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  • Punch-Drunk Love (film by Anderson [2002])

    Paul Thomas Anderson: …Adam Sandler, who starred in Punch-Drunk Love (2002), an offbeat love story that earned Anderson the best director award at the Cannes film festival.

  • punch-drunk syndrome (pathology)

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), degenerative brain disease typically associated with repetitive trauma to the head. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) originally was known as dementia pugilistica, a term introduced in the 1920s and ’30s to describe mental and motor deficits associated

  • punch-matrix system (typesetting)

    Johannes Gutenberg: …to have also invented the punch-matrix system of casting metal type (in which a character engraved on one end of a hard metal rod, the punch, was used to strike an impression into a softer metal plate, the matrix, into which molten metal was poured to form any number of…

  • punchayet (Indian caste government)

    Panchayat, the most important adjudicating and licensing agency in the self-government of an Indian caste. There are two types: permanent and impermanent. Literally, a panchayat (from Sanskrit pañca, “five”) consists of five members, but usually there are more; the panchayat has a policy committee,

  • Punchbowl (crater, Hawaii, United States)

    Honolulu: Punchbowl, a 2,000-foot- (600-metre-) wide crater 1 mile (2 km) inland, contains the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific with some 24,000 graves of World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War dead.

  • punched card (data processing)

    Analytical Engine: …were to be entered on punched cards, using the card-reading technology of the Jacquard loom. Instructions were also to be entered on cards, another idea taken directly from Joseph-Marie Jacquard. The use of instruction cards would make it a programmable device and far more flexible than any machine then in…

  • Punchinello (puppet character)

    Punch, hooknosed, humpbacked character, the most popular of marionettes and glove puppets and the chief figure in the Punch-and-Judy puppet show. Brutal, vindictive, and deceitful, he is usually at odds with authority. His character had roots in the Roman clown and the comic country bumpkin. More

  • puncta lacrimalia (anatomy)

    tear duct and glands: …have barely visible openings, called puncta, at the nasal end of the upper and lower lid margins. The canaliculi lead to the lacrimal sac near the inner corner of each eye, which itself empties into the nasolacrimal duct, a tubelike structure that directs tears into the nasal cavity.

  • punctuated equilibrium model (biology)

    Stephen Jay Gould: …in 1972 the theory of punctuated equilibrium, a revision of Darwinian theory proposing that the creation of new species through evolutionary change occurs not at slow, constant rates over millions of years but rather in rapid bursts over periods as short as thousands of years, which are then followed by…

  • punctuation

    Punctuation, the use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading, both silently and aloud, of handwritten and printed texts. The word is derived from the Latin punctus, “point.” From the 15th century to the early 18th the

  • punctuational evolution (biology)

    Stephen Jay Gould: …in 1972 the theory of punctuated equilibrium, a revision of Darwinian theory proposing that the creation of new species through evolutionary change occurs not at slow, constant rates over millions of years but rather in rapid bursts over periods as short as thousands of years, which are then followed by…

  • punctum delens (orthography)

    Celtic languages: Irish: …with the help of the punctum delens (s:ṡ, f:ḟ), a dot that shows that the sound is not pronounced. As a result, many ambiguities remain: ní beir can mean either “he does not carry” or “he does not carry it,” according to whether the b- is read as a b…

  • puncture vine (plant)

    Zygophyllales: Zygophyllaceae: …these is Tribulus terrestris (puncture vine). This native of the Mediterranean region has been disseminated to all the drier warm areas of the world. It has hard fruits with sharp spines that easily attach to automobile and airplane tires and to the feet of grazing animals. The spines can…

  • pundonor (dramatic theme)

    Lope de Vega: Works: …the “point of honour” (pundonor) that Vega commended as the best theme of all “since there are none but are strongly moved thereby.” This “point of honour” was a matter largely of convention, “honour” being equivalent, in a very limited and brittle sense, to social reputation; men were expected…

  • Pundravardhana (ancient city, Bangladesh)

    Bogra: The site of Mahasthan (identified by inscriptions as Pundravardhana), capital of the Pundra dynasty, lies just north of the city; it dates from the time of the Mauryan empire (c. 321–185 bce) and flourished during the Gupta (early 4th to late 6th century ce) and Pala (late 8th–mid-12th…

