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  • Psorothamnus spinosus (plant)

    smoke tree: Another smoke tree, Psorothamnus spinosus, is a spiny grayish green shrub of the pea family (Fabaceae), native to arid regions of southwestern North America. It has sparse foliage and bears bluish violet flowers in dense terminal spikes.

  • PSP (political party, Cuba)

    Communist Party of Cuba: The Cuban Communist Party (Partido Comunista Cubano) was founded in 1925 by Moscow-trained members of the Third International (Comintern). For three decades it adhered to the Stalinist line but, nevertheless, opportunistically collaborated with the regime of Fulgencio Batista in the 1940s and early ’50s, its members…

  • PSP (Portuguese police)

    Portugal: Security: The Public Security Police (Polícia de Segurança Pública; PSP) and the Republican National Guard (Guarda Nacional Republicana; GNR) are under the control of the Ministry of Internal Administration. The GNR includes the road police and has jurisdiction over rural areas. The PSP patrols urban areas and…

  • PSP (biology)

    Postsynaptic potential (PSP), a temporary change in the electric polarization of the membrane of a nerve cell (neuron). The result of chemical transmission of a nerve impulse at the synapse (neuronal junction), the postsynaptic potential can lead to the firing of a new impulse. When an impulse

  • PSP test (medicine)

    Phenolsulfonphthalein test, clinical procedure for the estimation of overall blood flow through the kidney; the test is used only infrequently now. A specific dose of the PSP dye is injected intravenously, and its recovery in the urine is measured at successive 15-, 30-, 60-, and 120-minute i

  • PSR 1257+12 (pulsar)

    PSR 1257+12, pulsar around which the first extrasolar planets were discovered in 1992. PSR 1257+12 itself was discovered in 1991 in the constellation Virgo by astronomers using the radio telescope at Arecibo Observatory. It is about 1,000 light-years from Earth and is a millisecond pulsar, rotating

  • PSR 1913+16 (binary star)

    gravitational wave: Theory and sources: radio-timing observations of a pulsar, PSR 1913+16, located in a binary star system with an orbital period of 7.75 hours. This object, discovered in 1974, has a pulse period of about 59 milliseconds that varies by about one part in 1,000 every 7.75 hours. Interpreted as Doppler shifts, these variations…

  • PSR B1257+12 (neutron star)

    planet: Planets of other stars: …rapidly spinning neutron star) called PSR B1257+12. The first discovery of a planet revolving around a star more like the Sun came in 1995 with the announcement of the existence of a massive planet orbiting the star 51 Pegasi. In the first 15 years after these initial discoveries, about 200…

  • PSR J1939+2134 (astronomy)

    pulsar: Rotation: The pulsar designated PSR J1939+2134 was the fastest known for more than two decades. Discovered in 1982, it has a period of 0.00155 second, or 1.55 milliseconds, which means it is spinning 642 times per second. In 2006 an even faster one was reported: known as J1748−2446ad, it…

  • PSS (political party, Switzerland)

    Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Swiss political party of the centre-left that supports an extensive government role in the economy. With the Christian Democratic People’s Party, FDP. The Liberals, and the Swiss People’s Party, the Social Democratic Party has governed Switzerland as part of

  • PSS

    meat processing: PSE meat: A genetic condition known as porcine stress syndrome (PSS) may increase the likelihood that a pig will yield PSE meat.

  • PSTN

    mobile telephone: Development of cellular systems: …transmitters and receivers with the public switched telephone network (PSTN) began in 1946, with the introduction of mobile telephone service (MTS) by the American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T). In the U.S. MTS system, a user who wished to place a call from a mobile phone had to search manually…

  • PSU (political party, Uruguay)

    Tabaré Vázquez: A lifelong militant in the Uruguayan Socialist Party (Partido Socialista del Uruguay; PSU), Vázquez became a member of the party’s Central Committee in 1987. In 1989, as the candidate representing the Broad Front (Frente Amplio; FA), an alliance of leftist parties, he ran successfully for mayor of Montevideo, generally considered…

  • PSU (political party, Italy)

    Italian Socialist Party, former Italian political party, one of the first Italian parties with a national scope and a modern democratic organization. It was founded in 1892 in Genoa as the Italian Workers’ Party (Partito dei Lavoratori Italiani) and formally adopted the name Italian Socialist Party

