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  • Putin’s Russia

    By 2015 Russia and the way in which it was governed had changed profoundly since Vladimir Putin first became president, at the end of 1999. The country was more prosperous than it was prior to Putin’s rise to power, but Russian society—although more stable than it was in the 1990s—had become less

  • Putin, Vladimir (president of Russia)

    Vladimir Putin, Russian intelligence officer and politician who served as president (1999–2008, 2012– ) of Russia and also was the country’s prime minister (1999, 2008–12). Putin studied law at Leningrad State University, where his tutor was Anatoly Sobchak, later one of the leading reform

  • Putin, Vladimir Vladimirovich (president of Russia)

    Vladimir Putin, Russian intelligence officer and politician who served as president (1999–2008, 2012– ) of Russia and also was the country’s prime minister (1999, 2008–12). Putin studied law at Leningrad State University, where his tutor was Anatoly Sobchak, later one of the leading reform

  • Putine (work by Cratinus)

    Cratinus: In the Putine (The Bottle), which defeated Aristophanes’ Clouds for the first prize at the Athenian dramatic contest in 423, Cratinus good-humouredly exploited his own drunkenness (caricatured the previous year in Aristophanes’ Knights), showing Comoedia (his wife) complaining of his liaison with the idle mistress Methe (“Drunkenness”).

  • Putkinotko (work by Lehtonen)

    Joel Lehtonen: …his view of man in Putkinotko (1919–20). In it, Lehtonen despairs of the future and views the growth of industrial society as a disease. The same cultural pessimism appears in Henkien taistelu (1933; “The Struggle of Spirits”) and in his poems, Hyvästijättö Lintukodolle (1934; “Farewell to the Bird’s Nest”), which…

  • putliwala (Indian arts)

    South Asian arts: Folk theatre: …in North India are the putliwalas (“puppeteers”) of Rajasthan, who operate marionettes made of wood and bright-coloured cloth. The puppet plays deal with kings, lovers, bandits, and princesses of the Mughal period. Generally, the puppeteer and his nephew or son operate the strings from behind, while the puppeteer’s wife sits…

  • Putman, Andrée (French designer)

    Andrée Putman, French designer, known for her Minimalist, avant-garde furnishings and interior designs. Putman was educated in Paris at the Collège d’Hulst and studied piano at the Paris Conservatory, winning the school’s highest award at age 20. She became frustrated with musical training,

  • Putman, Claude, Jr. (American songwriter)

    Curly Putman, (Claude Putman, Jr.), American songwriter and guitarist (born Nov. 20, 1930, near Princeton, Ala.—died Oct. 30, 2016, Lebanon, Tenn.), wrote hundreds of songs, many of which were among the best-known country songs of the 1960s and ’70s. Such songs included “Green, Green Grass of

  • Putman, Curly (American songwriter)

    Curly Putman, (Claude Putman, Jr.), American songwriter and guitarist (born Nov. 20, 1930, near Princeton, Ala.—died Oct. 30, 2016, Lebanon, Tenn.), wrote hundreds of songs, many of which were among the best-known country songs of the 1960s and ’70s. Such songs included “Green, Green Grass of

  • Putnam (county, New York, United States)

    Putnam, county, southeastern New York state, U.S., bounded by the Hudson River to the west and Connecticut to the east. The county consists of a hilly upland that is drained by the Muscoot River and Peekskill Hollow Creek. Other bodies of water include Oscawana, Mahopac, and Peach lakes. Parklands

  • Putnam family (American colonial family)

    Salem witch trials: Setting the scene: …Town’s wealthy merchants, and the Putnams, who sought greater autonomy for the village and were the standard-bearers for the less-prosperous farm families. Squabbles over property were commonplace, and litigiousness was rampant.

  • Putnam, Ann (American colonist)

    Salem witch trials: Fits and contortions: … (age 11), and their friend Ann Putnam, Jr. (about age 12), began indulging in fortune-telling. In January 1692 Betty’s and Abigail’s increasingly strange behaviour (described by at least one historian as juvenile deliquency) came to include fits. They screamed, made odd sounds, threw things, contorted their bodies, and complained of…

  • Putnam, Emily James Smith (American educator and historian)

    Emily James Smith Putnam, American educator and historian, remembered especially for her early influence on the academic quality of Barnard College in New York City. Emily Smith graduated from Bryn Mawr (Pennsylvania) College with the first class, that of 1889, and then attended Girton College,

  • Putnam, Frederic Ward (American anthropologist)

    Frederic Ward Putnam, American anthropologist who was a leader in the founding of anthropological science in the United States. He helped to develop two of the nation’s foremost centres of anthropological research at Harvard University and the University of California, Berkeley, and had a prominent

  • Putnam, George Palmer (American publisher)

    Amelia Earhart: Historic flights: …publicity was handled by publisher George Palmer Putnam, who had helped organize the historic flight. The couple married in 1931, but Earhart continued her career under her maiden name. That year she also piloted an autogiro to a record-setting altitude of 18,415 feet (5,613 metres).