  • Pune (India)

    Pune, city, west-central Maharashtra state, western India, at the junction of the Mula and Mutha rivers. Called “Queen of the Deccan,” Pune is the cultural capital of the Maratha peoples. The city first gained importance as the capital of the Bhonsle Marathas in the 17th century. It was temporarily

  • Pungitius pungitius (fish)

    stickleback: The nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius), a species that is similar in size to G. aculeatus but has more dorsal spines, is another widely distributed form found in the Northern Hemisphere. Other stickleback species include the brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans), an inhabitant of North American fresh waters;…

  • Pungo Andongo stones (monoliths, Angola)

    Malanje: …in the north; and the Pungo Andongo stones, giant black monoliths associated with tribal legend. Most of the region’s inhabitants are members of the Mbundu peoples. The chief economic activities are stock raising (mainly goats) and the cultivation of cotton, corn (maize), fruits and nuts, cassava (manioc), sisal, and tobacco;…

  • Punhwang Temple (temple, Kyŏngju, South Korea)

    Korean architecture: The Three Kingdoms period (57 bce–668 ce): …Silla pagoda is at the Punhwang Temple in Kyŏngju, constructed in 634, a stone version of a Chinese brick pagoda of the Tang dynasty (618–907).

  • Puni, Ivan Albertovich (Russian artist)

    Ivan Albertovich Puni, Russian painter and graphic artist who actively furthered the early (prewar) development of the Russian avant-garde. The son of a cellist and grandson of the renowned composer Tsezar Puni (1802–70, originally Cesare Pugni from Italy), Ivan Puni was exposed to music and art at

  • Punic alphabet

    Punic alphabet, a form of the Phoenician alphabet

  • Punic language

    Canaanite languages: Moabite, Phoenician, and Punic. They were spoken in ancient times in Palestine, on the coast of Syria, and in scattered colonies elsewhere around the Mediterranean. An early form of Canaanite is attested in the Tell el-Amarna letters (c. 1400 bc). Moabite, which is very close to Hebrew, is…

  • Punic War, First (Carthage and Rome [264 bce–241 bce])

    First Punic War, (264–241 bce) first of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in the destruction of Carthage. The First Punic War was fought to establish control over the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. In 264 the Carthaginians intervened

  • Punic War, Second (Carthage and Rome [218 bce–201 bce])

    Second Punic War, second (218–201 bce) in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. In the years after the First Punic War, Rome wrested Corsica and Sardinia from Carthage and forced Carthaginians

  • Punic War, Third (Carthage and Rome [149 bce– 146 bce])

    Third Punic War, (149–146 bce), third of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) Empire that resulted in the final destruction of Carthage, the enslavement of its population, and Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. The first and second Punic wars (264–241 bce

  • Punic Wars (Carthage and Rome [264 bce–146 bce])

    Punic Wars, (264–146 bce), a series of three wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire, resulting in the destruction of Carthage, the enslavement of its population, and Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. The origin of these conflicts is to be found in the

  • Punica (work by Silius Italicus)

    Silius Italicus: …epic poet whose 17-book, 12,000-line Punica on the Second Punic War (218–201 bc) is the longest poem in Latin literature.

  • Punica granatum (plant)

    Pomegranate, (Punica granatum), bush or small tree of the family Lythraceae and its fruit. The juicy arils of the fruit are eaten fresh, and the juice is the source of grenadine syrup, used in flavourings and liqueurs. Pomegranate is high in dietary fibre, folic acid, vitamin C, and vitamin K. The

  • Punisher (fictional character)
  • Punishing Kiss (album by Lemper)

    Ute Lemper: Her later recordings included Punishing Kiss (2000), which features the compositions of collaborators such as Tom Waits and Nick Cave, and Between Yesterday and Tomorrow (2009), the first of Lemper’s discs on which she was the sole composer.

