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  • public interest group

    interest group: Types of interests and interest groups: …groups benefit a narrow constituency, public interest groups promote issues of general public concern (e.g., environmental protection, human rights, and consumer rights). Many public interest groups operate in a single country (e.g., the Federal Association of Citizen-Action Groups for Environmental Protection in Germany). Others, such as the Sierra Club, which…

  • Public Interest, The (American journal)

    Irving Kristol: Early life and career: …Kristol is most closely identified, The Public Interest, was founded by Kristol and sociologist Daniel Bell (a classmate of Kristol’s at CCNY) in 1965; Kristol served as the journal’s coeditor and later as consulting editor until it ceased publication in 2005. Renowned (with Commentary) as one of the flagship publications…

  • public international law

    International law, the body of legal rules, norms, and standards that apply between sovereign states and other entities that are legally recognized as international actors. The term was coined by the English philosopher Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832). According to Bentham’s classic definition,

  • public investment (government policy)

    Public investment, investment by the state in particular assets, whether through central or local governments or through publicly owned industries or corporations. Public investment has arisen historically from the need to provide certain goods, infrastructure, or services that are deemed to be of

  • public land (United States government)
  • public law

    common law: Comparisons of modern English, American, and Commonwealth law: …found in the area of public law. England has no written constitution and restricts judicial review, whereas every court in the United States possesses the power to pass judgment on the conformity of legislation and on other official actions to constitutional norms. Throughout the 20th century and beyond, many areas…

  • Public Ledger (American newspaper)

    A.S. Abell: Simmons, founded the Public Ledger in 1836. Within two years the paper had absorbed the rival Philadelphia Transcript. Meanwhile, in 1837, Abell founded the Baltimore Sun, which had 12,000 subscribers after a year. Both the Public Ledger and the Sun were oriented to the workingman, but, whereas the…

  • public library

    library: Public libraries: Public libraries are now acknowledged to be an indispensable part of community life as promoters of literacy, providers of a wide range of reading for all ages, and centres for community information services. Yet, although the practice of opening libraries to the public…

  • Public Library of Science

    Internet: Electronic publishing: For example, the Public Library of Science publishes online journals of biology and medicine that compete with traditional print journals. There is no difference in how their articles are vetted for publication; the difference is that the material is made available for free. Unlike other creators of content,…

  • public nuisance (law)

    nuisance: A public nuisance created in a public place or on public land, or affecting the morals, safety, or health of the community, is considered an offense against the state. Such activities as obstructing a public road, polluting air and water, operating a house of prostitution, and…

  • public official bond

    insurance: Major types of surety bonds: Public official bonds guarantee that public officials will faithfully and honestly discharge their obligations to the state or to other public agencies. Lost instrument bonds guarantee that if a lost stock certificate, money order, warehouse receipt, or other financial instrument falls into unauthorized hands and…

  • Public Opinion (work by Lippmann)

    Walter Lippmann: …perhaps his most influential book, Public Opinion (1922; reissued 1956; paperback ed., 1965), Lippmann seemed to imply that ordinary citizens can no longer judge public issues rationally, since the speed and condensation required in the mass media tend to produce slogans rather than interpretations. In The Phantom Public (1925) he…

  • public opinion

    Public opinion, an aggregate of the individual views, attitudes, and beliefs about a particular topic, expressed by a significant proportion of a community. Some scholars treat the aggregate as a synthesis of the views of all or a certain segment of society; others regard it as a collection of many

  • public opinion poll

    Opinion poll, a method for collecting information about the views or beliefs of a given group. Information from an opinion poll can shed light on and potentially allow inferences to be drawn about certain attributes of a larger population. Opinion polls typically involve a sample of respondents,

  • public option (insurance)

    United States: Negotiating health care reform: …(most notably excluding the “public option” through which a government-run program would have provided lower-cost competition for private insurance companies). It just barely survived a filibuster attempt by Republicans, holding all 58 Democrats plus the Senate’s two independents, Bernie Sanders of Vermont and Joe Lieberman of Connecticut.

