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  • Providence Fountain (work by Donner)

    Georg Raphael Donner: …he produced his masterpiece, the Providence Fountain (1738–39) on the Neuer Markt. The figures originally cast in lead, a technique favoured by the artist, were replaced in 1873 by copies in bronze. Other Donner works are the Perseus and Andromeda Fountain in the courtyard of the Vienna Rathaus and a…

  • Providence Industrial Mission (mission, Nyasaland)

    John Chilembwe: …in 1900, he founded his Providence Industrial Mission to educate and instill discipline and pride in the Nyasa people of the district around Blantyre.

  • Providence Island Company (British company)

    John Pym: Life: …Pym was treasurer of the Providence Island Company, which sought to open trade with Spanish America—peacefully, if possible, by force, if not. From 1629 to 1640, during which period the king chose to rule without Parliament, this company brought together the men, mostly Puritans, who were to lead the Parliamentary…

  • Providence Journal (American newspaper)

    Rhode Island: Media and publishing: The Providence Journal (daily), founded in 1829, is the oldest continuously published major daily newspaper in the United States. Newport, Pawtucket, and Woonsocket have daily papers, and a number of other towns publish weekly newspapers. Other papers of note are Providence Business News (weekly) and Providence…

  • Providence Plantation (American history)

    United States: The New England colonies: …to become one colony called Providence Plantation in Narragansett Bay.

  • Providence: The Reconstruction of Social and Moral Order (work by Quinney)

    Richard Quinney: His book Providence: The Reconstruction of Social and Moral Order (1980) moved beyond neo-Marxism to religious and spiritual approaches later described as “prophetic.” By the late 1980s Quinney had begun to focus on peacemaking—he was particularly influenced by Buddhist views on suffering and the end of suffering—and…

  • Providencia, San Andrés y (department, Colombia)

    San Andrés y Providencia, island departamento, Colombia, consisting of the Andrés and Providencia islands and several small keys in the Caribbean Sea, 440 miles (710 km) northwest of Cartagena, Colom., and 110 miles (180 km) off the coast of Nicaragua. Three of the keys are also claimed by the

  • Providenciales (island, Turks and Caicos Islands)

    Providenciales, a main island of the Caicos group in the Turks and Caicos Islands, northwestern West Indies, between West Caicos and North Caicos islands. The limestone island comes to a narrow waist at Grace Bay, flaring to a breadth of approximately 5 miles (8 km) at the western end and 2 miles

  • Provident Hospital (hospital, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Fannie Barrier Williams: In 1891 Williams helped organize Provident Hospital and its training school for nurses, both interracial institutions. In May 1893 she gave an address on “The Intellectual Progress of the Colored Women of the United States Since the Emancipation Proclamation” to the World’s Congress of Representative Women (held in conjunction with…

  • Providentissimus Deus (encyclical by Leo XIII)

    Alfred Firmin Loisy: …first censure, Leo XIII’s encyclical Providentissimus Deus (on biblical scholarship), he refused to bow to this latest pressure and was excommunicated in 1908.

  • province (geology)

    Precambrian: Occurrence and distribution of Precambrian rocks: provinces, or blocks. Some examples include: the North Atlantic craton that incorporates northwestern Scotland, central Greenland, and Labrador; the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwean cratons in southern Africa; the Dharwar craton

  • province (ancient Roman government)

    Province, in Roman antiquity, a territorial subdivision of the Roman Empire—specifically, the sphere of action and authority of a Roman magistrate who held the imperium, or executive power. The name was at first applied to territories both in Italy and wherever else a Roman official exercised a

  • province (political subdivision)

    Belgium: Local government: …the administrative hierarchy are the provinces (Flemish: provincies), each of which is divided into arrondissements and further subdivided into communes (gemeenten). The provinces are under the authority of a governor, with legislative power exercised by the provincial council. The Permanent Deputation, elected from the members of the provincial council, provides…

  • Province Lands (Massachusetts, United States)

    Provincetown, town (township), Barnstable county, eastern Massachusetts, U.S., at the northern tip of Cape Cod. It is located among sand dunes within a fishhook-shaped harbour that was visited by the explorers Bartholomew Gosnold in 1602 and Henry Hudson in 1609. Before the Pilgrims founded

  • Province of Jurisprudence Determined, The (work by Austin)

