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  • Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (Macedonian king of Egypt)

    Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II, (Greek: “Ptolemy the Benefactor”) Macedonian king of Egypt who played a divisive role in trying to win the kingship, making himself subservient to Rome and encouraging Roman interference in Egypt. Ptolemy VIII ruled jointly with his brother, Ptolemy VI Philometor, in

  • Ptolemy X Alexander I (king of Egypt)

    Ptolemy X Alexander I, Macedonian king of Egypt (reigned 107–88 bce) who, under the direction of his mother, Cleopatra III, ruled Egypt alternately with his brother Ptolemy IX Soter II and around 105 became involved in a civil war in the Seleucid kingdom in Syria. Son of Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II,

  • Ptolemy XI Alexander II (king of Egypt)

    Ptolemy XI Alexander II, last fully legitimate Ptolemaic king of Egypt, who, after marrying Berenice III, Ptolemy IX Soter II’s widow, and joining her as coruler, murdered her and seized sole power. He was killed by the infuriated people of Alexandria. Ptolemy XI was a son of Ptolemy X Alexander I,

  • Ptolemy XII Auletes (Macedonian king of Egypt)

    Ptolemy XII Auletes, (Greek: “Flute Player”) Macedonian king of Egypt, whose quasi-legitimate royal status compelled him to depend heavily upon Rome for support for his throne. During his reign Egypt became virtually a client kingdom of the Roman Republic. He was the first Ptolemy to include Theos

  • Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (Macedonian king of Egypt)

    Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator, (Greek: “Ptolemy the Father-Loving God”) Macedonian king of Egypt and coruler with his famous sister, Cleopatra VII. He was killed while leading the Ptolemaic army against Julius Caesar’s forces in the final stages of the Alexandrian War. A son of Ptolemy XII Auletes,

  • Ptolemy XIV Theos Philopator II (Macedonian king of Egypt)

    Ptolemy XIV Theos Philopator II, (Greek: “Ptolemy the Father-Loving God”) Macedonian king of Egypt from 47 to 44 bc, coruler with his elder sister, the famous Cleopatra VII, by whom he was reportedly killed in 44 to make way for Ptolemy XV Caesar (Caesarion), her son by Julius Caesar. Following the

  • Ptolemy XV Caesar (king of Egypt)

    Caesarion, king of Egypt (reigned 44–30 bce), son of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra VII. Ptolemy was his mother’s co-ruler, killed by Octavian, later the emperor Augustus, after Cleopatra’s death in 30. Ptolemy was the child of Cleopatra and Caesar, although a few classical authors, perhaps for

  • Ptolemy’s Canon (ancient Mesopotamia)

    chronology: Mesopotamian chronology, 747 to 539 bc: …started is a text called Ptolemy’s Canon. This king list covers a period of about 1,000 years, beginning with the kings of Babylon after the accession of Nabonassar in 747 bc. The text itself belongs to the period of the Roman Empire and was written by a Greek astronomer resident…

  • ptomaine poisoning

    Food poisoning, acute gastrointestinal illness resulting from the consumption of foods containing one or more representatives of three main groups of harmful agents: natural poisons present in certain plants and animals, chemical poisons, and microorganisms (mainly bacteria) and their toxic

  • ptosis (physiology)

    Ptosis, drooping of the upper eyelid. The condition may be congenital or acquired and can cause significant obscuration of vision. In congenital ptosis the muscle that elevates the lid, called the levator palpebrae superioris, is usually absent or imperfectly developed. If severe and not corrected

  • PTRM (physics)

    rock: Types of remanent magnetization: In PTRM (partial thermoremanent magnetization) a sample is cooled from a temperature below the Curie point to yet a lower temperature.