  • public ownership

    Public enterprise, a business organization wholly or partly owned by the state and controlled through a public authority. Some public enterprises are placed under public ownership because, for social reasons, it is thought the service or product should be provided by a state monopoly. Utilities

  • Public Papers, Board of (Japanese government)

    Japan: Muromachi government structure: The official business of the Mandokoro was to control the finances of the bakufu; and later the Ise family, who were hereditary retainers of the Ashikaga, came to inherit this office. The Samurai-dokoro, besides handling legal judgments, was entrusted with the control of the capital. Leading officials called shoshi who…

  • Public Party of Patriots (Japanese political club)

    Etō Shimpei: …form a political club, the Aikoku Kōtō (“Public Party of Patriots”). Angered by the domination of the government by samurai (hereditary warriors) from Chōshū and Satsuma, the group denounced the arbitrary manner in which official decisions were being made and called for the establishment of a parliamentary system of government.

  • Public Pigeon No. 1 (film by McLeod [1957])

    Norman Z. McLeod: Danny Kaye and Bob Hope: Public Pigeon No. 1 (1957) was a feeble Skelton vehicle, but McLeod was able to wrap up his film career on a relatively high note with Alias Jesse James (1959), a lively Hope comedy. McLeod directed a few episodes of television series before retiring in…

  • public policy (government)

    bioethics: Policy making: The importance of the social and legal issues addressed in bioethics is reflected in the large number of national and international bodies established to advise governments on appropriate public policy. At the national level, several countries have set up bioethics councils or commissions,…

  • public policy approach (government)

    public administration: Public policy approach: From the early 1970s increasing analysis of the way government policies affected the public resulted in a concept called the “public policy approach” to administration. This examines to what extent each stage in devising and executing a policy affects the overall shape…

  • Public Policy Research, Institute for (British organization)

    David Miliband: …research fellow (1989–94) at the Institute for Public Policy Research, a think tank with close links to the Labour Party’s “modernizers,” who wanted to distance the party from its traditional socialist doctrines. In 1994 he edited a collection of essays, Reinventing the Left. Tony Blair was elected party leader that…

  • public prosecutor (law)

    Prosecutor, government official charged with bringing defendants in criminal cases to justice in the name of the state. Although responsibilities vary from one jurisdiction to another, many prosecutors are in charge of all phases of a criminal proceeding, from investigation by the police through

  • public reason (political philosophy)

    Public reason, in political philosophy, a moral ideal requiring that political decisions be reasonably justifiable or acceptable from each individual’s viewpoint. Given the plurality of moral, religious, and political doctrines that characterize liberal democratic societies, public reason

  • public relations (communications)

    Public relations, aspect of communications involving the relations between an entity subject to or seeking public attention and the various publics that are or may be interested in it. The entity seeking attention may be a business corporation, an individual politician, a performer or author, a

  • Public Relations (photo series by Winogrand)

    Garry Winogrand: …1970s, one of which was Public Relations. For that series, which Winogrand started shooting in 1969, he photographed high-profile events such as protests, press conferences, sports games, campaign rallies, and museum openings in order to capture what he called “the effect of the media on events”—in other words, the way…

  • Public Roads, Bureau of (United States government)

    roads and highways: From local to national funding: The Bureau of Public Roads, established in the Department of Agriculture in 1893 to make “inquiries with regard to road management,” was given responsibility for the program, and an apportionment formula based on area, population, and mileage of post roads in each state was adopted. Funds…

  • Public Safety Act (Ireland [1927])

    Ireland: The Irish Free State, 1922–32: Cosgrave passed a stringent Public Safety Act and introduced legislation requiring that all candidates for the Dáil declare their willingness, if elected, to take the oath of allegiance. De Valera then led his new party, Fianna Fáil (“Soldiers of Ireland”), into the Dáil and signed the declaration required under…

  • Public Safety, Committee of

    Committee of Public Safety, political body of the French Revolution that gained virtual dictatorial control over France during the Reign of Terror (September 1793 to July 1794). The Committee of Public Safety was set up on April 6, 1793, during one of the crises of the Revolution, when France was

  • public school (British education)

