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  • Prokhorov, Mikhail (Russian businessman)

    Mikhail Prokhorov, Russian businessman who made his fortune in the wake of the Soviet Union’s collapse by buying shares in formerly state-run corporations. He ran for the Russian presidency in 2012. Prokhorov’s father worked for the Soviet sports committee, and his mother was a chemical engineer.

  • Prokhorov, Mikhail Dmitrievich (Russian businessman)

    Mikhail Prokhorov, Russian businessman who made his fortune in the wake of the Soviet Union’s collapse by buying shares in formerly state-run corporations. He ran for the Russian presidency in 2012. Prokhorov’s father worked for the Soviet sports committee, and his mother was a chemical engineer.

  • Prokletije (mountains, Albania)

    Albania: Relief: The North Albanian Alps, an extension of the Dinaric Alps, cover the northern part of the country. With elevations approaching 8,900 feet (2,700 metres), this is the most rugged part of the country. It is heavily forested and sparsely populated.

  • Prokofiev, Sergey (Russian composer)

    Sergey Prokofiev, 20th-century Russian (and Soviet) composer who wrote in a wide range of musical genres, including symphonies, concerti, film music, operas, ballets, and program pieces. Prokofiev (Prokofjev in the transliteration system of the Russian Academy of Sciences) was born into a family of

  • Prokofiev, Sergey Sergeyevich (Russian composer)

    Sergey Prokofiev, 20th-century Russian (and Soviet) composer who wrote in a wide range of musical genres, including symphonies, concerti, film music, operas, ballets, and program pieces. Prokofiev (Prokofjev in the transliteration system of the Russian Academy of Sciences) was born into a family of

  • Prokop (Bohemian priest)

    Prokop The Bald, Bohemian warrior-priest who was the foremost leader of the Hussite Reformation forces in the later period of the Hussite wars. Initially Prokop was a conservative (Utraquist) priest, but then he joined the heretical religious movement that had sprung from the teachings of the

  • Prokop Holý the Shaven (Bohemian priest)

    Prokop The Bald, Bohemian warrior-priest who was the foremost leader of the Hussite Reformation forces in the later period of the Hussite wars. Initially Prokop was a conservative (Utraquist) priest, but then he joined the heretical religious movement that had sprung from the teachings of the

  • Prokop the Bald (Bohemian priest)

    Prokop The Bald, Bohemian warrior-priest who was the foremost leader of the Hussite Reformation forces in the later period of the Hussite wars. Initially Prokop was a conservative (Utraquist) priest, but then he joined the heretical religious movement that had sprung from the teachings of the

  • Prokop Veliký (Bohemian priest)

    Prokop The Bald, Bohemian warrior-priest who was the foremost leader of the Hussite Reformation forces in the later period of the Hussite wars. Initially Prokop was a conservative (Utraquist) priest, but then he joined the heretical religious movement that had sprung from the teachings of the

  • Prokopevsk (Russia)

    Prokopyevsk, city, Kemerovo oblast (region), central Russia, on the Aba River. A small village of 18th-century origin, it expanded rapidly in the 1920s to become the largest coal-mining centre of the Kuznetsk Basin, although it is gradually declining. There is a large coal-enriching plant, and coal

  • Prokopjevsk (Russia)

    Prokopyevsk, city, Kemerovo oblast (region), central Russia, on the Aba River. A small village of 18th-century origin, it expanded rapidly in the 1920s to become the largest coal-mining centre of the Kuznetsk Basin, although it is gradually declining. There is a large coal-enriching plant, and coal

  • Prokopovich, Feofan (Russian-Ukrainian theologian and writer)

    Feofan Prokopovich, Russian Orthodox theologian and archbishop of Pskov, who by his administration, oratory, and writings collaborated with Tsar Peter I the Great (1672–1725) in westernizing Russian culture and centralizing its political structure. He also directed the reformation of the Russian

  • Prokopovych, Teofan (Russian-Ukrainian theologian and writer)

    Feofan Prokopovich, Russian Orthodox theologian and archbishop of Pskov, who by his administration, oratory, and writings collaborated with Tsar Peter I the Great (1672–1725) in westernizing Russian culture and centralizing its political structure. He also directed the reformation of the Russian

  • Prokopyevsk (Russia)

    Prokopyevsk, city, Kemerovo oblast (region), central Russia, on the Aba River. A small village of 18th-century origin, it expanded rapidly in the 1920s to become the largest coal-mining centre of the Kuznetsk Basin, although it is gradually declining. There is a large coal-enriching plant, and coal

  • Prokosch, Frederic (American writer)

    Frederic Prokosch, American writer who became famous for his early novels and whose literary stature subsequently rose as his fame declined. The precocious son of a respected linguist-philologist and a concert pianist, Prokosch spent his childhood in the United States, Germany, France, and Austria.