  • PTS

    Pali Text Society, organization founded with the intention of editing and publishing the texts of the Theravāda canon and its commentaries, as well as producing English translations of many of those texts for an audience of scholars and interested readers. The Pali Text Society (PTS) was

  • PTSD (psychology)

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), emotional condition that sometimes follows a traumatic event, particularly an event that involves actual or threatened death or serious bodily injury to oneself or others and that creates intense feelings of fear, helplessness, or horror. The symptoms of

  • PTT (biochemistry)

    bleeding and blood clotting: Intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation: …simple laboratory test called the partial thromboplastin time (PTT), or, more accurately, the activated partial thromboplastin time. Plasma is collected and anticoagulated with citrate buffer; the citrate binds and effectively removes functional calcium ions from the plasma. Under these conditions, a fibrin clot cannot be generated. A negatively charged material,…

  • ptyalin (biochemistry)

    amylase: …other mammals, an alpha-amylase called ptyalin is produced by the salivary glands, whereas pancreatic amylase is secreted by the pancreas into the small intestine. The optimum pH of alpha-amylase is 6.7–7.0.

  • Ptychobranchiata (tunicate order)

    tunicate: Annotated classification: Order Stolidobranchia Gill with longitudinal vessels, folded. Class Appendicularia (or Larvacea) Adult small, pelagic, retaining larval notochord and tail; pharynx simple with two gill openings; no distinct atrium; about 70 species. Class Thaliacea

  • Ptychocheilus (fish)

    Squawfish, any of several edible fishes of the genus Ptychocheilus found in the rivers of western North America. They are the largest members of the carp family (Cyprinidae) in North America. Because of the offensive connotation attributed to the word “squaw,” these animals are also referred to as

  • Ptychocheilus lucius (fish)

    squawfish: The largest species, the Colorado River squawfish, or white salmon (P. lucius), may grow to about 1.5 metres (5 feet) with a reported weight of about 36 kilograms (79 pounds); because of changes in its habitat, this species has declined significantly and is considered endangered.

  • Ptychodactiaria (invertebrate order)

    cnidarian: Annotated classification: Order Ptychodactiaria Sea-anemone-like, lacking ciliated tract on edge of mesenteries and basilar muscles. Both poles. Order Scleractinia (Madreporaria) True or stony corals. Mostly colonial; calcareous external skeleton; no basilar muscles or siphonoglyphs. Mostly tropical and subtropical. Order Zoanthinaria (

  • Ptychomyia remota (insect)

    tachinid fly: …controlled by the Malayan tachinid Ptychomyia remota; and Centeter cinerea was transplanted to the United States to check the destructive Japanese beetle. The caterpillars of the armyworm may be up to 90 percent infested by larvae of the red-tailed tachinids (Winthemia).

  • Ptychoramphus aleuticus (bird)

    auklet: …plainest and grayest species is Cassin’s auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus), a common resident from the Aleutians to Baja California.

  • ptyctodont (placoderm)

    arthrodire: The ptyctodonts, relatives of the arthrodires, lived in the sea and possibly fed upon mollusks.

  • Ptyctodontida (placoderm)

    arthrodire: The ptyctodonts, relatives of the arthrodires, lived in the sea and possibly fed upon mollusks.

  • Pu (chemical element)

    Plutonium (Pu), radioactive chemical element of the actinoid series of the periodic table, atomic number 94. It is the most important transuranium element because of its use as fuel in certain types of nuclear reactors and as an ingredient in nuclear weapons. Plutonium is a silvery metal that takes

  • pu (coin)

    coin: China: …tao and on square Japanese pu coins and various new round coins.

  • pu (Daoism)

    Pu, (Chinese: “simplicity”; literally, “unhewn wood” or “uncarved block”) in the Daodejing—a classic of Chinese philosophy, religion, and literature composed about 300 bce—the major metaphor for a state of accord with the spontaneous (ziran) unfolding of the cosmos. The Daodejing advises rulers to

  • pu abu (toy)

    toy: History of toys: …in Papua New Guinea make pu abu, a whirling toy created from a flat piece of wood with a hole in the end to which the child ties a piece of string or grass so that the toy can be whirled around to produce a humming noise. (Similar toys are…

  • Pu Jianchen (Chinese author)

    Pu Songling, Chinese fiction writer whose Liaozhai zhiyi (1766; “Strange Stories from Liaozhai’s Studio”; Eng. trans. Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio) resuscitated the classical genre of short stories. Pu’s impressive collection of 431 tales of the unusual and supernatural was largely