    Public school, in the United Kingdom, one of a relatively small group of institutions educating secondary-level students for a fee and independent of the state system as regards both endowment and administration. The term public school emerged in the 18th century when the reputation of certain

  • public school system

    civil rights: …services, the right to a public education, and the right to use public facilities. Civil rights are an essential component of democracy; when individuals are being denied opportunities to participate in political society, they are being denied their civil rights. In contrast to civil liberties, which are freedoms that are…

  • public sector (economics)

    Public sector, portion of the economy composed of all levels of government and government-controlled enterprises. It does not include private companies, voluntary organizations, and households. The general definition of the public sector includes government ownership or control rather than mere

  • Public Security Police (Portuguese police)

    Portugal: Security: The Public Security Police (Polícia de Segurança Pública; PSP) and the Republican National Guard (Guarda Nacional Republicana; GNR) are under the control of the Ministry of Internal Administration. The GNR includes the road police and has jurisdiction over rural areas. The PSP patrols urban areas and…

  • Public Security, Ministry of (North Korean government organization)

    North Korea: Security: The Ministry of Public Security functions as a national constabulary, while political control and counterintelligence are the responsibility of the State Security Department. Both the State Security Department and the Ministry of the People’s Armed Forces (the military) are under the direct control of the National…

  • Public Security, Ministry of (Chinese government organization)

    China: Security: The role of the Public Security forces of China began to change in the late 1970s. The definition and designation of what poses a threat to security, for example, were narrowed, and there was a decline in the scope of activities of the security forces. The practice of political…

  • public service

    Civil service, the body of government officials who are employed in civil occupations that are neither political nor judicial. In most countries the term refers to employees selected and promoted on the basis of a merit and seniority system, which may include examinations. In earlier times, when

  • public speaking (rhetoric)

    Oratory, the rationale and practice of persuasive public speaking. It is immediate in its audience relationships and reactions, but it may also have broad historical repercussions. The orator may become the voice of political or social history. A vivid instance of the way a speech can focus the

  • public spending (finance)

    government budget: Composition of public expenditure: Expenditures authorized under a national budget are divided into two main categories. The first is the government purchase of goods and services in order to provide services such as education, health care, or defense. The second is the payment of social security and…

  • public switched telephone network

    mobile telephone: Development of cellular systems: …transmitters and receivers with the public switched telephone network (PSTN) began in 1946, with the introduction of mobile telephone service (MTS) by the American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T). In the U.S. MTS system, a user who wished to place a call from a mobile phone had to search manually…

  • public television (American organization)

    Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), private, nonprofit American corporation whose members are the public television stations of the United States and its unincorporated territories. PBS provides its member stations with programming in cultural, educational, and scientific areas, in children’s fare,

  • public transit

    Mass transit, the movement of people within urban areas using group travel technologies such as buses and trains. The essential feature of mass transportation is that many people are carried in the same vehicle (e.g., buses) or collection of attached vehicles (trains). This makes it possible to

  • public transportation

    Mass transit, the movement of people within urban areas using group travel technologies such as buses and trains. The essential feature of mass transportation is that many people are carried in the same vehicle (e.g., buses) or collection of attached vehicles (trains). This makes it possible to

  • public trial

    procedural law: Publicity of the trial: Trials, as opposed to pretrial investigation, must be accessible to the public. This principle, embodied in the constitutions of several countries, is meant to protect the defendant; in the United States it is also based on the freedom of the press.…

  • public trust (law)

    trust: The most common public trusts are charitable trusts, whose holdings are intended to support religious organizations, to enhance education, or to relieve the effects of poverty and other misfortunes. Such trusts are recognized for their beneficial social impact and are given certain privileges, such as tax exemption. Other…

  • public trust doctrine (law)

    natural resources law: Public trust doctrine: Operating as a further check on governmental resource management and subsequent private action is the public trust doctrine, which positions the government as a trustee of resources for the benefit of the general public. The public trust doctrine limits disposition of trust…

  • public utility

    Public utility, enterprise that provides certain classes of services to the public, including common carrier transportation (buses, airlines, railroads, motor freight carriers, pipelines, etc.); telephone and telegraph; power, heat, and light; and community facilities for water, sanitation, and s