  • prokuratura (Russian and Soviet history)

    Procuracy, in the former Soviet legal system, a government bureau concerned with ensuring administrative legality. The Soviet constitution invested the procurator general (Russian: generalny prokuror) with the responsibility of supervising the observance of the law by all government ministries a

  • prolactin (physiology)

    Prolactin, a protein hormone produced by the pituitary gland of mammals that acts with other hormones to initiate secretion of milk by the mammary glands. On the evolutionary scale, prolactin is an ancient hormone serving multiple roles in mediating the care of progeny (sometimes called the

  • prolactinoma (pathology)

    prolactin: Prolactin deficiency and excess: Prolactinomas are the most common type of hormone-secreting pituitary tumour. They are four to five times more common in women than in men. However, prolactinomas tend to be larger in men at the time of diagnosis. This difference is explained by the fact that menstrual…

  • prolamin (protein)

    Prolamin, any of certain seed proteins known as globulins that are insoluble in water but soluble in water-ethanol mixtures. Prolamins contain large amounts of the amino acids proline and glutamine (from which the name prolamin is derived) but only small amounts of arginine, lysine, and histidine.

  • prolamine (protein)

    Prolamin, any of certain seed proteins known as globulins that are insoluble in water but soluble in water-ethanol mixtures. Prolamins contain large amounts of the amino acids proline and glutamine (from which the name prolamin is derived) but only small amounts of arginine, lysine, and histidine.

  • prolapse (physiology)

    Prolapse, a downward protrusion of an internal organ out of its normal cavity. The term is usually applied to protrusion of the rectum or of the uterus outside the body. In either case, the prolapse follows progressive weakening of the muscles, ligaments, and other supporting tissues around the

  • prolate spheroid (geometry)

    ellipsoid: …less, the surface is a prolate spheroid.

  • prolatio (music)

    mensural notation: …or three semibreves (𝆺); and prolatio, division of the semibreve into two or three minima (𝆺𝅥). Time signatures (q.v.) showed tempus and prolatio. Coloration, at first red, then white, notes (such as , 𝅆, 𝆹, ) indicated specific changes in note

  • Prolation Mass (work by Okeghem)

    canon: …composer Jean d’Okeghem composed his Missa prolationum (Prolation Mass) as a canon cycle in which a double canon is combined with a mensuration canon: two two-part canons proceed simultaneously at different rates of speed (i.e., mensurations).

  • proleg (anatomy)

    dipteran: Larvae: …larvae have “false legs” (prolegs or pseudopods) similar to those that support the fleshy abdomen of a caterpillar. Flies, much more versatile in this respect than caterpillars, can have prolegs around any body segment. Prolegs help the larvae crawl through narrow spaces or push through soil.

  • Prolegomena to an Idealist Theory of Knowledge (work by Smith)

    idealism: Types of philosophical idealism: …Kantian scholar Norman Kemp Smith’s Prolegomena to an Idealist Theory of Knowledge (1924) is an excellent example, covers all idealistic theories of epistemology, or knowledge.

  • Prolegomena zu einer wissenschaftlichen Mythologie (work by Müller)

    Karl Otfried Müller: …the more noteworthy are his Prolegomena zu einer wissenschaftlichen Mythologie (1825; “Prolegomena to a Scientific Mythology”), which prepared the way for the scientific investigation of myths, and his edition of Aeschylus’ Eumenides (1833), in which he attacks the prevalent philological criticisms of the classics. As political troubles made his position…

  • Prolemur simus (primate)

    lemur: Lemur diversity: …Hapalemur), and the highly endangered greater bamboo lemurs (Prolemur simus) feed on bamboo stems in the eastern and northwestern rainforests of the island.