  • Putnam, Herbert (American librarian)

    Herbert Putnam, American librarian who built the Library of Congress into a world-renowned institution. Putnam graduated from Harvard in 1883 and thereafter studied law at Columbia University, being admitted to the bar in 1886. His true calling was as a librarian, however. He served as librarian of

  • Putnam, Hilary (American philosopher)

    Hilary Putnam, leading American philosopher who made major contributions to metaphysics, epistemology, the philosophy of mind, the philosophy of language, the philosophy of science, the philosophy of mathematics, and the philosophy of logic. He is best known for his semantic externalism, according

  • Putnam, Hilary Whitehall (American philosopher)

    Hilary Putnam, leading American philosopher who made major contributions to metaphysics, epistemology, the philosophy of mind, the philosophy of language, the philosophy of science, the philosophy of mathematics, and the philosophy of logic. He is best known for his semantic externalism, according

  • Putnam, Israel (United States general)

    Israel Putnam, American general in the American Revolution. After moving to Pomfret, Connecticut, about 1740, Putnam became a prosperous farmer. He saw service throughout the French and Indian War, being captured by Indians and rising to the rank of lieutenant colonel in 1759. By this time his

  • Putnam, Mary Corinna (American physician)

    Mary Putnam Jacobi, American physician, writer, and suffragist who is considered to have been the foremost woman doctor of her era. Mary Putnam was the daughter of George Palmer Putnam, founder of the publishing firm of G.P. Putnam’s Sons, and was an elder sister of Herbert Putnam, later librarian

  • Putnam, Robert D. (American political scientist)

    Robert D. Putnam, prominent American political scientist and educator best known for his study of social capital. Just before Putnam turned one year old, the United States declared war on Japan, and his father, serving in the U.S. Army, was deployed in Europe. Upon his father’s return, the family

  • Putnam, Robert David (American political scientist)

    Robert D. Putnam, prominent American political scientist and educator best known for his study of social capital. Just before Putnam turned one year old, the United States declared war on Japan, and his father, serving in the U.S. Army, was deployed in Europe. Upon his father’s return, the family

  • Putnam, Rufus (United States general)

    Rufus Putnam, American soldier and pioneer settler in Ohio. Putnam fought in the French and Indian War from 1757 to 1760, worked as a millwright in 1761–68, and from then on until the outbreak of the American Revolution was a farmer and surveyor. In 1775 he entered the Continental Army as a

  • Putnam, Samuel Whitehall (American editor and author)

    Samuel Putnam, American editor, publisher, and author, best known for his translations of works by authors in Romance languages. After incomplete studies at the University of Chicago, Putnam worked for various Chicago newspapers and became a literary and art critic for the Chicago Evening Post

  • Putney, Martha S. (American historian and teacher)

    Martha S. Putney, (Martha Settle), American historian and teacher (born Nov. 9, 1916, Norristown, Pa.—died Dec. 11, 2008, Washington, D.C.), chronicled the contributions of blacks in the U.S. military in such landmark works as When the Nation Was in Need: Blacks in the Women’s Army Corps During

  • Putnik, Radomir (Serbian commander)

    Radomir Putnik, Serbian army commander who was victorious against the Austrians in 1914. Educated at the artillery school, Putnik was commissioned in 1866. He graduated from the staff college in 1889 and became a general in 1903. Except for three periods when he was war minister (1904–05, 1906–08,

  • Putoran Mountains (mountains, Russia)

    Putoran Mountains, deeply dissected range on the northwestern edge of the Central Siberian Plateau in Krasnoyarsk kray (region), central Russia. The mountains are the highest part of the plateau, rising to 5,581 feet (1,701 m) in Mount Kamen. They have been much affected by volcanic action and