    John Austin: Work: …part of his lectures, is The Province of Jurisprudence Determined, published in 1832. Here, in order to clarify the distinction between law and morality, which he considered to be blurred by doctrines of Natural Law, he elaborated his definition of law as a species of command. According to Austin, commands…

  • Provincetown (Massachusetts, United States)

    Provincetown, town (township), Barnstable county, eastern Massachusetts, U.S., at the northern tip of Cape Cod. It is located among sand dunes within a fishhook-shaped harbour that was visited by the explorers Bartholomew Gosnold in 1602 and Henry Hudson in 1609. Before the Pilgrims founded

  • Provincetown Players (American theatrical organization)

    Provincetown Players, theatrical organization that began performing in 1915 in Provincetown, Mass., U.S., founded by a nontheatre group of writers and artists whose common aim was the production of new and experimental plays. Among the original Provincetowners who staged the first plays in

  • provincia (ancient Roman government)

    Province, in Roman antiquity, a territorial subdivision of the Roman Empire—specifically, the sphere of action and authority of a Roman magistrate who held the imperium, or executive power. The name was at first applied to territories both in Italy and wherever else a Roman official exercised a

  • provincial examination (Chinese civil service)

    China: Later innovations: Those who passed the provincial examinations (juren) could be appointed directly to posts in the lower echelons of the civil service. They were also eligible to compete in triennial metropolitan examinations conducted at the national capital. Those who passed were given degrees often called doctorates (jinshi) and promptly took…

  • provincial forest

    National forest, in the United States, any of numerous forest areas set aside under federal supervision for the purposes of conserving water, timber, wildlife, fish, and other renewable resources and providing recreational areas for the public. The national forests are administered by the Forest

  • Provincial Freeman, The (Canadian newspaper)

    Mary Ann Shadd: The Provincial Freeman: …in freedom in Canada through The Provincial Freeman, a weekly newspaper first printed on 24 March 1853. This made Shadd, who was one of the first female journalists in Canada, the first black woman in Canada and North America to publish a newspaper. “Self-Reliance Is the True Road to Independence”…

  • Provincial Letters, The (work by Pascal)

    Blaise Pascal: Les Provinciales: Written in defense of Antoine Arnauld, an opponent of the Jesuits and a defender of Jansenism who was on trial before the faculty of theology in Paris for his controversial religious works, Pascal’s 18 Lettres écrites par Louis de Montalte à un provincial…

  • Provincial Medical and Surgical Association (British medical organization)

    medical association: …Surgeons of England, and the British Medical Association (BMA). The latter association, formed in 1832, initially represented rural physicians and specifically excluded London doctors or those associated with the Royal Societies. Now it chiefly represents general practitioners and has had great influence in shaping the provisions of the National Health…

  • Provincial Normal School (school, Toronto, Ontario, Canada)

    Egerton Ryerson: …for the creation of the Provincial Normal School in Toronto to provide professional training of teachers. Ryerson also saw to the establishment of the provincial Educational Depository (to supply schools and teachers with books and other teaching materials at reduced prices), the distribution of uniform textbooks, and the adoption of…

  • Provinciales, Les (work by Pascal)

    Blaise Pascal: Les Provinciales: Written in defense of Antoine Arnauld, an opponent of the Jesuits and a defender of Jansenism who was on trial before the faculty of theology in Paris for his controversial religious works, Pascal’s 18 Lettres écrites par Louis de Montalte à un provincial…

  • provinciano (Argentine society)

    unitario: …opposed to, and by, many provincianos (Argentines outside of Buenos Aires provincia), whose gaucho armies fought for decades to maintain federalism, which meant virtual autonomy for each province. Provincianos also demanded tariff protection for their nascent industries and the end of Buenos Aires’s status as the exclusive entrepôt of the…

  • Provincias Unidas de Centro-América (historical federation, Central America)

    United Provinces of Central America, (1823–40), union of what are now the states of Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. Since the 1520s these regions, along with the Mexican state of Chiapas, had composed the captaincy general of Guatemala, part of the viceroyalty of New S

  • Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata (historical state, Latin America)

    Buenos Aires: The independent capital: …was named capital of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. The more distant provinces of the former viceroyalty—Bolivia, Uruguay, and Paraguay—refused to become part of a new country dominated by the port city, however. For nearly 30 years, the provinces were held together by federalism, which meant…

  • proving ground (testing)

    Proving ground, area used for testing devices and equipment, usually, though not always, military. Testing, in general, has for its purpose the determination of the durability and probable life of a piece of equipment. the enforcement of standards through sample testing (for example, of

  • Provins (France)

    Provins, town, Seine-et-Marne département, Île-de-France région, north-central France. It lies in an agricultural region east-southeast of Paris. The older part of the city, the Ville-Haute (Upper Town), stands on a hill and is partly surrounded by medieval walls (12th and 13th-century). The Upper

  • provirus (bacteriology)

    episome: …become integrated is called a prophage. See lysogeny.