  • PSUN (political party, Colombia)

    Colombia: Colombia in the 21st century: …the principal founders of the Social Party of National Unity (Partido Social de Unidad Nacional), which was created by supporters of Uribe, most of whom, like Uribe, had left the Liberal Party. In July 2010 relations with Colombia were severed by Venezuelan Pres. Hugo Chávez in response to Colombian allegations…

  • Psusennes I (king of Egypt)

    ancient Egypt: The 21st dynasty: …father of the Tanite king Psusennes I. Some members of both the Theban priestly and the Tanite royal lines had Libyan names. With the coming of the new dynasty, and possibly a little earlier, the Meshwesh Libyan military elite, which had been settled mainly in the north by Ramses III,…

  • Psusennes II (king of Egypt)

    ancient Egypt: Libyan rule: the 22nd and 23rd dynasties: …secured special privileges from King Psusennes II (ruled c. 964–c. 950 bce) and the oracle of Amon for the mortuary cult of his father at Abydos. The oracle proffered good wishes not only for Sheshonk and his family but, significantly, also for his army. With a strong military backing, Sheshonk…

  • PSUV (political party, Venezuela)

    Movement of the Fifth Republic: …Chávez’s new political party, the United Socialist Party of Venezuela (Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela; PSUV), which was created by a merger of some of his coalition partners. The PSUV held its inaugural congress in January 2008.

  • PSV (political party, Suriname)

    Suriname: Political movements: The Progressive Suriname People’s Party (Progressieve Suriname Volkspartij; PSV) organized the working-class Creoles. Eventually, the South Asians and Indonesians were grouped respectively within the United Reform Party (later called the Progressive Reform Party [Vooruitstrvende Hervormde Partij; VHP]) and the Indonesian Peasants’ Party (now the Party of…

  • PSV Eindhoven (Dutch soccer team)

    Romário: …transferred to the Dutch club PSV Eindhoven, and the team captured both League and Cup championships in his first season (1988–89). His control, mobility, and vision—combined with his strength, fine body balance, and a surprisingly long stride—made him a potent striker, despite being just 5 feet 6 inches (1.68 metres)…

  • PSY (South Korean singer and rapper)

    PSY, South Korean singer and rapper. Originally known in his country as a controversial and satirical hip-hop artist, he achieved international fame in 2012 with the music video to his humourous pop song “Gangnam Style,” which became the first video to have more than one billion views on YouTube.

  • psych-folk (music)

    Devendra Banhart: …was variously branded neofolk, psych-folk, freak folk, and New Weird America. (The latter term was a takeoff on “Old, Weird America,” a phrase used by rock critic Greil Marcus to refer to the landscape of early 20th-century regional American folk music.) While the artists primarily associated with the sound—including Banhart,…

  • Psyche (classical mythology)

    Psyche, (Greek: “Soul”) in classical mythology, princess of outstanding beauty who aroused Venus’ jealousy and Cupid’s love. The fullest version of the tale is that told by the 2nd-century-ad Latin author Apuleius in his Metamorphoses, Books IV–VI (The Golden Ass). According to Apuleius, the

  • psyche (mirror)

    Cheval glass, tall dressing mirror, suspended between two pillars, usually joined by horizontal bars immediately above and below the mirror and resting on two pairs of long feet. The cheval glass was first made toward the end of the 18th century. The glass could be tilted at any angle by means of

  • psyche (human)

    philosophical anthropology: Early conceptions of the soul: …Sanskrit atman and the Greek psychē, it was often identified with breath; it was not so much immaterial as it was a finer, attenuated form of matter

  • Psyché (play by Corneille, Molière, and Quinault)

    Pierre Corneille: Years of declining power.: …and Philippe Quinault he wrote Psyché (1671), a play employing music, incorporating ballet sequences, and striking a note of lyrical tenderness. A year earlier, however, he had presented Tite et Bérénice, in deliberate contest with a play on the same subject by Racine. Its failure indicated the public’s growing preference…

  • Psyché (poetry by Weöres)

    Sándor Weöres: His later works included Psyché (1972), a collection of letters and poems by a fictitious 19th-century woman, and several verse dramas. He also edited Három veréb hat szemmel (1977; Three Sparrows with Six Eyes), an influential anthology of Hungarian poetry. In 1970 Weöres received the Kossuth Prize, the nation’s…

  • Psyche Abandoned (work by Pajou)

    Augustin Pajou: Pajou’s Psyche Abandoned (1791) offers an example of his graciously seductive style. It is one of the few creations in which he restrained his usual decorative style in favour of classical purity.