  • Putoran Plateau (mountains, Russia)

    Putoran Mountains, deeply dissected range on the northwestern edge of the Central Siberian Plateau in Krasnoyarsk kray (region), central Russia. The mountains are the highest part of the plateau, rising to 5,581 feet (1,701 m) in Mount Kamen. They have been much affected by volcanic action and

  • Putoran sheep (mammal)

    snow sheep: A totally isolated subspecies, the Putoran sheep (O. n. borealis), which is separated from the nearest population by about 1,000 km (600 miles), is restricted to the Putoran Mountains on the northwestern edge of the Central Siberian Plateau in central Russia and numbers about 3,500 head. The other subspecies are…

  • Putorana Plato (mountains, Russia)

    Putoran Mountains, deeply dissected range on the northwestern edge of the Central Siberian Plateau in Krasnoyarsk kray (region), central Russia. The mountains are the highest part of the plateau, rising to 5,581 feet (1,701 m) in Mount Kamen. They have been much affected by volcanic action and

  • Putorius putorius (mammal)

    polecat: The pelt, especially of the European polecat, is called fitch in the fur trade.

  • putout (baseball)

    baseball: Defense: A putout removes the player from offensive play until his next turn at bat. The batting team’s inning continues until three putouts are made; then it goes into the field and the opponent comes to bat.

  • Putrajaya (city and federal territory, Malaysia)

    Putrajaya, city and federal territory of Malaysia, located in west-central Peninsular Malaysia. It is situated 15 miles (25 km) south of the capital, Kuala Lumpur, and serves as the country’s administrative centre. Prior to the construction of Putrajaya, the Malaysian government offices were housed

  • Putrament, Jerzy (Polish author and editor)

    Jerzy Putrament, Polish poet, novelist, journalist, and editor who was also active in politics. Putrament studied at the Stefan Batory University in Wilno, Poland (now Vilnius, Lithuania), and worked as a journalist during the 1930s, when he was arrested and tried as a communist. His first novel,

  • Putranjivaceae (plant family)

    Malpighiales: Putranjivaceae and Lophopyxidaceae: Putranjivaceae contains 3 genera and about 210 species of evergreen trees of the tropics, especially Africa to Malesia. Drypetes (about 200 species) is found throughout this area. Putranjivaceae have two-ranked, often rather leathery leaves that are asymmetrical at the base. They frequently…

  • putrefaction (biochemistry)

    amine: Occurrence and sources of amines: …principally as products of the putrefaction of protein material, but they are also present in living tissue (e.g., histamine, a cyclic aliphatic amine). The methylamines occur in small amounts in some plants. Many polyfunctional amines (i.e., those having other functional groups in the molecule) occur as alkaloids in plants—for example,…

  • putrescine (chemical compound)

    amine: Physical properties: For example, H2N(CH2)4NH2, called putrescine, and H2N(CH2)5NH2, called cadaverine, are foul-smelling compounds found in decaying flesh. Amines are colourless; aliphatic amines are transparent to ultraviolet light, but aromatic amines display strong absorption of certain wavelengths. Amines with fewer than six carbons mix with water in all proportions. The aliphatic…

  • putsch (politics)

    collective violence: Coups, rebellions, and revolutions: A rebellion involves large-scale violence directed against the state by its own civilian population. Rebellions try to change the government or some of its policies but not the society itself. Intense government repression seems to deter rebellion, whereas mild repression tends to stimulate it. Thus, mild…

  • Putsigrām (mountain pass, Asia)

    Hindu Kush: Physiography: …but the mountain passes—which include Putsigrām (13,450 feet [5,000 metres]), Verān (15,400 feet [4,694 metres]), Rām Gol (15,400 feet [4,694 metres]), and Anjoman (13,850 feet [4,221 metres])—are high, making transmontane communications difficult.

  • putt (golf)

    golf: Procedure: …maintained and closely mowed for putting. When the player putts, he uses a straight-faced club and rolls the ball across the putting green toward and eventually into the hole.