  • Provision for Family and Dependents (United Kingdom [1975])

    inheritance: Limits on freedom of testation: …extended by the Inheritance (Provision for Family and Dependents) Act of 1975. Under that act, the standard for provision for a surviving spouse is no longer limited to maintenance but is a reasonable share of the deceased’s estate. The class of applicants has been widened to include any person…

  • provisional ballot (election)

    voter ID law: …voter may be given a provisional ballot that is not counted unless the voter presents acceptable identification at an election office within a specified period of time). Voter ID laws are also sometimes said to be more or less strict with respect to the number of acceptable forms of identification…

  • provisional equilibrium (economics)

    monopoly and competition: Perfect competition: This way of reaching a provisional equilibrium price is what the Scottish economist and philosopher Adam Smith (1723–90) described when he wrote of prices being determined by “the invisible hand” of the market.

  • Provisional Government (Spanish government)

    Spain: The Second Republic: The Provisional Government was a coalition government presided over by Niceto Alcalá Zamora, a former monarchist converted to republicanism, whose Catholicism reassured moderate opinion. Another conservative Catholic, Miguel Maura, was minister of the interior. The coalition included all the groups represented at San Sebastián: Lerroux’s Radicals,…

  • Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic (Algerian government)

    Algeria: Nationalist movements: …the first premier of the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic.

  • Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish military organization)

    Irish Republican Army (IRA), republican paramilitary organization seeking the establishment of a republic, the end of British rule in Northern Ireland, and the reunification of Ireland. The IRA was created in 1919 as a successor to the Irish Volunteers, a militant nationalist organization founded

  • Provisional Military Administrative Council (political organization, Ethiopia)

    Ethiopia: Economy: The communist Derg regime, which ruled from 1974 to 1991, nationalized all means of production, including land, housing, farms, and industry. Faced with uncertainties on their land rights, the smallholding subsistence farmers who form the backbone of Ethiopian agriculture became reluctant to risk producing surplus foods for…

  • Provisional National Defense Council (Ghanaian government)

    Ghana: Series of coups: …second military coup established a Provisional National Defense Council as the supreme national government; at local levels, people’s defense committees were to take the campaign for national renewal down to the grass roots.

  • Provisional People’s Committee for North Korea (North Korean history)

    Korea: The northern zone: …in February 1946 by the Provisional People’s Committee for North Korea. This new agency, a de facto central government, adopted the political structure of the Soviet Union.

  • provisional remedy (law)

    procedural law: Provisional remedies: Lawsuits frequently take a long time, and the passage of time can itself be an injustice. A judgment in an action concerning whether the defendant has the right to cut down certain trees, for instance, will be of little value if, while the…

  • Provisional Revolutionary Government (Vietnamese history)

    Viet Cong: …Viet Cong to form the Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG). The movement’s principal objectives were the overthrow of the South Vietnamese government and the reunification of Vietnam.

  • Provisionals (Irish military organization)

    Irish Republican Army: …whereas the Provisionals, or “Provos,” believed that violence— particularly terrorism—was a necessary part of the struggle to rid Ireland of the British.

  • Provisions of the Landmark 2010 U.S. Health Care Reform Legislation, The

    After decades of discussion and sometimes venomous disagreements and a year of rancorous and polarizing debate, both in Washington and across the United States, the U.S. Congress narrowly enacted the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the most far-reaching health care reform since the

  • Provisors, Statute of (England [1351])

    Edward III: The years of decline: 1360–77: …had been the Statutes of Provisors (1351) and Praemunire (1353), which reflected popular hostility against foreign clergy. These measures were frequently reenacted, and Edward formally repudiated (1366) the feudal supremacy over England still claimed by the papacy.