  • Pu Liuxian (Chinese author)

    Pu Songling, Chinese fiction writer whose Liaozhai zhiyi (1766; “Strange Stories from Liaozhai’s Studio”; Eng. trans. Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio) resuscitated the classical genre of short stories. Pu’s impressive collection of 431 tales of the unusual and supernatural was largely

  • Pu Songling (Chinese author)

    Pu Songling, Chinese fiction writer whose Liaozhai zhiyi (1766; “Strange Stories from Liaozhai’s Studio”; Eng. trans. Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio) resuscitated the classical genre of short stories. Pu’s impressive collection of 431 tales of the unusual and supernatural was largely

  • Pu Xinyu (Chinese painter)

    Zhang Daqian: …with the well-known Beijing painter Pu Xinyu, and together they became known as the “South Zhang and North Pu,” an epithet that is still used to refer to their collaborative works of the 1930s.

  • pu yao (hairpin)

    jewelry: Chinese: They were called pu yao (“shaking while walking”) and were loosely made so as to sway when the wearer moved. Gilded bronze and silver were the principal materials. There are accounts of elaborate headdresses, some no doubt of the kind representing a complete phoenix such as are to…

  • Pu’er (China)

    Pu’er, city, southern Yunnan sheng (province), China. It is situated in a small basin among mountains some 5,000 feet (1,500 metres) in elevation, 19 miles (30 km) south of Ning’er (formerly Pu’er), the former centre of the Yunnanese tea trade, and about 355 miles (570 km) southwest of Kunming, the

  • Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō (volcanic vent, Hawaii, United States)

    Hawaii Volcanoes National Park: First the Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō vent, located southeast of Kilauea’s caldera on the national park’s boundary, produced lava fountains reaching heights of 1,540 feet (470 metres) into the air. Then in 1986 the eruption shifted 2 miles (3 km) to the northeast of Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō to the new…

  • Pu‘uhonua O Honaunau (archaeological site, Honaunau, Hawaii, United States)

    Honaunau: …archaeological remains, principally those of Pu‘uhonua O Honaunau (variously translated as “City, Place, or Temple of Refuge at Honaunau”).

  • Pu‘uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (national historical park, Hawaii, United States)

    Honaunau: …a national historical park (Pu‘uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park), which includes some 180 acres (75 hectares).

  • Pu‘ukūkae (volcanic mountain, Hawaii, United States)

    Puu Kukui, volcanic peak, Maui county, western Maui island, Hawaii, U.S. It is the highest peak (5,788 feet [1,764 metres]) of an 18-mile (30-km) stretch of mountains, the Honolua volcanic series, that dominates the western peninsula of Maui. Puu Kukui (Hawaiian: “Candlenut Hill”) was formed by a

  • Pu-abi (Sumerian queen)

    jewelry: Sumerian: …are those found in Queen Pu-abi’s tomb at Ur in Sumer (now called Tall al-Muqayyar), dating from the 3rd millennium bce. In the crypt the upper part of the queen’s body was covered with a sort of robe made of gold, silver, lapis lazuli, carnelian, agate, and chalcedony beads, the…

  • Pu-K’ung (Buddhist monk)

    Buddhism: All Souls festival: An 8th-century Indian monk, Amoghavajra, is said to have introduced the ceremony into China, from where it was transmitted to Japan. During the Japanese festival of Bon (Obon), two altars are constructed, one to make offerings to the spirits of dead ancestors and the other to make offerings to…

  • pub (drinking establishment)

    Public house, an establishment providing alcoholic beverages to be consumed on the premises. The traditional pub is an establishment found primarily in Britain and regions of British influence. English common law early imposed social responsibilities for the well-being of travelers upon the inns

  • pub rock (music)

    Pub rock, British back-to-basics musical movement of the early and mid-1970s that provided an alternative to progressive and glam rock. Although a relatively short-lived phenomenon, pub rock was notable both for returning rock to the small clubs of its early years and as a breeding ground for many

  • Pubballi (India)