  • punishment (law)

    Punishment, the infliction of some kind of pain or loss upon a person for a misdeed (i.e., the transgression of a law or command). Punishment may take forms ranging from capital punishment, flogging, forced labour, and mutilation of the body to imprisonment and fines. Deferred punishments consist

  • Punishment She Deserves, The (novel by George)

    Elizabeth George: …One Evil Act (2013), and The Punishment She Deserves (2018). Between 2001 and 2008 the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and the public television station WGBH in Boston coproduced a television series based on the Lynley novels.

  • punitive damages (law)

    Punitive damages, legal damages a judge or a jury may grant a plaintiff to punish and make an example of the defendant. Punitive damages are generally meted out in only the most extreme circumstances, usually in breaches of obligation with significant evidence of oppression, fraud, gross

  • Punjab (state, India)

    Punjab, state of India, located in the northwestern part of the subcontinent. It is bounded by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir to the north, Himachal Pradesh to the northeast, Haryana to the south and southeast, and Rajasthan to the southwest and by the country of Pakistan to the west.

  • Punjab (province, Pakistan)

    Punjab, province of eastern Pakistan. It is bordered by the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir to the northeast, the Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan to the east, Sindh province to the south, Balochistān and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces to the west, and Islamabad federal capital area and Azad

  • Punjab Accord (1986, India)

    Chandigarh: History: …the terms of the 1986 Punjab Accord, the entire union territory was to become part of Punjab, whereas the agriculturally productive, mostly Hindi-speaking areas of Fazilka and Abohar, both in Punjab, were to be transferred to Haryana; by the early 21st century, however, this plan had yet to come to…

  • Punjab Himalayas (mountains, Asia)

    Western Himalayas, westernmost section of the vast Himalayas mountain range. It lies mainly in the disputed Kashmir region of the northern Indian subcontinent—including portions administered by India and Pakistan—and also in the northwestern part of Himachal Pradesh state, India. In all, the

  • Punjab Plain (plain, India)

    Punjab Plain, large alluvial plain in northwestern India. It has an area of about 38,300 square miles (99,200 square km) and covers the states of Punjab and Haryana and the union territory of Delhi, except for the Shahdara zone. It is bounded by the Siwalik (Shiwalik) Range to the north, the Yamuna

  • Punjab Reorganization Act (1966, India)

    Haryana: History: …with the passage of the Punjab Reorganization Act (and in accordance with the earlier recommendations of the States Reorganization Commission), Haryana was separated from Punjab in 1966 to become the 17th state of India.

  • Punjab XI Kings (Indian cricket team)

    Indian Premier League: …Hyderabad), the Delhi Daredevils, the Punjab XI Kings (Mohali), the Kolkata Knight Riders, and the Rajasthan Royals (Jaipur). In late 2010 two franchises, Rajasthan and Punjab, were expelled from the league by the BCCI for breeches of ownership policy, but they were later reinstated in time for the 2011 tournament.…

  • Punjab, University of the (university, Lahore, Pakistan)

    University of the Punjab, residential and affiliating university located in Lahore, Pakistan. Punjab was founded in 1882 to take on some of the colleges then affiliated with the University of Calcutta (Kolkata), whose jurisdiction included most of northern India and parts of Burma (Myanmar). After

  • Punjabi (people)

    Indus River: People: The major distinguishing feature among Punjabi peoples is caste, although without the religious and ritual connotations of the Hindu system. Muslim Jats and Rajputs are important Punjabi communities.

  • Punjabi language

    Punjabi language, one of the most widely spoken Indo-Aryan languages. The old British spelling “Punjabi” remains in more common general usage than the academically precise “Panjabi.” In the early 21st century there were about 30 million speakers of Punjabi in India. It is the official language of

  • Punjabi literature

    Punjabi literature, body of writing in the Punjabi language. Punjabi developed a written literature later than most of the other regional languages of the Indian subcontinent, and some writings from its early centuries, such as those of the first Sikh Guru, Nanak (1469–1539), are in Old Hindi

  • Punjabi Suba (proposed Indian state)

    Sant Fateh Singh: …were advocating the establishment of Punjabi Suba, a Punjabi-speaking autonomous state in India in which Sikh religious, cultural, and linguistic integrity could be preserved intact.