  • Puttaswamayya, Muthuraj Singanalluru (Indian actor)

    Rajkumar, (Muthuraj Singanalluru Puttaswamayya), Indian movie star (born April 24, 1929, Gajanur, Mysore [now Karnataka], British India—died April 12, 2006, Bangalore, Karnataka, India), achieved legendary status as the star of more than 200 Kannada-language films. Rajukumar’s first film, Bedara K

  • Putte, Isaac Dignus Fransen van de (Dutch statesman)

    Isaac Dignus Fransen van de Putte, Liberal Dutch statesman who energetically attacked the exploitative colonial Culture System, which extracted wealth from the Dutch East Indies by using forced labour, and who succeeded in abolishing some of its abuses. Van de Putte spent 10 years at sea before

  • puttee (garment)

    Puttee, covering for the lower leg consisting of a cloth or leather legging held on by straps or laces or a cloth strip wound spirally around the leg. In ancient Greece a type of puttee was worn by working-class men, who wrapped irregular linen straps around their legs. The word puttee, however, is

  • Puttenham, George (English writer)

    George Puttenham, English courtier, generally acknowledged as the author of the anonymously published The Arte of English Poesie (1589), one of the most important critical works of the Elizabethan age. Little is definitely known of his early life. His mother was the sister of Sir Thomas Elyot; his

  • Puttermesser Papers, The (novel by Ozick)

    Cynthia Ozick: In 1997 Ozick published The Puttermesser Papers, a short novel consisting of narratives and false memories of the aging Puttermesser, who in one story brings a female golem to life in order to save New York City, with disastrous results.

  • putti (visual arts)

    Putto, a nude chubby child figure, often with wings, frequently appearing in both mythological and religious paintings and sculpture, especially of the Renaissance and Baroque periods. Derived from personifications of love, or Eros figures, in Greek and Roman art, putti came to be used to portray

  • putting green (golf)

    golf: Procedure: …the close-clipped surface of the green, and then rolls the remaining distance.

  • putting-out system (economics)

    Domestic system, production system widespread in 17th-century western Europe in which merchant-employers “put out” materials to rural producers who usually worked in their homes but sometimes laboured in workshops or in turn put out work to others. Finished products were returned to the employers

  • Puttkamer, Johanna von (wife of Bismarck)

    Otto von Bismarck: Early years: …period he met and married Johanna von Puttkamer, the daughter of a conservative aristocratic family famed for its devout pietism. While courting Johanna, Bismarck experienced a religious conversion that was to give him inner strength and security. A subsequent critic was to remark that Bismarck believed in a God who…

  • Puttnam, David Terence (British motion-picture producer)
  • putto (visual arts)

    Putto, a nude chubby child figure, often with wings, frequently appearing in both mythological and religious paintings and sculpture, especially of the Renaissance and Baroque periods. Derived from personifications of love, or Eros figures, in Greek and Roman art, putti came to be used to portray

  • Putto with Dolphin (sculpture by Verrocchio)

    Andrea del Verrocchio: Paintings and sculptures: A second bronze figure, the Putto with Dolphin, is important in the development of freestanding Renaissance sculpture for its spiral design, which represents a successful effort to evolve a pose in which all views are of equal significance. It was originally commissioned for a fountain in the Medici villa in…

  • putty (adhesive)

    Putty, cementing material made of whiting (finely powdered calcium carbonate) and boiled linseed oil. It is beaten or kneaded to the consistency of dough and is used to secure sheets of glass in sashes, to stop crevices in woodwork, and to fill nail holes. Whiting putty of a high grade consists of

  • putty-nosed monkey (mammal)

    guenon: …the large spot-nosed guenon, or putty-nosed monkey (Cercopithecus nictitans), is a common West African form with gray-flecked black fur and an oval yellowish or white nose spot. Among other species with nose patches are the lesser spot-nosed guenon (C. petaurista) and the redtail (C. ascanius), both with heart-shaped white nose…

  • Putucceri (union territory, India)

    Puducherry, union territory of India. It was formed in 1962 out of the four former colonies of French India: Pondicherry (now Puducherry) and Karaikal along India’s southeastern Coromandel Coast, surrounded by Tamil Nadu state; Yanam, farther north along the eastern coast in the delta region of the

  • Putumaippittan (Indian writer)

    South Asian arts: Tamil: Among them was Putumaippittan, who wrote realistically, critically, and even bitterly about the failings of society.