  • Provisors, Statute of (England [1390])

    William Courtenay: He protested the second (1390) Statute of Provisors, which disapproved of ecclesiastical offices appointed by the pope; he condemned it as a restraint upon apostolic power and liberty.

  • provitamin (chemical compound)

    vitamin: Vitamin D group: …be formed from their respective provitamins by ultraviolet irradiation; in humans and other animals the provitamin (7-dehydrocholesterol), which is found in skin, can be converted by sunlight to vitamin D3 and thus is an important source of the vitamin. Both vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 can be utilized by rats…

  • provitamin A (vitamin)

    chemical compound: Ultraviolet and visible (UV-visible) spectroscopy: …bright orange colour of carrots, β-carotene, contains 11 conjugated π bonds. UV-visible spectroscopy is especially informative for molecules that contain conjugated π bonds.

  • provitamin D2 (chemical compound)

    Ergosterol, a white crystalline organic solid of the molecular formula C28H44O belonging to the steroid family. It is found only in fungi (e.g, Saccharomyces and other yeasts and Claviceps purpurea, the cause of ergot, a fungal disease of cereal grasses) and is chemically related to cholesterol.

  • PROVN (United States study and program)

    Harold K. Johnson: …study commissioned by Johnson, “A Program for the Pacification and Long-Term Development of Vietnam” (which came to be known as PROVN), was published by the army staff in 1966, and it denounced the Westmoreland way of war. The heart of its concerns was security for the people living in…

  • Provo (Utah, United States)

    Provo, city, seat (1852) of Utah county, north-central Utah, U.S. It lies along the Provo River between Utah Lake and the Wasatch Range, at an elevation of 4,549 feet (1,387 metres). Settled in 1849 by a Mormon colonizing mission sent by Brigham Young, its name was changed in 1850 from Fort Utah

  • Provo (island, Turks and Caicos Islands)

    Providenciales, a main island of the Caicos group in the Turks and Caicos Islands, northwestern West Indies, between West Caicos and North Caicos islands. The limestone island comes to a narrow waist at Grace Bay, flaring to a breadth of approximately 5 miles (8 km) at the western end and 2 miles

  • provocation (law)

    crime: Intention: Provocation is not generally a defense either, except in cases of murder, where evidence of a high degree of provocation (in English law, sufficient to provoke a reasonable person into acting in the same way as the accused) could result in a verdict of manslaughter,…

  • Provocations: Collected Essays on Art, Feminism, Politics, Sex, and Education (work by Paglia)

    Camille Paglia: …Sex, Gender, Feminism (2017), and Provocations: Collected Essays on Art, Feminism, Politics, Sex, and Education (2018).

  • provolone (cheese)

    Provolone, cow’s-milk cheese from southern Italy. Provolone, like mozzarella, is a plastic curd cheese; the curd is mixed with heated whey and kneaded to a smooth, semisoft consistency, often molded into fanciful shapes such as pigs, fruits, or sausages. The brown, oily rind of provolone is

  • Provoost, Samuel (American clergyman)

    Samuel Provoost, North American colonial and later U.S. clergyman, the first Protestant Episcopal bishop of New York. He was elected June 13, 1786, and was consecrated at Lambeth Palace, London, February 4, 1787, along with Bishop William White of Pennsylvania. After graduating in 1758 from King’s

  • Provos (Irish military organization)

    Irish Republican Army: …whereas the Provisionals, or “Provos,” believed that violence— particularly terrorism—was a necessary part of the struggle to rid Ireland of the British.

  • provost (French law)

    Provost, in French law, an inferior royal judge under the ancien régime, who, during the later Middle Ages, often served as an administrator of the domain. The position appears to date from the 11th century, when the Capetian dynasty of kings sought a means to render justice within their realm a

  • provost marshal general (military rank)

    military police: …head of the corps, the provost marshal general, is the chief law-enforcement authority on the staff of the Department of the Army.