  • Punjabi University (university, Patiāla, India)

    Sikhism: The Punjabi suba: Punjabi University in Patiala was opened in 1962 with strong Sikh support, followed by Guru Nanak University (now Guru Nanak Dev University) in Amritsar in 1969, founded to honour the quincentenary of the birth of Guru Nanak. (Another reason for the establishment of Guru Nanak…

  • punjang ch’ŏngja (Korean art)

    Punch’ŏng pottery, decorated celadon glazed ceramic, produced in Korea during the early Chosŏn period (15th and 16th centuries). Punch’ŏng ware evolved from the celadon of the Koryŏ period. Combined with the celadon glaze is the innovative Chosŏn surface decoration, which includes inlaying,

  • punk (music)

    Punk, aggressive form of rock music that coalesced into an international (though predominantly Anglo-American) movement in 1975–80. Often politicized and full of vital energy beneath a sarcastic, hostile facade, punk spread as an ideology and an aesthetic approach, becoming an archetype of teen

  • punk rock (dress style)

    Vivienne Westwood: …1970s punk music movement into fashion.

  • punk rock (music)

    Punk, aggressive form of rock music that coalesced into an international (though predominantly Anglo-American) movement in 1975–80. Often politicized and full of vital energy beneath a sarcastic, hostile facade, punk spread as an ideology and an aesthetic approach, becoming an archetype of teen

  • punk tree (plant)

    paperbark tree: Melaleuca quinquenervia, also called punk tree and tea tree, grows to a height of 8 metres (25 feet); it has spongy white bark that peels off in thin layers. M. leucadendron, also called river tea tree, is sometimes confused with the former; its leaves provide cajeput oil, used for…

  • Punkt und Linie zu Fläche (work by Kandinsky)

    Wassily Kandinsky: Bauhaus period: …of his second important treatise, Punkt und Linie zu Fläche (“Point and Line to Plane”). In his first treatise, Concerning the Spiritual in Art, he had emphasized in particular the supposed expressiveness of colours, comparing yellow, for example, to the aggressive, allegedly earthly sound of a trumpet and comparing blue…

  • Punkurí (temple, Peru)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Chavín monuments and temples: Punkurí has a low, terraced platform with a wide stairway on which stands a feline head and paws, modeled from stone and mud, and painted. By the paws was buried a woman, believed to have been sacrificed. At Moxeke and Pallca in the Casma Valley…

  • punna (Buddhism)

    Punya, (Sanskrit: “merit” ) primary attribute sought by Buddhists, both monks and laymen, in order to build up a better karma (the cumulative consequences of deeds) and thus to achieve a more favourable future rebirth. Punya can be acquired through dana (“giving,” such as offering food and robes to

  • Punnett, Reginald (British geneticist)

    Reginald Punnett, English geneticist who, with the English biologist William Bateson, discovered genetic linkage. Educated at the University of Cambridge, Punnett began his professional research with structural studies of marine worms. Later his interest turned to genetics, and, while a

  • Punnett, Reginald Crundall (British geneticist)

    Reginald Punnett, English geneticist who, with the English biologist William Bateson, discovered genetic linkage. Educated at the University of Cambridge, Punnett began his professional research with structural studies of marine worms. Later his interest turned to genetics, and, while a

  • punning arms (heraldry)

    heraldry: The nature and origins of heraldic terminology: Second, punning, or canting, arms are very common as, for example, trumpets for Trumpington, or a spear for Shakespeare. It is notable, however, that many armorial allusions that were formerly obvious now require research for elucidation. Other allusions have been lost entirely. Third, in grants of arms to…

  • Puno (Peru)

    Puno, city, southern Peru. It lies on the western shore of Lake Titicaca at 12,549 feet (3,826 m) above sea level, on the high, cold Collao Plateau. Founded in 1668 as San Carlos de Puno, in honour of Charles (Carlos) II of Spain, the city has retained a colonial flavour, particularly in its

  • Punsch (German periodical)

    caricature and cartoon: Other countries: Munich had Fliegende Blätter and Punsch. Punsch was more political than the others, which were long-lived comic weeklies in the social-comment style. J.C. Schleich’s Punsch cartoons were a running Bavarian comment on Prussianism.

