theme that is used with telling effect in the middle-class background of Cardenio und Celinde. The…

  • Papio (mammal)

    Baboon, (genus Papio), any of five species of large, robust, and primarily terrrestrial monkeys found in dry regions of Africa and Arabia. Males of the largest species, the chacma baboon (Papio ursinus), average 30 kg (66 pounds) or so, but females are only half this size. The smallest is the

  • Papio anubis (primate)

    baboon: The anubis, or olive baboon (P. anubis), is only slightly smaller than the chacma and olive in colour; the male has a large mane of hair over the head and shoulders. The anubis baboon has a wide range, from the hinterland of Kenya and Ethiopia through the grasslands…

  • Papio comatus (primate)

    Chacma, species of baboon

  • Papio hamadryas (primate)

    Hamadryas, (Papio hamadryas), large, powerful monkey of the plains and open-rock areas of the Red Sea coast, both in Africa (Eritrea, The Sudan) and on the opposite coast in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. The hamadryas is the smallest baboon species, with a body length of about 60–70 cm (24–28 inches) and

  • Papio papio (primate)

    baboon: The small red Guinea baboon (P. papio) is restricted to far western Africa, and males have a cape of hair. These four species are often referred to collectively as savannah baboons, and they have much in common. All live in large cohesive troops numbering from 10 to several…

  • Papio ursinus (primate)

    Chacma, species of baboon

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