  • prowfish (fish)

    perciform: Annotated classification: Family Zaproridae (prowfish) A single species (Zaprora silenus) like a shorter, deeper-bodied prickleback; pelvic fins absent; size up to 2.8 metres (9 feet); deeper coastal waters to 350 metres (about 1,150 feet), California to Alaska. Family Scytalinidae (graveldivers) Eel-like, with dorsal and anal fins soft-rayed and not

  • Prowse, Juliet (British actress and dancer)

    Juliet Prowse, British actress and tall, leggy dancer who captured the spotlight when Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev visited the set of the film Can-Can and proclaimed her dancing "immoral"; her romances with Frank Sinatra and Elvis Presley preceded a long stage and television career (b. Sept. 25,

  • proxemics (human communication)

    communication: Proxemics: Of more general, cross-cultural significance are the theories involved in the study of proxemics developed by an American anthropologist, Edward Hall. Proxemics involves the ways in which people in various cultures utilize both time and space as well as body positions and other factors…

  • proxenia (Greek official)

    diplomacy: Greece: Greek consular agents, or proxeni, were citizens of the city in which they resided, not of the city-state that employed them. Like envoys, they had a secondary task of gathering information, but their primary responsibility was trade. Although proxeni initially represented one Greek city-state in another, eventually they became…

  • proxenoi (Greek official)

    diplomacy: Greece: Greek consular agents, or proxeni, were citizens of the city in which they resided, not of the city-state that employed them. Like envoys, they had a secondary task of gathering information, but their primary responsibility was trade. Although proxeni initially represented one Greek city-state in another, eventually they became…

  • proxenos (Greek official)

    diplomacy: Greece: Greek consular agents, or proxeni, were citizens of the city in which they resided, not of the city-state that employed them. Like envoys, they had a secondary task of gathering information, but their primary responsibility was trade. Although proxeni initially represented one Greek city-state in another, eventually they became…

  • Proxima Centauri (star)

    star: Determining stellar distances: The nearest star to Earth, Proxima Centauri (a member of the triple system of Alpha Centauri), has a parallax of 0.76813″, meaning that its distance is 1/0.76813, or 1.302, parsecs, which equals 4.24 light-years. The parallax of Barnard’s star, the next closest after the Alpha Centauri system, is 0.54831″, so…

  • Proxima Centauri b (extrasolar planet)

    habitable zone: extrasolar planet, Proxima Centauri b, and three planets in the TRAPPIST-1 system, have been found that are both roughly Earth-sized and orbiting within the habitable zones of their stars. Astronomers have also used simulations of the climates of other extrasolar planets such as Kepler-452b to determine that they could…

  • proximal convoluted tubule (anatomy)

    renal system: Formation and composition of urine: As this liquid traverses the proximal convoluted tubule, most of its water and salts are reabsorbed, some of the solutes completely and others partially; i.e., there is a separation of substances that must be retained from those due for rejection. Subsequently the loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, and collecting…

  • proximal interphalangeal joint (anatomy)

    hammertoe: …at the middle joint (the proximal interphalangeal [PIP] joint), such that the overall shape of the toe resembles a hammer. Most cases of hammertoe involve the second toe, and often only one or two toes are affected. In rare cases when all the toes are involved, a thorough neurological assessment…

  • proximal muscle (anatomy)

    muscle disease: Signs and symptoms: …great as weakness of more proximal (closer to the body) muscles controlling the pelvic or shoulder girdles, which hold large components of the total body mass against the force of gravity. Weakness of the proximal muscles that control the shoulder blade (scapula), for example, results in “winging” (i.e., when the…

  • proximal row (anatomy)

    carpal bone: The proximal row articulates with the radius (of the forearm) and the articular disk (a fibrous structure between the carpals and malleolus of the ulna) to form the wrist joint.

  • proximal segment (anatomy)

    skeleton: Limbs: The proximal segment consists of a single bone (the humerus in the forelimb, the femur in the hind limb). The humerus articulates by its rounded head with the glenoid cavity of the scapula and by condyles with the bones of the forearm. Its shaft is usually…

  • proximate analysis (coal processing)

    coal: Chemical content and properties: …in the form of “proximate” and “ultimate” analyses, whose analytical conditions are prescribed by organizations such as ASTM. A typical proximate analysis includes the moisture, ash, volatile matter, and fixed carbon contents. (Fixed carbon is the material, other than ash, that does not vaporize when heated in the absence…

  • proximate cause (philosophy)

    animal social behaviour: A historical perspective on the study of social behaviour: …active, involving the investigation of proximate mechanisms (that is, behaviour triggered by immediate stimuli coming from the outside world or inside the body), the survival and reproductive consequences of sociality, and the evolution of human behaviour and cultural traditions. Social behaviorists today study a wide range of species from ants…