  • public virtue (political philosophy)

    democracy: Montesquieu: …possess the quality of “public virtue,” meaning that they are motivated by a desire to achieve the public good. Although public virtue may not be necessary in a monarchy and is certainly absent in despotic regimes, it must be present to some degree in aristocratic republics and to a…

  • Public Weal, League of the (French history)

    Francis II: Francis joined the League of the Public Weal against King Louis XI of France in 1465, invaded Normandy in 1467 on behalf of the dispossessed Charles de France (Louis XI’s brother), and allied himself with King Edward IV of England in 1468. Forced to sign the Treaty of…

  • public works

    Public utility, enterprise that provides certain classes of services to the public, including common carrier transportation (buses, airlines, railroads, motor freight carriers, pipelines, etc.); telephone and telegraph; power, heat, and light; and community facilities for water, sanitation, and s

  • Public Works Administration (United States history)

    Public Works Administration (PWA), in U.S. history, New Deal government agency (1933–39) designed to reduce unemployment and increase purchasing power through the construction of highways and public buildings. Authorized by the National Industrial Recovery Act (June 1933), the Public Works

  • Public Works of Art Project (United States federal arts project)

    Public Works of Art Project (PWAP), first of the U.S. federal art programs conceived as part of the New Deal during the Great Depression of the 1930s. Its purpose was to prove the feasibility of government patronage. It was organized in December 1933 within the Department of the Treasury with funds

  • Public Worship, Directory of (religious work)

    Book of Common Order: …of Common Order with the Directory of Public Worship, which had been prepared by the Westminster Assembly.

  • public-address system

    Olympic Games: Stockholm, Sweden, 1912: Electronic timing devices and a public address system were used for the first time. The Games were attended by approximately 2,400 athletes representing 28 countries. New competition included the modern pentathlon and swimming and diving events for women. The boxing competition was canceled by the Swedish organizers, who found the…

  • public-choice theory (finance)

    political economy: National and comparative political economy: …benefits and minimizing costs, and public-choice theorists focus on how policy choices are shaped or constrained by incentives built into the routines of public and private organizations. Modeling techniques adapted from econometrics are often applied to many different political economic questions.

  • public-employee union (labour organization)

    organized labour: Decline and divergence: If not for public-employee unions, which added two million members between 1956 and 1976, the U.S. labour movement would have found itself in an even more parlous state, as unionization in the private sector slipped to close to pre-New Deal levels.

  • public-key cryptography (cryptology)

    Public-key cryptography, asymmetric form of cryptography in which the transmitter of a message and its recipient use different keys (codes), thereby eliminating the need for the sender to transmit the code and risk its interception. In 1976, in one of the most inspired insights in the history of

  • public-key cryptosystem (cryptology)

    Public-key cryptography, asymmetric form of cryptography in which the transmitter of a message and its recipient use different keys (codes), thereby eliminating the need for the sender to transmit the code and risk its interception. In 1976, in one of the most inspired insights in the history of

  • public-key encryption (cryptology)

    Public-key cryptography, asymmetric form of cryptography in which the transmitter of a message and its recipient use different keys (codes), thereby eliminating the need for the sender to transmit the code and risk its interception. In 1976, in one of the most inspired insights in the history of

  • public-participation principle (law)

    environmental law: The public participation principle: Decisions about environmental protection often formally integrate the views of the public. Generally, government decisions to set environmental standards for specific types of pollution, to permit significant environmentally damaging activities, or to preserve significant resources are made only after the impending decision…

  • public-private partnership (economics)

    Public-private partnership (PPP), partnership between an agency of the government and the private sector in the delivery of goods or services to the public. Areas of public policy in which public-private partnerships (PPPs) have been implemented include a wide range of social services, public

  • public-service radio (broadcasting)

    radio: Pressures on public-service radio: Beginning in the 1980s and accelerating through the 1990s, economic pressures on industrial countries’ traditional public-service radio operations had a telling and growing impact. While the government-supported national systems saw themselves as protectors and disseminators of a high-quality vision of national culture and…

  • publican (Roman contractor)