    Hubballi-Dharwad: Hubballi (Hubli), or Pubballi (“Old Village”), developed around the 11th-century stone temple of Aharanishankar. Notable buildings include the Mahadi Mosque, the Bhavani Shankar Temple, and the city hall. Hubballi is a trading centre with cotton mills, ginning and pressing factories, and a large newspaper industry.…

  • puberty (physiology)

    Puberty, in human physiology, the stage or period of life when a child transforms into an adult normally capable of procreation. A brief treatment of puberty follows. (See also adolescence.) Because of genetic, environmental, and other factors, the timing of puberty varies from person to person and

  • pubescent phase (physiology)

    human behaviour: Physiological aspects: The onset of pubescence in both sexes occurs with the appearance of pubic hair, and this period ends when pubic hair development is complete. The peak velocity of growth in height and weight also occurs during this phase. This so-called growth spurt occurs about two years earlier in…

  • pubic bone (anatomy)

    bird: Skeleton: …which is fused with the pubis. All three serve as attachments for leg muscles and contribute to the acetabulum, which forms the articulation for the femur. The leg skeleton consists of the thighbone (femur), main bone of the lower leg (tibiotarsus), fibula, fused bones of the ankle and middle foot…

  • pubic louse (insect)

    Pubic louse, (Phthirus pubis), sucking louse in the human louse family, Pediculidae (suborder Anoplura, order Phthiraptera), that is found principally at the pubic and perianal areas, occasionally on the hairs of the thighs and abdomen, and rarely on other hairy regions of the human body. It is

  • pubis (anatomy)

    bird: Skeleton: …which is fused with the pubis. All three serve as attachments for leg muscles and contribute to the acetabulum, which forms the articulation for the femur. The leg skeleton consists of the thighbone (femur), main bone of the lower leg (tibiotarsus), fibula, fused bones of the ankle and middle foot…

  • public

    civil society: Origins and development: …of the notion of a public that is in possession of its own “opinion” in relation to matters of common concern became an increasingly prevalent way of thinking about civil society, particularly in connection with the emergence of forums and spaces where the free exchange of opinions was observable—newspapers, coffeehouses,…

  • public administration

    Public administration, the implementation of government policies. Today public administration is often regarded as including also some responsibility for determining the policies and programs of governments. Specifically, it is the planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling of

  • Public Administration, Institute of (institution, Costa Rica)

    employee training: …particularly successful project is the Institute of Public Administration in Costa Rica, whose task is to train the staff necessary to administer the coordinated regional economic development of Central America. Eleven former French-African territories have established national schools of administration, noticeably influenced by the school in Paris.

  • Public Against Violence (political group, Czechoslovakia)

    Vladimir Mečiar: …as a prominent member of Public Against Violence, an anticommunist opposition group, and became interim minister of the interior following the 1989 Velvet Revolution, which toppled communist rule in Czechoslovakia. In the June 1990 elections, Public Against Violence won a clear victory in Slovakia, and Mečiar became Slovak prime minister.…

  • Public Audience, Hall of (building, Fatehpur Sikri, India)

    Red Fort: …Hall of Public Audience (Diwan-i-Am), which has 60 red sandstone pillars supporting a flat roof, and the Hall of Private Audience (Diwan-i-Khas), which is smaller, with a pavilion of white marble.

  • Public Audience, Hall of (building, Agra Fort, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India)

    Agra Fort: In the Hall of Public Audience (Diwan-i-ʿAm), the emperor would listen to public petitions and meet state officials. The elegant marble walls of the Khas Mahal (the emperor’s private palace) were once adorned with flowers depicted by precious gems. Located to its northeast is the splendid Palace…

  • public bad (economics and society)

    public good: A public bad is similarly defined to be a “bad” that is non-excludable and nondepletable. For example, polluted air is a public bad, for the same reasons that clean air is a public good.