  • Punt (historical region, Africa)

    Punt, in ancient Egyptian and Greek geography, the southern coast of the Red Sea and adjacent coasts of the Gulf of Aden, corresponding to modern coastal Ethiopia and Djibouti. To the ancients, Punt was a place of legend and fable, illustrated by Herodotus’ account (in Book II of his History, 5th

  • punt (sports)

    gridiron football: The play of the game: …surrender the ball, usually by punting (kicking) it on fourth down. The offense scores by advancing the ball across the opponent’s goal line (a six-point touchdown) or placekicking it over the crossbar and between the goal posts (a three-point field goal). After a touchdown, the ball is placed on the…

  • punta (dance)

    Latin American dance: Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela: …Central American, however, is the punta of the Garifuna—a cultural group of mixed Amerindian and African origin—found on the Atlantic coast of Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Punta is a social dance of joy and festivity, as well as an emblem of cultural survival. In its festive aspect, punta allows…

  • Punta Arenas (Chile)

    Punta Arenas, city, southern Chile. Punta Arenas lies on the Strait of Magellan between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and is the southernmost large city in the world. Founded in 1848 by Col. José de los Santos Mardones, it flourished as a port of call and coaling station until the opening of the

  • Punta Caucedo (Dominican Republic)

    Dominican Republic: Transportation: …international airports are located at Cape Caucedo, about 15 miles (24 km) east of Santo Domingo, and at Puerto Plata on the northern coast. In the late 20th century, new or expanded international airports were opened at the eastern tip of the island (near Cana Point), at La Romana in…

  • Punta del Este (Uruguay)

    Punta del Este, city and beach resort, southeastern Uruguay. It lies on a peninsula jutting into the Atlantic Ocean east of Montevideo, the national capital. The breezy summers originally attracted families from Buenos Aires and Montevideo who built the beachside chalets that give Punta del Este

  • Punta del Este, Charter of (international affairs)

    Organization of American States: History: …was its adoption of the Charter of Punta del Este (1961), establishing the Alliance for Progress. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights was established at San José, C.Rica, in 1979.

  • Punta Dufour (mountain, Switzerland)

    Dufourspitze, highest peak (15,203 feet [4,634 m]) of Switzerland and second highest of the Alps, lying 28 miles (45 km) south-southwest of Brig in the Monte Rosa Massif of the Pennine Alps near the Italian border. The summit of the mountain was first reached by an English party in 1855. The peak

  • Punta Fortress, La (ancient fortress, Havana, Cuba)

    Havana: City layout: …forts protecting Havana, and, with La Punta Fortress (Castillo de la Punta), dominated the actual entrance to the harbour. The oldest fortification, La Fuerza (Castillo de la Fuerza), was begun in 1565 and completed in 1583. Its site at the Plaza de Armas was that of an even older fort…

  • Punta Gorda (Belize)

    Punta Gorda, town, southern Belize, lying on a coastal plain, backed by a mountainous interior, between the mouths of the Grande and Moho rivers. It is a port on the Gulf of Honduras and exports sugarcane, bananas, and coconuts. Livestock (hogs and cattle) are raised locally. Punta Gorda is linked

  • punta rock (music)

    Belize: The arts: One hybrid musical form, “punta rock,” blends Caribbean soca, calypso, and reggae styles with merengue, salsa, and hip-hop. One of the country’s best-known and most honoured musicians, Andy Viven Palacio (1960–2008), blended traditional Garifuna music with punta rock to stimulate interest in the Garifuna culture and language. The traditional…

  • Punta, Castillo de la (ancient fortress, Havana, Cuba)

    Havana: City layout: …forts protecting Havana, and, with La Punta Fortress (Castillo de la Punta), dominated the actual entrance to the harbour. The oldest fortification, La Fuerza (Castillo de la Fuerza), was begun in 1565 and completed in 1583. Its site at the Plaza de Armas was that of an even older fort…

  • Punta, Cerro de (mountain, Puerto Rico)

    Puerto Rico: Relief: …4,390 feet (1,338 metres) by Cerro de Punta, the highest point on the island. Near the island’s eastern tip, the partly isolated Sierra de Luquillo rises to 3,494 feet (1,065 metres) at El Yunque Peak.