    Publican, ancient Roman public contractor, who erected or maintained public buildings, supplied armies overseas, or collected certain taxes, particularly those supplying fluctuating amounts of revenue to the state (e.g., tithes and customs). The system for letting contracts was well established b

  • publicani (Roman contractor)

    Publican, ancient Roman public contractor, who erected or maintained public buildings, supplied armies overseas, or collected certain taxes, particularly those supplying fluctuating amounts of revenue to the state (e.g., tithes and customs). The system for letting contracts was well established b

  • publicanus (Roman contractor)

    Publican, ancient Roman public contractor, who erected or maintained public buildings, supplied armies overseas, or collected certain taxes, particularly those supplying fluctuating amounts of revenue to the state (e.g., tithes and customs). The system for letting contracts was well established b

  • Publications and Entertainments Act (South Africa [1963])

    banning: …of the interior under the Publications and Entertainments Act of 1963. Under the act a publication could be banned if it was found to be “undesirable” for any of many reasons, including obscenity, moral harmfulness, blasphemy, causing harm to relations between sections of the population, or being prejudicial to the…

  • Publick Occurrences, Both Foreign and Domestick (newspaper)

    Benjamin Harris: His newspaper, Publick Occurrences, Both Foreign and Domestick (Sept. 25, 1690), the first newspaper printed in the colonies, was suppressed by Boston authorities after one issue. Sometime before 1690 Harris published The New-England Primer, adapted from his earlier, savagely political speller, The Protestant Tutor (1679); the primer…

  • Publick Universal Friend (American religious leader)

    Jemima Wilkinson, American religious leader who founded an unorthodox Christian sect, the Universal Friends, many of whose adherents declared her a messiah. Wilkinson grew up in a Quaker family and early displayed a strong interest in religion. Her attendance at meetings of a New Light Baptist

  • público, El (play by García Lorca)

    Federico García Lorca: Later poetry and plays: In Cuba, Lorca wrote El público (“The Audience”), a complex, multifaceted play, expressionist in technique, that brashly explores the nature of homosexual passion. Lorca deemed the work, which remained unproduced until 1978, “a poem to be hissed.” On his return to Spain, he completed a second play aimed at…

  • Publikumsbeschimpfung (play by Handke)

    Peter Handke: …first important drama, Publikumsbeschimpfung (1966; Offending the Audience), in which four actors analyze the nature of theatre for an hour and then alternately insult the audience and praise its “performance,” a strategy that arouses varied reactions from the crowd. Several more plays lacking conventional plot, dialogue, and characters followed, but…

  • Publilius Syrus (Latin writer)

    Publilius Syrus, Latin mime writer contemporary with Cicero, chiefly remembered for a collection of versified aphorisms that were extracted by scholars from his mimes, probably in the 1st century ad. Early incorporation of non-Publilian verses and scribal distortions of authentic lines in these

  • Publishers of Truth (religion)

    George Fox: Early life and activities: …women preachers, who were called Publishers of Truth. Thus came into being in the last years of the British Commonwealth (1649–60) the Society of Friends, as it was much later called, though its members were early nicknamed Quakers.

  • publishing

    History of publishing, an account of the selection, preparation, and marketing of printed matter from its origins in ancient times to the present. The activity has grown from small beginnings into a vast and complex industry responsible for the dissemination of all manner of cultural material; its

  • Publius Aelius Hadrianus (Roman emperor)

    Hadrian, Roman emperor (117–138 ce), the emperor Trajan’s cousin and successor, who was a cultivated admirer of Greek civilization and who unified and consolidated Rome’s vast empire. He was the third of the so-called Five Good Emperors. Hadrian’s Roman forebears left Picenum in Italy for southern

  • Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus (Roman general)

    Scipio Africanus, Roman general noted for his victory over the Carthaginian leader Hannibal in the great Battle of Zama (202 bce), ending the Second Punic War. For his victory he won the surname Africanus (201 bce). Publius Cornelius Scipio was born into one of the great patrician families in Rome;

  • Publius Cornelius Tacitus (Roman historian)

    Tacitus, Roman orator and public official, probably the greatest historian and one of the greatest prose stylists who wrote in the Latin language. Among his works are the Germania, describing the Germanic tribes, the Historiae (Histories), concerning the Roman Empire from ad 69 to 96, and the later