  • public bath (plumbing)

    Bath, process of soaking the body in water or some other aqueous matter such as mud, steam, or milk. The bath may have cleanliness or curative purposes, and it can have religious, mystical, or some other meaning (see ritual bath). The bath as an institution has a long history. Writings from

  • Public Broadcasting Act (United States [1967])

    National Public Radio: The 1967 Public Broadcasting Act created the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB), which in 1970 established NPR to provide programming to the nation’s noncommercial and educational radio stations, most of them situated at the low end of the FM radio dial. NPR broadcast its first program—live coverage…

  • Public Broadcasting Service (American organization)

    Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), private, nonprofit American corporation whose members are the public television stations of the United States and its unincorporated territories. PBS provides its member stations with programming in cultural, educational, and scientific areas, in children’s fare,

  • Public Broadcasting, Corporation for (American organization)

    National Public Radio: …Public Broadcasting Act created the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB), which in 1970 established NPR to provide programming to the nation’s noncommercial and educational radio stations, most of them situated at the low end of the FM radio dial. NPR broadcast its first program—live coverage of U.S. Senate deliberations on…

  • public building

    architecture: Governmental architecture: The basic functions of government, to an even greater extent than those of religion, are similar in all societies: administration, legislation, and the dispensing of justice. But the architectural needs differ according to the nature of the relationship between the governing and the…

  • Public Burning, The (work by Coover)

    Robert Coover: …mood of the early 1950s, The Public Burning (1976) is what Coover called a “factional account” of the trial and execution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. Among his other works were Whatever Happened to Gloomy Gus of the Chicago Bears? (1987), which casts Nixon as a simpleminded and lascivious football…

  • public carrier (transportation)

    carriage of goods: Common-law common carrier: …as common carriers may be public carriers, namely, professional carriers who do not hold themselves out as ready to serve the general public or persons who carry goods incidentally to their main business or for one consignor only. In the United States distinction is made among common carriers, contract carriers,…

  • Public Citizen (American advocacy organization)

    Ralph Nader: …of advocacy organizations, most notably Public Citizen. Nader’s Raiders became involved in such issues as nuclear safety, international trade, regulation of insecticides, meat processing, pension reform, land use, and banking.

  • public company

    business organization: Limited-liability companies, or corporations: …on the one hand and public companies or corporations on the other. English law also distinguishes between private and public companies for some purposes of company law; for example, a private company cannot have more than 50 members and cannot advertise subscriptions for its shares. Under the civil-law systems, however,…

  • Public Conduct and Character of John Adams, Esq., President of the United States, The (work by Hamilton)

    Alexander Hamilton: Out of the cabinet: …a personal attack on Adams, The Public Conduct and Character of John Adams, Esq., President of the United States. Aaron Burr of New York, the Republican candidate for vice president and Hamilton’s political enemy, obtained a copy and had it published. Hamilton was then compelled to acknowledge his authorship and…

  • public corporation

    business organization: Limited-liability companies, or corporations: …on the one hand and public companies or corporations on the other. English law also distinguishes between private and public companies for some purposes of company law; for example, a private company cannot have more than 50 members and cannot advertise subscriptions for its shares. Under the civil-law systems, however,…

  • Public Deb No. 1 (film by Ratoff [1940])

    Gregory Ratoff: Films of the 1930s and ’40s: …von Stroheim, and Lorre), and Public Deb No. 1, about a debutante (Brenda Joyce) who finds herself in trouble for attending a communist rally. Departing Fox, Ratoff signed with Columbia, and his first film for the studio was Adam Had Four Sons (1941), starring Bergman as a French governess who…

  • public debt

    Public debt, obligations of governments, particularly those evidenced by securities, to pay certain sums to the holders at some future time. Public debt is distinguished from private debt, which consists of the obligations of individuals, business firms, and nongovernmental organizations. A brief

  • public defender (law)

    Public defender, attorney permanently employed by a government to represent indigent persons accused of crimes. Public defenders, used primarily in the United States, are to be distinguished from assigned counsel (q.v.), who are private lawyers appointed by the courts to handle particular cases.

  • Public Demonstration (painting by Berni)

    Antonio Berni: An example of this is Public Demonstration (1934), which captures the desperation of Argentina’s working classes. The anguished faces of men, women, and a child crowd the image; one protester holds a sign that reads “pan y trabajo” (“bread and work”).