  • Psyche with Pandora’s Box (sculpture by de Vries)

    Adriaen de Vries: His Psyche with Pandora’s Box is a characteristic example of his style—shimmering satin finish, spiraling complexity, and a soaring grace.

  • Psyche with Three Cupids (work by de Vries)

    Western sculpture: Mannerist sculpture outside Italy: His “Psyche with Three Cupids” (Nationalmuseum, Stockholm) is a characteristic example of his stylishness—a wonderful satin finish, spiralling complexity, and a soaring grace reminiscent of Giambologna’s “Mercury”.

  • psychedelic drug

    Psychedelic drug, any of the so-called mind-expanding drugs that are able to induce states of altered perception and thought, frequently with heightened awareness of sensory input but with diminished control over what is being experienced. See also hallucinogen. One of the most common psychedelic

  • psychedelic rock (music)

    Psychedelic rock, style of rock music popular in the late 1960s that was largely inspired by hallucinogens, or so-called “mind-expanding” drugs such as marijuana and LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide; “acid”), and that reflected drug-induced states through the use of feedback, electronics, and

  • Psychiana (religious movement)

    Psychiana, religious movement that emphasized spiritual healing, prosperity, and physical and material happiness, founded in 1929 by Frank B. Robinson (1886–1948), a pharmacist of Moscow, Idaho. The son of an English Baptist minister, Robinson studied in a Canadian Bible school but later rejected

  • psychiatric disorder

    Mental disorder, any illness with significant psychological or behavioral manifestations that is associated with either a painful or distressing symptom or an impairment in one or more important areas of functioning. Mental disorders, in particular their consequences and their treatment, are of

  • psychiatric examination

    diagnosis: Mental examination: Psychological dysfunction and stress-related illness are a significant problem in today’s society. Anxiety and depression represent the two most common mental disorders and are responsible for a high degree of morbidity and mortality.

  • psychiatric hospital

    mental hygiene: Early institutions: The earliest known mental hospitals were established in the Arab world, in Baghdad (ad 918) and in Cairo, with that special consideration traditionally given disturbed people, the “afflicted of Allāh.” Some contemporary African tribes benignly regard hallucinations as communications from the realm of the spirits; among others, Hindu…

  • psychiatric treatment

    mental disorder: Treatment of mental disorders: References to mental disorders in early Egyptian, Indian, Greek, and Roman writings show that the physicians and philosophers who contemplated problems of human behaviour regarded mental illnesses as a reflection of the displeasure of the gods or as evidence of…

  • psychiatry

    Psychiatry, the science and practice of diagnosing, treating, and preventing mental disorders. The term psychiatry is derived from the Greek words psyche, meaning “mind” or “soul,” and iatreia, meaning “healing.” Until the 18th century, mental illness was most often seen as demonic possession, but

  • psychic energizer

    Antidepressant, any member of a class of drugs prescribed to relieve depression. There are several major classes of antidepressant drugs, the best known of which include the tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Other

  • psychic phenomenon

    Parapsychological phenomenon, any of several types of events that cannot be accounted for by natural law or knowledge apparently acquired by other than usual sensory abilities. The discipline concerned with investigating such phenomena is called parapsychology. Parapsychological phenomena of two

  • psychic trailing (animal behaviour)

    cat: Other traits: …performed such feats of so-called psi (psychic) trailing. Scientists have not been able to find a physiological or psychological explanation for this ability.