  • Publius Licinius Valerianus (Roman emperor)

    Valerian, Roman emperor from 253 to 260. Licinius Valerianus was consul under Severus Alexander (emperor 222–235) and played a leading role in inducing the Senate to risk support for Gordian I’s rebellion against the emperor Maximinus (238). He may have been one of the 20 consulars who successfully

  • Publius Papinius Statius (Roman poet)

    Statius, one of the principal Roman epic and lyric poets of the Silver Age of Latin literature (ad 18–133). His occasional poems, collected under the title Silvae (“Forests”), apart from their literary merit, are valuable for their description of the life style of a wealthy and fashionable

  • Pubna (Bangladesh)

    Pabna, city, west-central Bangladesh. It lies along the Ichamati River, which is a tributary of the upper Padma River (Ganges [Ganga] River). An industrial centre, Pabna has mills for jute, cotton, rice, flour, oil, paper, and sugar. It also produces pharmaceuticals. Hosiery and hand-loomed

  • puboischiofemoralis muscle (anatomy)

    muscle: Tetrapod musculature: …single large muscle in reptiles, puboischiofemoralis, runs from the bones of the pelvis to the femur (the proximal bone of the hind limb). This reptilian muscle appears to be represented by three mammalian hip muscles: psoas, iliacus, and pectineus. Iliofemoralis acts as an abductor of the hip in reptiles and…

  • pubovesical ligament (anatomy)

    renal system: General description: …to the side, ligaments, called pubovesical ligaments, that act as a kind of hammock under the inferolateral surfaces and neck of the bladder.

  • PUBS (medicine)

    human genetic disease: Prenatal diagnosis: Both percutaneous umbilical blood sampling (PUBS) and preimplantation testing are rare, relatively high-risk, and performed only in very unusual cases. Preimplantation testing of embryos derived by in vitro fertilization is a particularly new technique and is currently used only in cases of couples who are at…

  • Pucallpa (Peru)

    Pucallpa, city, eastern Peru. It lies on the Ucayali River in the hot, humid Amazonian rain forest. Although the community dates from the early colonial era (1534), it remained isolated until 1945, when the Lima-Pucallpa highway, 526 miles (846 km) long, was completed. Pucallpa can be reached by

  • Pucará (archaeological site, Peru)

    Pucará, pre-Columbian site and culture in the southern highlands of present-day Peru in the northern basin of Lake Titicaca. The site is known for its unusual horseshoe-shaped temple or sanctuary of stone masonry. Pucará-style stone sculptures and Pucará pottery show resemblances to those of

  • Pucci, Antonio (Italian poet)

    Giotto: Early life: …Villani chronicle was produced by Antonio Pucci, town crier of Florence and amateur poet, in which it is stated that Giotto was 70 when he died. This fact would imply that he was born in 1266/67, and it is clear that there was 14th-century authority for the statement (possibly Giotto’s…

  • Pucci, Emilio, Marchese di Barsento (Italian fashion designer)

    Emilio Pucci, marquis di Barsento, Italian fashion designer and politician. Pucci, who came from a wealthy, aristocratic Florentine family, was educated for a diplomatic career. He earned a Ph.D. in social science but entered the Italian air force in 1941 and remained in the service after the end

  • Puccini, Elvira (wife of Puccini)

    Giacomo Puccini: Early life and marriage: …Lucca with a married woman, Elvira Gemignani. Finding in their passion the courage to defy the truly enormous scandal generated by their illegal union, they lived at first in Monza, near Milan, where a son, Antonio, was born. In 1890 they moved to Milan, and in 1891 to Torre del…

  • Puccini, Giacomo (Italian composer)

    Giacomo Puccini, Italian composer, one of the greatest exponents of operatic realism, who virtually brought the history of Italian opera to an end. His mature operas included La Bohème (1896), Tosca (1900), Madama Butterfly (1904), and Turandot (left incomplete). Puccini was the last descendant of

  • Puccini, Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria (Italian composer)