  • public diplomacy

    Public diplomacy, any of various government-sponsored efforts aimed at communicating directly with foreign publics. Public diplomacy includes all official efforts to convince targeted sectors of foreign opinion to support or tolerate a government’-s strategic objectives. Methods include statements

  • public domain (property law)

    copyright: …works would pass into the public domain. Similar laws were enacted in Denmark (1741), the United States (1790), and France (1793). During the 19th century most other countries established laws that protected the work of native authors.

  • public education

    civil rights: …services, the right to a public education, and the right to use public facilities. Civil rights are an essential component of democracy; when individuals are being denied opportunities to participate in political society, they are being denied their civil rights. In contrast to civil liberties, which are freedoms that are…

  • Public Enemies (film by Mann [2009])

    Christian Bale: In Public Enemies (2009), which also starred Johnny Depp and Marion Cotillard, Bale played Melvin Purvis, an FBI agent on the hunt for gangster John Dillinger. Bale later portrayed the drug-addicted brother of a promising boxer in the drama The Fighter (2010), a role for which…

  • Public Enemies (work by Houellebecq)

    Michel Houellebecq: In 2008 Ennemis publics (Public Enemies) documented an exchange of opinions—via e-mail—between Houellebecq and French public intellectual Bernard-Henri Lévy on a variety of subjects, including what they considered undeserved criticism.

  • Public Enemy (American rap group)

    Public Enemy, American rap group whose dense, layered sound and radical political message made them among the most popular, controversial, and influential hip-hop artists of the late 1980s and early ’90s. The original members were Chuck D (original name Carlton Ridenhour; b. August 1, 1960, Queens,

  • Public Enemy, The (film by Wellman [1931])

    The Public Enemy, American gangster film, released in 1931, that became a classic and propelled its lead, James Cagney, to stardom. The story traces the life of an impoverished young man, Tom Powers (played by Cagney), as he escalates from being a petty criminal to heading a murderous bootlegging

  • public enterprise

    Public enterprise, a business organization wholly or partly owned by the state and controlled through a public authority. Some public enterprises are placed under public ownership because, for social reasons, it is thought the service or product should be provided by a state monopoly. Utilities

  • public execution (penology)

    capital punishment: Historical considerations: Public executions were banned in England in 1868, though they continued to take place in parts of the United States until the 1930s. In the last half of the 20th century, there was considerable debate regarding whether executions should be broadcast on television, as has…

  • public expenditure (finance)

    government budget: Composition of public expenditure: Expenditures authorized under a national budget are divided into two main categories. The first is the government purchase of goods and services in order to provide services such as education, health care, or defense. The second is the payment of social security and…

  • public express trust (law)

    trust: Public express trusts are created to benefit larger numbers of people, or, at least, are created with wider benefits in mind. The most common public trusts are charitable trusts, whose holdings are intended to support religious organizations, to enhance education, or to relieve the effects…

  • public finance

    government budget: In national finance, the period covered by a budget is usually a year, known as a financial or fiscal year, which may or may not correspond with the calendar year. The word budget is derived from the Old French bougette (“little bag”). When the British chancellor of…

  • Public Finance Law (1947, Japan)

    government budget: Japan: Under the Public Finance Law of 1947, the general account of the national budget must be either balanced or in surplus. The government cannot increase its net long-term debt without special legislation, and then the increase must be tied to some specific investment use.

  • Public Force (Panamanian national police)

    Panama: Security: …civilian control and include the Public Force (PF) and the Technical Judicial Police, a special investigative unit. National defense is also entrusted to the PF, which has limited combat capabilities but some military components, including air and naval units. In the late 1990s concern was raised that Panama needed greater…

  • Public Friend (religion)

    Society of Friends: Polity: …given a special place to Recorded Ministers (or Public Friends). Recorded Ministers are those whose testimony in local meetings has been officially recognized; they are free to “travel in the ministry” by visiting other meetings, should they be led to do so. Pastoral meetings maintain their Recorded Ministers, who also…

  • public games and contests (recreation)

    sports: The socialization process: contests, and sports have crucial and quite specific roles in the general socialization process. The sense of self is not natural; it develops through childhood socialization as a result of role-playing. Influenced by George Herbert Mead and Jean Piaget among others, sociologists have identified two…

  • Public Garden (park, Boston, Massachusetts, United States)

    Boston: Postcolonial expansion: …was laid out as the Public Garden. That became a splendidly planted area with an artificial pond that is still traversed by swan-shaped excursion boats in the summer.