  •  ‘Psychical Distance’ as a Factor in Art and an Aesthetic Principle (essay by Bullough)

    aesthetics: The aesthetic experience: …position is Edward Bullough’s “‘Psychical Distance’ as a Factor in Art and an Aesthetic Principle,” an essay published in the British Journal of Psychology in 1912. While there is certainly something of interest to be said along those lines, it cannot be the whole story. Just what kind of…

  • Psychical Research, Society for (British science organization)

    parapsychological phenomenon: In 1882 the Society for Psychical Research was founded in London, followed six years later by the founding of a similar society in the United States, partly through the efforts of psychologist William James. Such societies were founded later in most European countries, and active work is carried…

  • Psychidae (insect)

    Bagworm moth, (family Psychidae), any of a family of insects (order Lepidoptera) that are found worldwide and named for the baglike cases the larvae construct around themselves. The bag ranges in size from 6 to 152 mm (0.25 to 6 inches) and is constructed from silk and bits of leaves, twigs, and

  • Psycho (film by Hitchcock [1960])

    Psycho, American suspense film and psychological thriller, released in 1960, that was directed by Alfred Hitchcock and is loosely based on the real-life killings of Wisconsin serial murderer Ed Gein. After secretary Marion Crane (played by Janet Leigh) impulsively absconds from her job with

  • Psycho (novel by Bloch)

    Ed Gein: …on Robert Bloch’s powerful 1959 book; The Texas Chain Saw Massacre (1974); and The Silence of the Lambs (1991).

  • Psycho (film score by Herrmann)

    Psycho, film score by American composer Bernard Herrmann for the 1960 film of the same name, directed by Alfred Hitchcock. Although Herrmann wrote many acclaimed film scores over his long career, none is as recognizable as the score he wrote for Hitchcock’s thriller; the shrieking string theme that

  • psychoacoustics

    Harvey Fletcher: …authority in the fields of psychoacoustics and acoustical engineering.

  • Psychoanalyse der Gesamtpersönlichkeit (work by Alexander)

    Franz Alexander: …book, Psychoanalyse der Gesamtpersönlichkeit (1927; The Psychoanalysis of the Total Personality, 1930), a work developing the psychoanalytic theory of the superego and praised by Sigmund Freud. His success in applying psychoanalytic principles to the study and diagnosis of criminal personalities brought him an invitation to the United States (1930), where…

  • psychoanalysis

    Psychoanalysis, method of treating mental disorders, shaped by psychoanalytic theory, which emphasizes unconscious mental processes and is sometimes described as “depth psychology.” The psychoanalytic movement originated in the clinical observations and formulations of Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund

  • Psychoanalysis of Children, The (work by Klein)

    Melanie Klein: In The Psychoanalysis of Children (1932), she presented her observations and theory of child analysis. Believing children’s play to be a symbolic way of controlling anxiety, she observed free play with toys as a means of determining the psychological impulses and ideas associated with the early…

  • Psychoanalysis of the Total Personality, The (work by Alexander)

    Franz Alexander: …book, Psychoanalyse der Gesamtpersönlichkeit (1927; The Psychoanalysis of the Total Personality, 1930), a work developing the psychoanalytic theory of the superego and praised by Sigmund Freud. His success in applying psychoanalytic principles to the study and diagnosis of criminal personalities brought him an invitation to the United States (1930), where…

  • Psychocandy (album by Jesus and Mary Chain)

    the Jesus and Mary Chain: … band whose landmark debut album, Psychocandy (1985), mixed cheery power-pop melodies with feedback-distorted guitar playing and the drone of sombre lyrics. Influenced by the Sex Pistols and the Velvet Underground as well as by the Beach Boys and Phil Spector-produced 1960s pop, the Jesus and Mary Chain created an arresting…

  • psychocultural interpretation theory

    ethnic conflict: Theories of ethnic identity: …Marc Howard Ross, drawing on psychocultural interpretation theory, defines ethnic identity as originating in “shared, deeply rooted worldviews” that shape group members’ relationships with others, their actions, and their motives. Ethnic identity cannot be changed, only made more tolerant and open-minded. Ethnic conflict engages central elements of each group’s identity…

  • Psychodiagnostics (work by Rorschach)

    Hermann Rorschach: …patients and 100 others in Psychodiagnostik (1921; Psychodiagnostics). The book attracted little attention before Rorschach died the next year, but his method was later widely adopted as a tool for psychological evaluation and diagnosis. The test is controversial, in part because the interpretation of results can be highly subjective.