  • Punta, Mount (mountain, Puerto Rico)

    Puerto Rico: Relief: …4,390 feet (1,338 metres) by Cerro de Punta, the highest point on the island. Near the island’s eastern tip, the partly isolated Sierra de Luquillo rises to 3,494 feet (1,065 metres) at El Yunque Peak.

  • Puntarenas (Costa Rica)

    Puntarenas, city and port, western Costa Rica. It is located on a long spit of land protruding into the Gulf of Nicoya of the Pacific Ocean and enclosing Estero Lagoon. First known as Bruselas, in colonial times it linked Costa Rican commerce with Panama and South America. A royal order of 1814

  • Puntjak Sukarno (mountain peak, Indonesia)

    Jaya Peak, highest peak on the island of New Guinea, in the Sudirman Range, western central highlands. Located in the Indonesian province of Papua, the 16,024-foot (4,884-metre) summit is the highest in the southwestern Pacific and the highest island peak in the world. It marks the terminus of a

  • Puntland (region, Africa)

    Somalia: Constitutional framework: …of the autonomous region of Puntland in the northeast. Each formed its own government, although neither is recognized by the international community.

  • punto a groppo (lace)

    Punto a groppo, (Italian: “knotted lace”), ancestor of bobbin lace (q.v.). It was worked in 16th-century Italy by knotting, twisting, and tying fringes, all without weights, or bobbins. Patterns were geometric, sometimes interspersed with schematic human figures. It is thought that bobbin, or

  • punto a relievo (lace)

    Venetian needle lace: …punto a relievo, in French gros point de Venise) developed distinct from flat Venetian (point plat de Venise). The pattern was raised by outlining the design with a cordonnet, a heavier thread, bundle of threads, or horsehair, worked over with buttonholing, so that the curls, scrolls, and conventionalized leaves stood…

  • punto banco (card game)

    baccarat: In punto banco it appears to pass from player to player but is actually held by the house.

  • Punto di Burano (lace)

    Burano lace, needle lace made on the island of Burano, a few miles from Venice in the Venetian lagoon. Burano has a long-established tradition of needle-lace making, though precise historical records are lacking. The fine 18th-century form died out in the early 19th century but was revived in 1872,

  • Punto Fijo (Venezuela)

    Punto Fijo, city, northern Falcón estado (state), northwestern Venezuela. It lies at the southwestern tip of the bulge of the Paraguaná Peninsula, on the shores of the Gulf of Venezuela. Punto Fijo emerged during the 1960s as the peninsula’s major urban centre. With the development of large oil

  • punto in aria (lace)

    Punto in aria, (Italian: “lace in air”), the first true lace (i.e., lace not worked on a woven fabric). As reticella (q.v.) became more elaborate, its fabric ground was eventually replaced by a heavy thread or braid tacked onto a temporary backing (e.g., parchment); the finished lace thus provided

  • punto tagliato

    Cutwork, in fabric, designs obtained by cutting out pieces of a length of material and either filling the spaces thus created with stitches or joining the pieces themselves together by connecting bars of thread. In Europe the technique of filling the spaces with stitches originated in the 14th, 1

  • punto tirato (textile)

    Drawn thread work, in fabric, a method of producing a design by drawing threads out of the body of a piece of material, usually linen, and working stitches on the mesh thus created. In Italy it preceded the development, in the 16th century, of needle lace, and it continued to be practiced

  • Punurrunha (mountain, Western Australia, Australia)

    Mount Bruce, mountain in the Hamersley Range, northwestern Western Australia, southwest of Wittenoom Gorge. The second highest peak in the state, it rises to 4,052 feet (1,235 metres) and constitutes one of the main attractions of Karijini National Park. Known to the Aborigines as Punurrunha or

  • Punxsutawney (Pennsylvania, United States)

    Groundhog Day: Since 1887 an animal in Punxsutawney, in the west-central part of the state, has been the centre of a staged appearance each February 2. In what has become a media event, a groundhog designated Punxsutawney Phil is the centre of attention of television weathermen and newspaper photographers. Although promoters of…