  • prolepsis (literature)

    Prolepsis, a figure of speech in which a future act or development is represented as if already accomplished or existing. The following lines from John Keats’s “Isabella” (1820), for example, proleptically anticipate the assassination of a living character: The word may also refer to the

  • prolepsis (philosophy)

    Epicureanism: Doctrine of Epicurus: …may be called concepts (prolēpsis), which consist of “a recollection of what has often been presented from without …” Therefore, one must always cling to that “which was originally thought” in relation to every single “term” and which constitutes its background. Since the truth attested by each of the…

  • proletarian novel

    novel: Proletarian: The novel that, like Dickens’ Hard Times (1854), presents the lives of workingmen or other members of the lower orders is not necessarily an example of proletarian fiction. The category properly springs out of direct experience of proletarian life and is not available to…

  • Proletarian Theater (theatre, La Louvìere, Belgium)

    Jean Louvet: …in 1960–61, Louvet cofounded the Proletarian Theater of La Louvière, where his plays were first produced. His first work, Le Train du bon Dieu (1962; “The Good Lord’s Train”) is a didactic, fragmentary vision of working-class alienation. Among his many plays that followed are L’An I (1963; “The Year One”),…

  • Proletarian-Revolutionary Writers, Union of (German organization)

    Ludwig Renn: …Linkskurve, the journal of the Union of Proletarian-Revolutionary Writers (1929–32), of which he was also secretary. He also taught war history during that period at the Marxist Workers’ School in Berlin. His Nachkrieg (1930; After War), a novel about the postwar Weimar Republic, mirrors Renn’s political beliefs. For his teaching…

  • proletarianization (labour)

    division of labour: …a decrease in skills—known as proletarianization—among the working population. The Scottish economist Adam Smith saw this splitting of tasks as a key to economic progress by providing a cheaper and more efficient means of producing goods.

  • proletariat (social class)

    Proletariat, the lowest or one of the lowest economic and social classes in a society. In ancient Rome the proletariat consisted of the poor landless freemen. It included artisans and small tradesmen who had been gradually impoverished by the extension of slavery. The proletariat (literally

  • proletariat, dictatorship of the (Marxist doctrine)

    Dictatorship of the proletariat, in Marxism, rule by the proletariat—the economic and social class consisting of industrial workers who derive income solely from their labour—during the transitional phase between the abolition of capitalism and the establishment of communism. During this

  • proletarii (ancient social class)

    ancient Rome: The popular assemblies: …one of which comprised the proletarii, or landless people too poor to serve in the army. The knights voted together with the first class, and voting proceeded from richest to poorest. Because the knights and the first class controlled 98 units, they were the dominant group in the assembly, though…

  • Proletarskaya Kultura (Soviet organization)

    Proletkult, (Russian: “Proletarian Culture”), organization established in the Soviet Union in 1917 to provide the foundations for a truly proletarian art—i.e., one that would be created by proletarians for proletarians and would be free of all vestiges of bourgeois culture. Its leading t

  • Proletkult (Soviet organization)

    Proletkult, (Russian: “Proletarian Culture”), organization established in the Soviet Union in 1917 to provide the foundations for a truly proletarian art—i.e., one that would be created by proletarians for proletarians and would be free of all vestiges of bourgeois culture. Its leading t

  • Proletkult Theatre (Soviet theatrical company)

    Sergei Eisenstein: …he entered, in 1920, the Proletkult Theatre (Theatre of the People) in Moscow as an assistant decorator. He rapidly became the principal decorator and then the codirector. As such, he designed the costumes and the scenery for several notable productions. At the same time, he developed a strong interest in…

  • proliferative cell (physiology)

    aging: Tissue cell loss and replacement: …up of a population of proliferative cells, which retain the capability for division, and a population of mature cells, produced by the proliferative cells and with limited life spans. The production of cells must balance the steady loss and also compensate quickly for unusual losses caused by injury or disease,…

  • proliferative phase (pathology)

    therapeutics: Wound treatment: In the proliferative phase, the fibroblasts produce collagen that increases wound strength, new epithelial cells cover the wound area, and capillaries join to form new blood vessels. In the late phase, the production of new and stronger collagen remodels the scar, blood vessels enlarge, and the epithelium…

  • proline (chemical compound)

    Proline, an amino acid obtained by hydrolysis of proteins. Its molecule contains a secondary amino group (>NH) rather than the primary amino group (>NH2) characteristic of most amino acids. Unlike other amino acids, proline, first isolated from casein (1901), is readily soluble in alcohol.