  • Public Gardens (painting by Vuillard)

    Édouard Vuillard: Vuillard’s Public Gardens (1894), a series of nine vertical decorative panels, is characteristic of his mature work as a Nabi. As was common among the artists in the group, who supported the idea of art as decoration, Vuillard was commissioned to create this series as panels…

  • Public Good (work by Paine)

    Thomas Paine: Life in England and America: In “Public Good” (1780) he included a call for a national convention to remedy the ineffectual Articles of Confederation and establish a strong central government under “a continental constitution.”

  • public good (economics)

    Public good, in economics, a product or service that is non-excludable and nondepletable (or “non-rivalrous”). A good is non-excludable if one cannot exclude individuals from enjoying its benefits when the good is provided. A good is nondepletable if one individual’s enjoyment of the good does not

  • public health

    Public health, the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting physical and mental health, sanitation, personal hygiene, control of infectious diseases, and organization of health services. From the normal human interactions involved in dealing with the many problems of

  • Public Health Acts (British law)

    public health: National developments in the 18th and 19th centuries: The Public Health Act of 1848 established a General Board of Health to furnish guidance and aid in sanitary matters to local authorities, whose earlier efforts had been impeded by lack of a central authority. The board had authority to establish local boards of health and…

  • public health care system

    Riyadh: Health: Throughout the city, public medical centres and hospitals provide free health care services, and there are a number of private clinics as well. Specialized medical services are available to treat patients with rare or extreme conditions. A number of procedures to surgically separate conjoined twins have been performed…

  • public health dentistry

    Public health dentistry, dental specialty concerned primarily with prevention of dental decay and of periodontal disease (disease of the tissues surrounding the teeth). Public health dentistry is practiced generally through governmentally sponsored programs, which are for the most part directed

  • Public Health Emergency of International Concern (public health declaration)

    Ebola outbreak of 2014–16: Escalation of the outbreak: …Chan pronounced the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern—only the third time that such a declaration had been made by WHO since its adoption of new International Health Regulations in 2005. The following day Guinea tightened border control with Liberia and Sierra Leone. The total number of cases…

  • Public Health Service (United States agency)

    public health: Variations among developed countries: …federal, or national, level, the Public Health Service of the Department of Health and Human Services is the principal health agency, but several other departments have health interests and responsibilities. Federal health agencies accept responsibility for improving state and local services, for controlling interstate health hazards, and for working with…

  • Public Health Service Act (United States legislation)

    Food and Drug Administration: …and the like; and the Public Health Service Act, which gave the FDA authority over vaccines and serums and justified the agency’s programs for milk sanitation and the inspection of restaurants and travel facilities.

  • public house (drinking establishment)

    Public house, an establishment providing alcoholic beverages to be consumed on the premises. The traditional pub is an establishment found primarily in Britain and regions of British influence. English common law early imposed social responsibilities for the well-being of travelers upon the inns

  • public housing

    Public housing, form of government-subsidized housing. Public housing often provides homes to people who earn significantly less than the average national income, though some countries do not set income ceilings. Public housing projects, which usually take the form of large apartment complexes

  • public image

    public relations: …is to project a favourable public image, one of corporate good citizenship; but this cannot be accomplished with lights and mirrors in an age of investigative journalism, and the first responsibility of public relations is to persuade management that the reality must correspond with the desired image. Public relations is…

  • Public Instruction Act (Australia [1880])

    Sir Henry Parkes: …Act of 1866 and the Public Instruction Act of 1880, which introduced compulsory free education and severed connections between the church and the public schools. In his ministries between 1872 and 1887 he established New South Wales as a free-trade colony. He was knighted in 1877. In his fourth administration…

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