  • Punxsutawney Phil (groundhog)

    Jefferson: …during which a groundhog called Punxsutawney Phil emerges from its underground home to forecast the weather. The county was created in 1804 and named for Thomas Jefferson. Brookville is the county seat. The main industries are manufacturing (glass containers) and mining (bituminous coal). Area 656 square miles (1,698 square km).…

  • punya (Buddhism)

    Punya, (Sanskrit: “merit” ) primary attribute sought by Buddhists, both monks and laymen, in order to build up a better karma (the cumulative consequences of deeds) and thus to achieve a more favourable future rebirth. Punya can be acquired through dana (“giving,” such as offering food and robes to

  • PUP (political party, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Ulster Volunteer Force: …UVF was affiliated with the Progressive Unionist Party (PUP) from the party’s founding in 1977.

  • PUP (political party, Belize)

    flag of Belize: …established that flag for the People’s United Party, which led the nation to independence. The arms were framed by a wreath bearing 50 leaves, a reminder of the year 1950, when the first opposition to British rule began. After local self-government was established in 1964, the flag unofficially flew over…

  • pupa (biology)

    Pupa, life stage in the development of insects exhibiting complete metamorphosis that occurs between the larval and adult stages (imago). During pupation, larval structures break down, and adult structures such as wings appear for the first time. The adult emerges by either splitting the pupal

  • pupae (biology)

    Pupa, life stage in the development of insects exhibiting complete metamorphosis that occurs between the larval and adult stages (imago). During pupation, larval structures break down, and adult structures such as wings appear for the first time. The adult emerges by either splitting the pupal

  • puparium (biology)

    dipteran: Pupa: …the two) or in a puparium, which is a case formed by the hardening of the larval skin. A puparium is formed in flies of the family Stratiomyidae and others that have maggots as larvae (all Cyclorrhapha). Many families of flies form cocoons sporadically; the cocoon has evolved as an…

  • pupfish (fish)

    Death Valley: Plant and animal life: Several species of pupfish of the genus Cyprinodon live in Salt Creek and other permanent bodies of water; the highly endangered Devils Hole pupfish (C. diabolis) lives in a single desert pool.

  • Pupienus Maximus (Roman emperor)

    Pupienus Maximus, Roman coemperor with Balbinus for a few months of 238. Pupienus was a distinguished soldier, who at the advanced age of 74 was chosen by the Senate with Balbinus to resist the barbarian Maximinus. It was arranged that Pupienus should take the field against Maximinus, while

  • pupil (optics)

    Pupil, in optical systems, the virtual image of an aperture associated with mirrors, prisms, and lenses and their combinations. The Figure shows the case of an optical system composed of two lenses with a stop between them. The virtual image of the aperture for lens I (as seen from the object

  • pupil (eye anatomy)

    Pupil, in the anatomy of the eye, the opening within the iris through which light passes before reaching the lens and being focused onto the retina. The size of the opening is governed by the muscles of the iris, which rapidly constrict the pupil when exposed to bright light and expand (dilate) the

  • pupil-teacher (education)

    Sir James Kay-Shuttleworth, 1st Baronet: …also expanded and improved the pupil-teacher system, in which intellectually promising youths (aged 13–18) simultaneously taught in elementary schools and received secondary education from the heads of those schools. Kay-Shuttleworth’s health collapsed in 1848, and upon his retirement he was created a baronet. He continued to promote British public education…

  • Pupilas do Senhor Reitor, As (novel by Dinis)

    Júlio Dinis: …for which he is best-known, As Pupilas do Senhor Reitor (1867; “The Pupils of the Dean”), depicting country life and scenery in a simple and appealing style. It was based on his own family situation and described the influence of the English on Portuguese culture. (His mother was English.) Encouraged…

  • Pupillacea (gastropod superfamily)

    gastropod: Classification: Cionellacea and Pupillacea Minute leaf-litter to arboreal snails, occasionally (Enidae) large; shells often with denticles in the aperture; 10 families. Superfamily Partulacea Small, generally arboreal snails found on high volcanic islands of Polynesia and Micronesia, a few in Melanesia. Order

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