  • Proliv Beringa (strait, Pacific Ocean)

    Bering Strait, strait linking the Arctic Ocean with the Bering Sea and separating the continents of Asia and North America at their closest point. The strait averages 98 to 164 feet (30 to 50 metres) in depth and at its narrowest is about 53 miles (85 km) wide. There are numerous islands in the

  • Proliv Laperuza (waterway, Russia-Japan)

    La Perouse Strait, international waterway between the islands of Sakhalin (Russia) and Hokkaido (Japan). The strait, named after the French explorer Jean-François de Galaup, Count de La Pérouse, separates the Sea of Okhotsk from the Sea of Japan. It is 27 miles (43 km) wide at its narrowest part,

  • Pröll, Annemarie (Austrian skier)

    Annemarie Moser-Pröll, Austrian Alpine skier who held the all-time record of six women’s World Cup championships, five in succession (1971–75). Pröll skied from the age of four. She tried out for the Austrian national ski team at the age of 15. Her Olympic Winter Games success came late. She won

  • PROLOG (computer language)

    artificial intelligence programming language: The logic programming language PROLOG (Programmation en Logique) was conceived by Alain Colmerauer at the University of Aix-Marseille, France, where the language was first implemented in 1973. PROLOG was further developed by the logician Robert Kowalski, a member of the AI group at the University of Edinburgh. This language…

  • Prologos sti zoi (work by Sikelianos)

    Angelos Sikelianós: …introduced by the philosophic poem Prólogos sti zoí (1917; “Prologue to Life”) and includes the long works Meter Theou (“Mother of God”) and Pascha ton Hellenon (“The Greek Easter”), culminating in the Delphikós lógos (1927; “Delphic Utterance”). In the last, Greek tradition and the national historic and religious symbols are…

  • prologue (literature)

    Prologue, a preface or introduction to a literary work. In a dramatic work, the term describes a speech, often in verse, addressed to the audience by one or more of the actors at the opening of a play. The ancient Greek prologos was of wider significance than the modern prologue, effectually taking

  • Prologue d’une révolution (work by Ménard)

    Louis-Nicolas Ménard: …prison in 1849 for his Prologue d’une révolution, which contained radical political opinions and his reminiscences of the June 1848 insurrections in Paris, in which he played an active part. He escaped abroad, returning to Paris in 1852. Thereafter he devoted himself to classical studies. He spent several years painting…

  • Prologue, The (poem by Bradstreet)
  • prolusion (academic exercise)

    John Milton: Early life and education: …composed several academic exercises called prolusions, which were presented as oratorical performances in the manner of a debate. In such exercises, students applied their learning in logic and rhetoric, among other disciplines. Milton authorized publication of seven of his prolusions, composed and recited in Latin, in 1674, the year of…

  • prolyl hydroxylation (biology)

    William G. Kaelin, Jr.: …a chemical modification known as prolyl hydroxylation in the VHL protein facilitates cellular responses to changing oxygen availability. In the presence of oxygen, the modified VHL protein binds to another protein, known as hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), which stimulates cell proliferation when oxygen is scarce. At normal oxygen levels, VHL binding…

  • Prome (Myanmar)

    Pyay, town, southern Myanmar (Burma), on the Irrawaddy River. It is a trading centre and the site of a diesel electric plant. The name Prome is a mispronunciation of the town’s Burmese name by non-Burmese natives and the British; it has become so conventional as to be virtually official. The

  • ProMED-mail (medical network)

    ProMED-mail, global Internet-driven reporting network used to warn of potential outbreaks of infectious disease and of exposures to toxic substances of animals or plants intended for human consumption. ProMED-mail was established as a nonprofit project in 1994 by the Federation of American

  • promenade

    Promenade, place for strolling, where persons walk (or, in the past, ride) at leisure for exercise, display, or pleasure. Vehicular traffic may or may not be restricted. Promenades are located in resort towns and in parks and are public avenues landscaped in a pleasing manner or commanding a view.