  • Psychodiagnostik (work by Rorschach)

    Hermann Rorschach: …patients and 100 others in Psychodiagnostik (1921; Psychodiagnostics). The book attracted little attention before Rorschach died the next year, but his method was later widely adopted as a tool for psychological evaluation and diagnosis. The test is controversial, in part because the interpretation of results can be highly subjective.

  • psychodid fly (insect)

    Moth fly, (family Psychodidae), any member of a family of insects in the fly order, Diptera, that are small and mothlike and are commonly found around the openings of drain pipes. No more than 5 mm (0.2 inch) long, these flies have broad hairy wings that are held rooflike over the body when at

  • Psychodidae (insect)

    Moth fly, (family Psychodidae), any member of a family of insects in the fly order, Diptera, that are small and mothlike and are commonly found around the openings of drain pipes. No more than 5 mm (0.2 inch) long, these flies have broad hairy wings that are held rooflike over the body when at

  • psychodrama

    Psychodrama, group psychotherapeutic technique in which patients more or less spontaneously dramatize their personal problems before an audience of fellow patients and therapists, some of whom may also participate in the dramatic production. A stage setting is generally used, and the chief

  • psychodynamic therapy

    therapeutics: Psychodynamic therapies: Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud held that all behaviour is influenced by unconscious motivations and conflicts. Personality characteristics are thought to be shaped from the earliest childhood experiences. Psychological defenses are seen mainly as unconscious coping responses, the purpose of which is to resolve…

  • psychogalvanic reflex (neurophysiology)

    Psychogalvanic reflex (PGR), a change in the electrical properties of the body (probably of the skin) following noxious stimulation, stimulation that produces emotional reaction, and, to some extent, stimulation that attracts the subject’s attention and leads to an aroused alertness. The response

  • psychogenetics

    Behaviour genetics, the study of the influence of an organism’s genetic composition on its behaviour and the interaction of heredity and environment insofar as they affect behaviour. The question of the determinants of behavioral abilities and disabilities has commonly been referred to as the

  • psychogenic amnesia

    memory abnormality: Psychogenic amnesia: Some forms of amnesia appear to be quite different from those associated with detectable injury or disease of the brain. These comprise, first, amnesias that can be induced in apparently normal individuals by means of suggestion under hypnosis; and secondly, amnesias that arise…

  • psychogenic fugue (psychology)

    memory abnormality: Fugue states: The fugue is a condition in which the individual wanders away from his home or place of work for periods of hours, days, or even weeks. One celebrated case was that of the Rev. Ansell Bourne, described by the U.S. psychologist William James.…

  • psychogenic pain disorder (psychology)

    mental disorder: Psychogenic pain disorder: In psychogenic pain disorder the main feature is a persistent complaint of pain in the absence of organic disease and with evidence of a psychological cause. The pattern of pain may not conform to the known anatomic distribution of the nervous system. Psychogenic…

  • psychogenic shock (psychology)

    cardiovascular disease: Psychogenic shock: Psychogenic shock causes fainting, probably by initiating dilation of the blood vessels that perfuse the muscles. In this type of shock, blood pressure falls, the skin becomes cold and sweaty, and the pulse rate increases. A decrease in the amount of blood that is…

  • psychogenic stuttering (speech disorder)

    stuttering: Psychogenic stuttering is a rare condition that appears to occur almost exclusively in individuals who have experienced severe emotional trauma or who have a history of psychiatric illness. This form of stuttering is characterized primarily by the rapid repetition of initial word sounds.

  • psychograph (biography)

    Gamaliel Bradford: ), biographer who cultivated “psychography,” a new type of biographical writing that sought to portray the inner life of the subject by a skillful selection of important and interesting traits. Lee the American (1912) was the first of a series of successful “psychographs,” which included Portraits of Women (1916)…

  • psychography (biography)

    Gamaliel Bradford: ), biographer who cultivated “psychography,” a new type of biographical writing that sought to portray the inner life of the subject by a skillful selection of important and interesting traits. Lee the American (1912) was the first of a series of successful “psychographs,” which included Portraits of Women (1916)…

  • psychohistory (historiography)

    historiography: Biography and psychohistory: Like cliometrics, psychohistory was a fashionable methodology in the 1960s and ’70s but has become distinctly less fashionable since. It has to a degree been discredited by the excesses of some of its partisans, and its difficulties proved greater than most of its early advocates had expected.…