  • proximity (psychology)

    perception: Gestalt principles: Organization by proximity may not seem to reveal anything more than a close correspondence between perception and stimulation. (Though as argued by the Gestalt theorist Kurt Koffka, it is not an adequate explanation to say that “things look as they do because they are what they are.”)…

  • proximity fuse

    Proximity fuze, an explosive ignition device used in bombs, artillery shells, and mines. The fuze senses when a target is close enough to be damaged or destroyed by the weapon’s explosion. The sensor is typically a small radar set that sends out signals and listens for their reflections from

  • proximity fuze

    Proximity fuze, an explosive ignition device used in bombs, artillery shells, and mines. The fuze senses when a target is close enough to be damaged or destroyed by the weapon’s explosion. The sensor is typically a small radar set that sends out signals and listens for their reflections from

  • Proxmire, Edward William (American politician)

    William Proxmire, American politician (born Nov. 11, 1915, Lake Forest, Ill.—died Dec. 15, 2005, Sykesville, Md.), was a Democratic senator from Wisconsin who crusaded against governmental waste. He joined the Senate in 1957 after winning a special election to fill the seat of Joseph McCarthy. F

  • Proxmire, William (American politician)

    William Proxmire, American politician (born Nov. 11, 1915, Lake Forest, Ill.—died Dec. 15, 2005, Sykesville, Md.), was a Democratic senator from Wisconsin who crusaded against governmental waste. He joined the Senate in 1957 after winning a special election to fill the seat of Joseph McCarthy. F

  • proxy (law)

    Proxy, a term denoting either a person who is authorized to stand in place of another or the legal instrument by which the authority is conferred. It is a contracted form of the Middle English word “procuracie.” Proxies are now principally employed for certain voting purposes. A proxy may in law be

  • proxy (climatology)

    Little Ice Age: Geographic extent: Information obtained from “proxy records” (indirect records of ancient climatic conditions, such as ice cores, cores of lake sediment and coral, and annual growth rings in trees) as well as historical documents dating to the Little Ice Age period indicate that cooler conditions appeared in some regions, but,…

  • proxy battle (business)

    business organization: Separation of ownership and control: ) Occasionally, there are “proxy battles,” when attempts are made to persuade a majority of shareholders to vote against a firm’s managers (or to secure representation of a minority bloc on the board), but such struggles seldom involve the largest companies. It is in the managers’ interest to keep…

  • proxy war (armed conflict)

    Commonwealth of Independent States: A similar proxy war broke out in eastern Ukraine in 2014 after Russia’s illegal annexation of the Ukrainian autonomous republic of Crimea. By 2018 at least 10,000 people had been killed in clashes between Ukrainian armed forces and Russian-backed paramilitary units in the Donets Basin. In May…

  • Prøysen, Alf (Norwegian author)

    children's literature: Norway: …to brush their teeth; and Alf Prøysen, creator of Mrs. Pepperpot, a delightful little old lady who never knows when she is going to shrink to pepperpot size. Fantasy of this kind seems less characteristic of contemporary Norway than does the realistic novel, especially that designed for older children.

  • Prozac (drug)

    Prozac, trade name of fluoxetine hydrochloride, first of the class of antidepressant medications called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It was introduced by Eli Lilly pharmaceutical company as a treatment for clinical depression in 1986. Prozac is also used to treat a variety of

  • Prozess, Der (novel by Kafka)

    The Trial, novel by visionary German-language writer Franz Kafka, originally published posthumously in 1925. One of Kafka’s major works, and perhaps his most pessimistic, this surreal story of a young man who finds himself caught up in the mindless bureaucracy of the law has become synonymous with

  • Prozess, Der (opera by Einem)

    Gottfried von Einem: The opera Der Prozess (The Trial), a work inspired by Einem’s 1938 arrest and by Franz Kafka’s novel, was first performed in 1953. Einem composed several symphonic works for American orchestras, including the Philadelphia Symphony (1960). His opera Der Besuch der alten Dame (1970; The Visit of the Old…

  • PRPB (political party, Benin)

    flag of Benin: The Benin People’s Revolutionary Party expressed its socialist program in a red flag bearing a green star in the upper hoist. The national flag was exactly the reverse—a flag of green, representing the agricultural base of the economy, with a red star for national unity and…

  • PRPP (chemical compound)

    metabolism: Pyrimidine ribonucleotides: …phosphate moiety (reaction [73]) from 5-phosphoribose 1-pyrophosphate (PRPP); PRPP, which is formed from ribose 5-phosphate and ATP, also initiates the pathways for biosynthesis of purine nucleotides and of histidine. The product loses carbon dioxide to yield the parent pyrimidine nucleotide, uridylic acid (UMP; reaction [73]).