  • promenade á deux (biology)

    scorpion: Reproduction and life cycle: …in a dancelike motion called promenade à deux. These actions result from the efforts of the pair to find a smooth surface on which the male can extrude a glandular secretion that forms a stalk to which the spermatophore (sperm-containing structure) is attached. He then maneuvers the female so that…

  • Promenade des Anglais (work by Model)

    Lisette Model: In 1934 Model produced Promenade des Anglais, a series of startling, satiric portraits of the idle rich named for its setting, the road that runs along the seafront in Nice, France. These images, a selection of which appeared in the French journal Regards in 1935 and later in the…

  • Promenade Plantée (parkway and promenade, Paris, France)

    Promenade Plantée, (French: “Planted Promenade”) partially elevated parkway and promenade built along an abandoned rail line and viaduct in the 12th arrondissement (municipal district) of Paris, France. The Promenade Plantée was the world’s first elevated park (first phase completed in 1994) and

  • promeristem (plant anatomy)

    plant development: The shoot tip: …zone of tissue called the promeristem. Regularities may appear in the distribution of division planes only in the extreme tip region. Over the outer part of the apex, the cells often appear to lie in one to three layers, which constitute the tunica. Enclosed by the tunica lies a core…

  • Promerops cafer (bird)

    scrubland: Biota: …as sunbirds (Nectarina) and the Cape Sugarbird (Promerops cafer)—animals with which they have coevolved (see community ecology: The coevolutionary process). Seed dispersal by ants occurs in an unusually large number of the plant species of the fynbos.

  • PROMESA (United States [2016])

    Puerto Rico: The debate over political status: …Obama signed into law the Puerto Rico Oversight, Management and Economic Stability Act (PROMESA), which authorized the Puerto Rican government to restructure more than $70 billion in debt. The act also created a federally appointed seven-member oversight board to control Puerto Rico’s finances, a stipulation that was only grudgingly accepted…

  • Promesse, La (film by Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne [1996])

    Dardenne brothers: Art-house favourite La Promesse (1996; The Promise), about a teenage boy’s attempts to make good on his pledge to a dying man, was widely regarded as the brothers’ breakout film.

  • promessi sposi, I (novel by Manzoni)

    I promessi sposi, novel by Alessandro Manzoni, published in three volumes in 1825–26; the complete edition was issued in 1827. It was initially translated into English as The Betrothed Lovers, but it was more commonly translated as simply The Betrothed. Set in early 17th-century Lombardy during the

  • promessi sposi, I (opera by Ponchielli)

    Amilcare Ponchielli: …and produced his first opera, I promessi sposi (“The Betrothed”; based on the novel by Alessandro Manzoni), in 1856; its revised version was popular in Italy and abroad. Between 1873 and 1875 he wrote two ballets and four operas. La gioconda (1876), with a libretto by Arrigo Boito based on…

  • prometaphase (biology)

    cell: Mitosis and cytokinesis: In prometaphase the nuclear envelope breaks down (in many but not all eukaryotes) and the chromosomes attach to the mitotic spindle. Both chromatids of each chromosome attach to the spindle at a specialized chromosomal region called the kinetochore. In metaphase the condensed chromosomes align in a…

  • Prometeo (Spanish literary magazine)

    Ramón Gómez de la Serna: …founded the important literary magazine Prometeo and wrote more than 100 books and countless articles in leading European and South American newspapers and journals. His Dalí (1977; Eng. trans., 1979) reflects the surrealism of both the artist and the author.

  • promethazine (drug)

    Promethazine, synthetic drug used to counteract the histamine reaction, as in allergies. Promethazine, introduced into medicine in the 1940s, is used in the form of its hydrochloride. It is administered orally in tablets and syrups and intramuscularly in an aqueous solution. Promethazine is

  • Promethea (comic book by Moore)

    America's Best Comics: … (with artist Chris Sprouse) and Promethea (with artist J.H. Williams III). Tom Strong is a benevolent warrior–wise man in the Doc Savage mold from which Superman himself was cast; Promethea, a kind of self-made muse, is a spirit of creativity, with roots in personified patron saints from pagan myth (Athena)…

  • promethea moth (insect)

    saturniid moth: The promethea moth (Callosamia promethea)—also called spicebush moth because the larvae feed on spicebush, sassafras, lilac, and related plants is a common North American saturniid moth. The female moth is maroon in colour, and the male is dark brown. The cocoon, formed inside a leaf, is…