  • psychokinesis (psychology)

    Psychokinesis, in parapsychology, the action of mind on matter, in which objects are supposedly caused to move or change as a result of mental concentration upon them. The physical nature of psychokinetic effects contrasts with the cognitive quality of extrasensory perception (ESP), the other major

  • psycholinguistics

    Psycholinguistics, the study of psychological aspects of language. Experiments investigating such topics as short-term and long-term memory, perceptual strategies, and speech perception based on linguistic models are part of this discipline. Most work in psycholinguistics has been done on the

  • psychological anthropology (anthropology)

    Culture-and-personality studies, branch of cultural anthropology that seeks to determine the range of personality types extant in a given culture and to discern where, on a continuum from ideal to perverse, the culture places each type. The type perceived as ideal within a culture is then referred

  • psychological construct (psychology)

    Construct, in psychology, a tool used to facilitate understanding of human behaviour. All sciences are built on systems of constructs and their interrelations. The natural sciences use constructs such as gravity, temperature, phylogenetic dominance, tectonic pressure, and global warming. Likewise,

  • psychological continuity (metaphysics)

    personal identity: Traditional criticisms: …memory continuity was replaced by psychological continuity, which includes memory continuity as a special case. Psychological continuity consists of the holding of a number of psychological relations between person-stages—e.g., relations that hold when beliefs and desires produce, through reasoning, new beliefs, desires, intentions, or decisions—as well as the holding of…

  • psychological dependence (physiology)

    drug use: The nature of drug addiction and dependence: …embrace all the medical, psychiatric, psychological, sociological, cultural, economic, religious, ethical, and legal considerations that have an important bearing on addiction. Prejudice and ignorance have led to the labelling of all use of nonsanctioned drugs as addiction and of all drugs, when misused, as narcotics. The continued practice of treating…

  • psychological development

    Psychological development, the development of human beings’ cognitive, emotional, intellectual, and social capabilities and functioning over the course of the life span, from infancy through old age. It is the subject matter of the discipline known as developmental psychology. Child psychology was

  • psychological hazard (insurance)

    insurance: Underwriting principles: A psychological hazard exists when an individual unconsciously behaves in such a way as to engender losses. Physical hazards are conditions surrounding property or persons that increase the danger of loss.

  • psychological measurement

    Psychological testing, the systematic use of tests to quantify psychophysical behaviour, abilities, and problems and to make predictions about psychological performance. The word “test” refers to any means (often formally contrived) used to elicit responses to which human behaviour in other

  • psychological novel (literature)

    Psychological novel, work of fiction in which the thoughts, feelings, and motivations of the characters are of equal or greater interest than is the external action of the narrative. In a psychological novel the emotional reactions and internal states of the characters are influenced by and in turn

  • psychological projection (psychology)

    Projection, the mental process by which people attribute to others what is in their own minds. For example, individuals who are in a self-critical state, consciously or unconsciously, may think that other people are critical of them. The concept was introduced to psychology by the Austrian

  • Psychological Study of Religion, A (work by Leuba)

    study of religion: Psychological studies: In A Psychological Study of Religion he attempted to account for mystical experience psychologically and physiologically, pointing to analogies with certain drug-induced experiences. Leuba argued forcefully for a naturalistic treatment of religion, which he considered to be necessary if religious psychology was to be looked at…

  • psychological testing

    Psychological testing, the systematic use of tests to quantify psychophysical behaviour, abilities, and problems and to make predictions about psychological performance. The word “test” refers to any means (often formally contrived) used to elicit responses to which human behaviour in other

  • Psychological Types (work by Jung)

    Carl Jung: Association with Freud: …embodied in Psychologische Typen (1921; Psychological Types, 1923). Jung’s wide scholarship was well manifested here, as it also had been in The Psychology of the Unconscious.