  • Putumayo (department, Colombia)

    Putumayo, departamento, southern Colombia. It is bounded by the Caquetá River on the northeast, Ecuador on the south, and Peru on the southeast. It consists of forested lowlands, except where it rises abruptly into the Andes on the west. The department is thought to have great petroleum reserves;

  • Putumayo River (river, South America)

    Putumayo River, tributary, 1,000 miles (1,609 km) long, of the Amazon River. It originates as the Guamués River, which flows from La Cocha Lake, high in the Andes near Pasto, Colombia. The Guamués flows southeastward into densely forested plains past Puerto Asís, Colom., after which point it is k

  • Putumayo, Río (river, South America)

    Putumayo River, tributary, 1,000 miles (1,609 km) long, of the Amazon River. It originates as the Guamués River, which flows from La Cocha Lake, high in the Andes near Pasto, Colombia. The Guamués flows southeastward into densely forested plains past Puerto Asís, Colom., after which point it is k

  • Putuo Shan Island (island, China)

    Zhejiang: Cultural life: Mount Putuo Island, which is no longer as much a pilgrimage destination as one for tourists, still has more than 30 major temples; it is often called the “Buddhist Kingdom in the Sea’s Heaven” (Haitian Foguo). Mount Mogan, in the Tianmu Mountains of northern Zhejiang,…

  • Putz, Henri (French general)

    Second Battle of Ypres: The forces at Ypres: Henri Putz, and the Belgian 6th Division under Maj. Gen. Armand de Ceuninck. The remainder of the Belgian army extended north through the area that had been flooded during the First Battle of Ypres. Opposite the Allies was the German Fourth Army under Albrecht, duke…

  • Puu Kukui (volcanic mountain, Hawaii, United States)

    Puu Kukui, volcanic peak, Maui county, western Maui island, Hawaii, U.S. It is the highest peak (5,788 feet [1,764 metres]) of an 18-mile (30-km) stretch of mountains, the Honolua volcanic series, that dominates the western peninsula of Maui. Puu Kukui (Hawaiian: “Candlenut Hill”) was formed by a

  • Puuc style (Mayan architecture)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Major sites: …orderly in the style called Puuc, so named from a string of low hills extending up from western Campeche into the state of Yucatán. The Puuc sites were for the Northern Subregion what the Petén sites were for the Central, for they are very numerous and clearly were the focal…

  • puuhonua (ancient Hawaiian sanctuary)

    Honaunau: …Pacific Ocean, the refuge (puuhonua), one of several sacred spots that provided sanctuary in times of war, was established by at least the 15th century. Warriors, fugitives, and taboo breakers escaped death if they reached the site ahead of their pursuers; after remaining a few days and performing religious…

  • Puukohola National Historic Site (national historical site, Kawaihae, Hawaii, United States)

    Kawaihae: …south of the harbour is Puukohola National Historic Site, one of the best-preserved Hawaiian heiaus (ceremonial and religious structures), dedicated in 1791 by Kamehameha I. Nearby, around Puako, are large tide pools and vast fields of shallow rock carvings depicting early Polynesian life.

  • PUVA therapy (medicine)

    radiation: Ultraviolet radiation therapy: In this approach, known as PUVA therapy, the entire surface of the skin is bathed repeatedly with ultraviolet radiation.

  • Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre (French painter)

    Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, the leading French mural painter of the later 19th century. He was largely independent of the major artistic currents of his time and was much admired by a diverse group of artists and critics, including Georges Seurat, Paul Gauguin, Charles Baudelaire, and Théophile

  • Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre-Cécile (French painter)

    Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, the leading French mural painter of the later 19th century. He was largely independent of the major artistic currents of his time and was much admired by a diverse group of artists and critics, including Georges Seurat, Paul Gauguin, Charles Baudelaire, and Théophile

  • PUWP (political party, Poland)

    Poland: Political process: …Poland was governed by the Polish United Workers’ Party (PUWP; Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza), the country’s communist party, which was modeled on the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The postwar government was run as a dual system in which state organs were controlled by parallel organs of the PUWP.…

  • Puxi (district, Shanghai, China)

    Expo Shanghai 2010: …remainder on the western (Puxi) side. Considerable effort was put into preparing the two sites, which included relocating out of the area thousands of residents, more than 200 factories, and a shipyard. In addition, Shanghai’s transportation infrastructure was significantly improved. Among the notable projects completed were those that added…

  • Puxian (bodhisattva)

    Samantabhadra, in Mahayana Buddhism, the bodhisattva (“buddha-to-be”) representing kindness or happiness. He is often represented in a triad with Shakyamuni (the Buddha) and the bodhisattva Manjushri; he appears seated on an elephant with three heads or with one head and six tusks. In China he is

  • Puy de Sancy (mountain, France)