  • PRRA (United States agency)

    Puerto Rico: Political developments: The newly formed Puerto Rican Reconstruction Administration (PRRA) attempted to redistribute economic power on the island, primarily by placing a restrictive quota on sugarcane production and enforcing a long-neglected law that limited corporate holdings to 500 acres (200 hectares). Thus, the PRRA reversed the growth of the island’s…

  • PRSD (political party, Chile)

    Chile: Government: …of Chile’s strongest parties; the Social Democratic Radical Party (Partido Radical Social Demócrata; PRSD), which was formerly known as the Radical Party (the centrist PRSD drifted to the left after 1965, was repressed in 1973, but made a comeback in the mid-1990s under its new name); the Socialist Party of…

  • PRT

    mass transit: New technology: These personal rapid transit (PRT) systems function like “horizontal elevators,” coming to a station in response to a traveler’s demand and moving directly from origin to destination. Because of this service pattern and the small size of the vehicles, PRT systems indeed offer personalized service much…

  • Pṛthivī (Indian goddess)

    Hinduism: Cosmogony and cosmology: …Dyaus, impregnates the earth goddess, Prithivi, with rain, causing crops to grow on her. Quite another myth is recorded in the last (10th) book of the Rigveda: the “Hymn of the Cosmic Man” (Purushasukta) explains that the universe was created out of the parts of the body of a single…

  • Pṛthvīrāj Rāsau (poem by Chand Bardaī)

    South Asian arts: Hindi: …is the 12th-century epic poem Pṛthvīrāj Rāsau, by Chand Bardaī of Lahore, which recounts the feats of Pṛthvīrāj, the last Hindu king of Delhi before the Islāmic invasions. The work evolved from the bardic tradition maintained at the courts of the Rājputs. Noteworthy also is the poetry of the Persian…

  • Pṛthvīrāja-rāso (poem by Chand Bardaī)

    South Asian arts: Hindi: …is the 12th-century epic poem Pṛthvīrāj Rāsau, by Chand Bardaī of Lahore, which recounts the feats of Pṛthvīrāj, the last Hindu king of Delhi before the Islāmic invasions. The work evolved from the bardic tradition maintained at the courts of the Rājputs. Noteworthy also is the poetry of the Persian…

  • PRUD (political party, El Salvador)

    El Salvador: Military dictatorships: …in 1950, Osorio organized the Revolutionary Party of Democratic Unification (Partido Revolucionario de Unificación Democrática; PRUD) and launched a variety of reform projects, such as the development of hydroelectric facilities and urban housing projects. He also extended collective bargaining rights to urban workers, but, for the most part, the reforms…

  • Prud’hon, Pierre-Paul (French painter)

    Pierre-Paul Prud’hon, French draftsman and painter whose work bridges the Neoclassical spirit of the late 18th century and the more personal expression of 19th-century Romanticism. After training at Dijon, France, Prud’hon went to Rome (1784), where he became acquainted with the Neoclassical

  • Prudden, Bonnie (American physical fitness expert)

    physical culture: Bodybuilding: No less notable was Bonnie Prudden, whose message of health and vitality not only went out over the airwaves but led to the establishment of a weekly column in Sports Illustrated.

  • Prude, La (play by Voltaire)

    Voltaire: Later travels: … to his purpose, entitling it La Prude; he based Nanine (1749) on a situation taken from Samuel Richardson’s novel Pamela, but all without success. The court spectacles he directed gave him a taste for scenic effects, and he contrived a sumptuous decor, as well as the apparition of a ghost,…

  • Prudence in Woman (work by Tirso de Molina)

    Tirso de Molina: …analysis of mob emotion; in La prudencia en la mujer (1634; “Prudence in Woman”), with its modern interpretation of ancient regional strife; and in the biblical La venganza de Tamar (1634), with its violently realistic scenes.

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