    Giacomo Puccini, Italian composer, one of the greatest exponents of operatic realism, who virtually brought the history of Italian opera to an end. His mature operas included La Bohème (1896), Tosca (1900), Madama Butterfly (1904), and Turandot (left incomplete). Puccini was the last descendant of

  • Puccinia graminis (fungus)

    rust: …is black stem rust (Puccinia graminis) of wheat and other cereals and grasses. Other heteroecious rusts include cedar-apple rust (Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae), which primarily uses Eastern red cedar as one host and various apple and crabapple (Malus) species as the other; white pine rust (

  • Pucciniales (order of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Order Pucciniales Parasitic on plants; typically have 5 spore stages and 2 alternate hosts; example genera include Puccinia and Uromyces. Class Cystobasidiomycetes Parasitic on plants; simple-septate basidiomycetes; contains 3 orders. Order Cystobasidiales

  • Pucciniomycotina (class of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Class Pucciniomycotina Parasitic on plants, some saprotrophic; contains 5 orders. Order Septobasidiales Parasitic on plants, some members parasitic on or symbiotic with scale insects (order Homoptera); basidiospores germinate on insects, with haustoria coiled inside insect; example genera include Septobasidium and

  • Pucciniomycotina (subphylum of fungi)

    fungus: Annotated classification: Subphylum Pucciniomycotina Pathogens of land plants; includes the rusts; contains eight classes. Class Pucciniomycotina Parasitic on plants, some saprotrophic; contains 5 orders. Order Septobasidiales Parasitic on plants, some members parasitic on or symbiotic with scale insects

  • puccoon (plant)

    Puccoon, any of several plants formerly used by certain North American Indians for dyes derived from the roots, the term being an Algonquian name for dye. Lithospermum species include the yellow puccoon, or Indian paint (L. canescens), with small yellow or orange flowers and reddish roots. It and a

  • Pucelle d’Orléans, La (French heroine)

    St. Joan of Arc, ; canonized May 16, 1920; feast day May 30; French national holiday, second Sunday in May), national heroine of France, a peasant girl who, believing that she was acting under divine guidance, led the French army in a momentous victory at Orléans that repulsed an English attempt to

  • Pucelle, Jean (French artist)

    Jean Pucelle, an outstanding miniature painter and manuscript illuminator. He excelled in the invention of drolleries (marginal designs) and in traditional iconography. There is little information concerning Pucelle’s background. In the 1300s he apparently made a trip to Italy that resulted in

  • Pucelle, Jean Jehan (French artist)

    Jean Pucelle, an outstanding miniature painter and manuscript illuminator. He excelled in the invention of drolleries (marginal designs) and in traditional iconography. There is little information concerning Pucelle’s background. In the 1300s he apparently made a trip to Italy that resulted in

  • puch der natur, Das (work by Megenberg)

    herbal: …one being Konrad von Megenberg’s Das puch der natur (or Buch der natur, “Book of Nature”). When printed in 1475, it included the first known woodcuts for botanical illustrations. Very few original drawings were prepared for herbals before the 16th century: illustrations were copies and copies of copies. They became…

  • Puch’ŏn (South Korea)

    Puch’ŏn, city, Kyŏnggi (Gyeonggi) do (province), northwestern South Korea, located halfway between Seoul and Inch’ŏn (Incheon). It became a municipality in 1973 and developed rapidly as a satellite city of Seoul. Industries include the manufacture of chemicals, semiconductors, machinery, lighting,

  • Puchstein, Otto (German archaeologist)

    Boğazköy: Excavations: …1907 another German expedition, under Otto Puchstein, excavated and surveyed the fortifications and temples. After World War I new excavations were started by the German Archaeological Institute and the German Orient Society, with Kurt Bittel as field director. They continued from 1931 to 1939 and again after World War II.…

  • Puchta, Georg Friedrich (German jurist)

    Georg Friedrich Puchta, German jurist noted for his works on ancient Roman law. Puchta’s father, Wolfgang Heinrich Puchta (1769–1845), was a legal writer and district judge. From 1811 to 1816 the young Puchta attended the gymnasium at Nürnberg, and in 1816 he went to the University of Erlangen,

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