    Auvergne: Geography: …at the summit of the Puy de Sancy, in Puy-de-Dôme, which is the highest point in central France. The Vivarais Mountains top out at Mount Mézenc, 5,751 feet (1,753 metres) above Haute-Loire, while in Cantal, an area of high plateaus, volcanic peaks rise to the Plomb du Cantal, at 6,096…

  • Puy, Le (France)

    Le Puy-en-Velay, town, capital of Haute-Loire département, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes région, south-central France. Le Puy-en-Velay is situated in the Massif Central at an elevation of 2,067 feet (630 metres) above sea level, 2 miles (3 km) from the left bank of the Loire River. It lies in the middle of

  • Puy-de-Dôme (department, France)

    Auvergne: …the central départements of Allier, Puy-de-Dôme, Cantal, and Haute-Loire. In 2016 the Auvergne région was joined with the région of Rhône-Alpes to form the new administrative entity of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes.

  • Puya (plant genus)

    Puya, genus of South American plants of the pineapple family (Bromeliaceae) that contains about 200 species, including the tallest bromeliads. P. gigas (P. raimondii), native to northern South America, grows to more than 10 m (about 33 feet) tall and forms a flower stalk nearly 5.4 m tall. Most

  • Puya alpestris (plant)

    Puya: Several species, such as P. alpestris and P. chilensis, are cultivated indoors as decorative plants. The leaves of P. chilensis are the source of a fibre sometimes used to make fishing nets.

  • Puya chilensis (plant)

    Puya: alpestris and P. chilensis, are cultivated indoors as decorative plants. The leaves of P. chilensis are the source of a fibre sometimes used to make fishing nets.

  • Puya gigas (plant)

    Puya: P. gigas (P. raimondii), native to northern South America, grows to more than 10 m (about 33 feet) tall and forms a flower stalk nearly 5.4 m tall.

  • Puya raimondii (plant)

    Puya: P. gigas (P. raimondii), native to northern South America, grows to more than 10 m (about 33 feet) tall and forms a flower stalk nearly 5.4 m tall.

  • Puyallup (Washington, United States)

    Puyallup, city, Pierce county, western Washington, U.S., on the Puyallup River. Settled in 1854 and known as Franklin, it was destroyed in a raid (1855) by Puyallup and Nisqually Indians from whom the land had been claimed. The area was resettled by Ezra Meeker in 1859. Laid out in 1877, it was

  • Puyguilhem, Antonin-Nompar de Caumont, marquis de (French military officer)

    Antonin-Nompar de Caumont, count and duke de Lauzun, French military officer who was imprisoned by King Louis XIV to prevent him from marrying the Duchesse de Montpensier (known as La Grande Mademoiselle), the wealthiest heiress in Europe. The son of Gabriel de Caumont, comte de Lauzun, he was at

  • Puyi (emperor of Qing dynasty)

    Puyi, last emperor (1908–1911/12) of the Qing (Manchu) dynasty (1644–1911/12) in China and puppet emperor of the Japanese-controlled state of Manchukuo (Chinese: Manzhouguo) from 1934 to 1945. Puyi succeeded to the Manchu throne at the age of three, when his uncle, the Guangxu emperor, died on

  • Puyi (people)

    Buyei, an official minority group inhabiting large parts of Guizhou province in south-central China. They call themselves Jui or Yoi. There are also some 50,000 Buyei living in Vietnam, where they are an official nationality. They had no written script of their own until 1956, when the Chinese

  • Puyo (Ecuador)

    Puyo, town, east-central Ecuador. It lies along an affluent of the Pastaza River near the eastern slopes of the Andes Mountains. It is a missionary settlement and an important trading centre in the Oriente region (the forested lowland jungle east of the Andes). The town’s economy is based on local

  • Puyŏ (South Korea)

    Korean architecture: The Three Kingdoms period (57 bce–668 ce): …a Paekche temple site in Puyŏ and at the site of the Asuka-dera temple near Kyōto, Japan. The Paekche temple also had a central octagonal wooden pagoda. In Silla, however, as can be seen in the well-known Hwang’yong Temple of Kyŏngju, the Koguryŏ-Paekche plan was modified to a one-pagoda (south),…

  • puys (French dramatic society)

    jongleur: …of jongleurs became known as puys, groups that held competitions for lyric poets. The jongleur reached the height of his importance in the 13th century but lapsed into decline in the 14th, when various facets of his complex role disseminated among other performers—e.g., musicians, actors, and acrobats.