  • psychological warfare

    Psychological warfare, the use of propaganda against an enemy, supported by such military, economic, or political measures as may be required. Such propaganda is generally intended to demoralize the enemy, to break his will to fight or resist, and sometimes to render him favourably disposed to

  • Psychological Wednesday Circle (psychological organization)

    Sigmund Freud: Sexuality and development: In 1902 the Psychological Wednesday Circle began to gather in Freud’s waiting room with a number of future luminaries in the psychoanalytic movements in attendance. Alfred Adler and Wilhelm Stekel were often joined by guests such as Sándor Ferenczi, Carl Gustav Jung, Otto Rank, Ernest Jones, Max Eitingon,…

  • Psychologie der Weltanschauungen (work by Jaspers)

    Karl Jaspers: Transition to philosophy: …some of his lectures, entitled Psychologie der Weltanschauungen (“Psychology of World Views”). He did not intend to present a philosophical work but rather one aimed at demarcating the limits of a psychological understanding of man. Nevertheless, this work touched on the border of philosophy. In it were foreshadowed all of…

  • Psychologie des foules, La (work by Le Bon)

    Gustave Le Bon: …La psychologie des foules (1895; The Crowd), his most popular work, he argued that the conscious personality of the individual in a crowd is submerged and that the collective crowd mind dominates; crowd behaviour is unanimous, emotional, and intellectually weak.

  • Psychologie économique (work by Tarde)

    Gabriel Tarde: His two-volume Psychologie économique (1902) stimulated the institutional economics of John Hobson in the United Kingdom and Thorstein Veblen in the United States.

  • Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkte (work by Brentano)

    Franz Brentano: …best-known and most influential works, Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkte (1874; “Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint”), in which he tried to present a systematic psychology that would be a science of the soul.

  • Psychologische Forschung (journal founded by Wertheimer)

    Max Wertheimer: …1921, with others, he founded Psychologische Forschung (“Psychological Research”), the journal that was to be the central organ of the Gestalt movement. Wertheimer returned to Frankfurt as professor of psychology (1929), directing research in social and experimental psychology. Wertheimer criticized the current educational emphasis on traditional logic and association, arguing…

  • Psychologische Typen (work by Jung)

    Carl Jung: Association with Freud: …embodied in Psychologische Typen (1921; Psychological Types, 1923). Jung’s wide scholarship was well manifested here, as it also had been in The Psychology of the Unconscious.

  • psychologism (philosophy)

    Psychologism, in philosophy, the view that problems of epistemology (i.e., of the validity of human knowledge) can be solved satisfactorily by the psychological study of the development of mental processes. John Locke’s Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) may be regarded as the classic of p

  • psychology

    Psychology, scientific discipline that studies mental states and processes and behaviour in humans and other animals. The discipline of psychology is broadly divisible into two parts: a large profession of practitioners and a smaller but growing science of mind, brain, and social behaviour. The two

  • Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist (work by Watson)

    John B. Watson: …appears in another major work, Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist (1919), in which he sought to extend the principles and methods of comparative psychology to the study of human beings and staunchly advocated the use of conditioning in research. His association with academic psychology ended abruptly. In 1920,…

  • Psychology of Imagination, The (work by Sartre)

    aesthetics: The role of imagination: The Psychology of Imagination) when he describes imagining as “the positing of an object as a nothingness”—as not being. In memory and perception we take our experience “for real.” In imagination we contribute a content that has no reality beyond our disposition to “see” it,…

  • Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field, The (work by Hadamard)

    Jacques-Salomon Hadamard: …of the mathematical mind, entitled The Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field. This richly informative book has run to several editions. Hadamard returned to France as soon as the war ended. Having lost his two older sons in World War I and another during World War II, he became…

  • Psychology of Learning, The (work by Guthrie)

    Edwin Ray Guthrie: …and presented his views in The Psychology of Learning (1935).

  • Psychology of Men of Genius (work by Kretschmer)

    Ernst Kretschmer: …and Geniale Menschen (1929; The Psychology of Men of Genius, 1931). In 1933 Kretschmer resigned as president of the German Society of Psychotherapy in protest against the Nazi takeover of the government, but unlike other prominent German psychologists he remained in Germany during World War II.

  • Psychology of Peoples, The (work by Le Bon)

    Gustave Le Bon: In Les Lois psychologiques de l’évolution des peuples (1894; The Psychology of Peoples) he developed a view that history is the product of racial or national character, with emotion, not intelligence, the dominant force in social evolution. He attributed true progress to the work of an…

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