  • Puzhou (China)

    Puzhou, town, southwestern Shanxi sheng (province), China. It stands on the east bank of the Huang He (Yellow River), on the north side of the western spur of the Zhongtiao Mountains. A short distance to the south is Fenglingdu, from which there is a ferry to Tongguan in Shaanxi province. In

  • Puzo, Mario (American author)

    Mario Puzo, American novelist and screenwriter (born Oct. 15, 1920, New York, N.Y.—died July 2, 1999, Bay Shore, N.Y.), chronicled a fictional Mafia family, the Corleones, in The Godfather (1969), which became one of the most successful novels ever—selling some 21 million copies worldwide, spawning

  • Puzrish-Dagan (ancient structure, Nippur, Iraq)

    history of Mesopotamia: Administration: …sources, the state archives of Puzrish-Dagan, a gigantic “stockyard” situated outside the gates of Nippur, which supplied the city’s temples with sacrificial animals but inevitably also comprised a major wool and leather industry; other such archives are those of Umma, Girsu, Nippur, and Ur. All these activities were overseen by…

  • Puzur-Ashur III (king of Assyria)

    history of Mesopotamia: The rise of Assyria: Puzur-Ashur III concluded a border treaty with Babylonia about 1480, as did Ashur-bel-nisheshu about 1405. Ashur-nadin-ahhe II (c. 1392–c. 1383) was even able to obtain support from Egypt, which sent him a consignment of gold.

  • puzzle game, electronic (electronic game genre)

    Electronic puzzle game, electronic game genre, typically involving the use of logic, pattern recognition, or deduction. Most popular puzzle games were made for personal computers, though some of them have been adapted for play on portable gaming systems and mobile telephones. Important games in

  • PV device (technology)

    thin-film solar cell: Applications of thin-film solar cells: …century the potential for thin-film applications increased greatly, because of their flexibility, which facilitates their installation on curved surfaces as well as their use in building-integrated photovoltaics.

  • PV panel (technology)

    satellite communication: How satellites work: …power system, which includes the solar panels that provide power, and the propulsion system, which includes the rockets that propel the satellite. A satellite needs its own propulsion system to get itself to the right orbital location and to make occasional corrections to that position. A satellite in geostationary orbit…

  • PV1 (pathology)

    polio: …distinguishable forms) of wild poliovirus: PV1, PV2, and PV3. The most-widespread serotype is PV1. PV2 likely has been eradicated; the last PV2 case was reported in 1999 in Uttar Pradesh, India. The third serotype, PV3, is close to eradication.

  • PV2 (pathology)

    polio: …forms) of wild poliovirus: PV1, PV2, and PV3. The most-widespread serotype is PV1. PV2 likely has been eradicated; the last PV2 case was reported in 1999 in Uttar Pradesh, India. The third serotype, PV3, is close to eradication.

  • PV3 (pathology)

    polio: …wild poliovirus: PV1, PV2, and PV3. The most-widespread serotype is PV1. PV2 likely has been eradicated; the last PV2 case was reported in 1999 in Uttar Pradesh, India. The third serotype, PV3, is close to eradication.

  • PVA (chemical compound)

    Polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), a synthetic resin prepared by the polymerization of vinyl acetate. In its most important application, polyvinyl acetate serves as the film-forming ingredient in water-based (latex) paints; it also is used in adhesives. Vinyl acetate (CH2=CHO2CCH3) is prepared from ethylene

  • PVA (biology)

    minimum viable population: Estimating MVP: …computer simulation model known as population viability analysis (PVA) was developed to estimate the MVP of a species. The method was later found to be useful for providing more-sophisticated estimates of extinction risk and long-term persistence. PVA can be customized by the researcher to incorporate various data related to a…

  • PVA (chemical compound)

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), a colourless, water-soluble synthetic resin employed principally in the treating of textiles and paper. PVA is unique among polymers (chemical compounds made up of large, multiple-unit molecules) in that it is not built up in polymerization reactions from single-unit

  • PVAc (chemical compound)

    Polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), a synthetic resin prepared by the polymerization of vinyl acetate. In its most important application, polyvinyl acetate serves as the film-forming ingredient in water-based (latex) paints; it also is used in adhesives. Vinyl acetate (CH2=CHO2CCH3) is prepared from ethylene

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