  • promethean match (match)

    match: …which culminated in the “promethean match” patented in 1828 by Samuel Jones of London. This consisted of a glass bead containing acid, the outside of which was coated with igniting composition. When the glass was broken by means of a small pair of pliers, or even with the user’s…

  • Prometheus (Greek god)

    Prometheus, in Greek religion, one of the Titans, the supreme trickster, and a god of fire. His intellectual side was emphasized by the apparent meaning of his name, Forethinker. In common belief he developed into a master craftsman, and in this connection he was associated with fire and the

  • Prometheus (moon of Saturn)

    Saturn: Orbital and rotational dynamics: … and its nearest neighbour moon, Prometheus, have been dubbed shepherd moons because of their influence on ring particles. During Voyager 1’s flyby, the two bodies were discovered orbiting on either side of the narrow F ring, which itself had been found only a year earlier by Pioneer 11. The moons’…

  • Prometheus Bound (play by Aeschylus)

    Prometheus Bound, tragedy by Aeschylus, the dating of which is uncertain. The play concerns the god Prometheus, who in defiance of Zeus (Jupiter) has saved humanity with his gift of fire. For this act Zeus has ordered that he be chained to a remote crag. Despite his seeming isolation, Prometheus is

  • Prometheus der Dulder (work by Spitteler)

    Carl Spitteler: …in 1924 under the title Prometheus der Dulder (“Prometheus the Long-Suffering”).

  • Promētheus desmōtēs (play by Aeschylus)

    Prometheus Bound, tragedy by Aeschylus, the dating of which is uncertain. The play concerns the god Prometheus, who in defiance of Zeus (Jupiter) has saved humanity with his gift of fire. For this act Zeus has ordered that he be chained to a remote crag. Despite his seeming isolation, Prometheus is

  • Prometheus Fountain (sculpture by Manship)

    Paul Manship: …versions in several museums, and Prometheus (1934), a fountain sculpture at Rockefeller Center in New York. He executed many portraits in marble; most striking are Pauline Frances—Three Weeks Old (1914) and John D. Rockefeller (1918). Manship’s depictions of animals remain popular; particularly famous is the Paul J. Rainey Memorial Gateway…

  • Prometheus Misbound (work by Gide)

    André Gide: Great creative period: Le Prométhée mal enchaîné (1899; Prometheus Misbound), a return to the satirical style of Urien’s Voyage and Marshland, is Gide’s last discussion of man’s search for individual values. His next tales mark the beginning of his great creative period. L’Immoraliste (1902; The Immoralist), La Porte étroite (1909; Strait Is the…

  • Prometheus Radio Project (American organization)

    pirate radio: From piracy to microbroadcasting: Organizations such as the Prometheus Radio Project, a nonprofit group dedicated to offering technical and legal support for microbroadcasters, lobbied the U.S. Congress to ease restrictions on low-power FM (LPFM) broadcasts. By the early 21st century those efforts had guided some 800 microbroadcasters through the transition from pirate to…

  • Prometheus Unbound (play by Shelley)

    Prometheus Unbound, lyrical drama in four acts by Percy Bysshe Shelley, published in 1820. The work, considered Shelley’s masterpiece, was a reply to Aeschylus’s Prometheus Bound, in which the Titan Prometheus stole fire from heaven to give to mortals and was punished by Zeus (Jupiter). Shelley’s

  • Prometheus und Epimetheus (work by Spitteler)

    Carl Spitteler: …work was the mythical epic Prometheus und Epimetheus (1881). His second great work (which won him the Nobel Prize) was the poetic epic Der olympische Frühling (1900–05; revised 1910; “The Olympic Spring”), in which he found full scope for bold invention and vividly expressive power. The last years of his…

  • Promethidion (work by Norwid)

    Polish literature: Romanticism: …a verse dialogue on aesthetics, Promethidion (1851), which expounded a theory of the social and moral function of art anticipating that of John Ruskin. An authentic text of his most significant lyrical collection, Vade-mecum (an ambiguous title, meaning variously “Go with Me” and “A Manual”), was first published in 1947.…

  • promethium (chemical element)

    Promethium (Pm), chemical element, the only rare-earth metal of the lanthanide series of the periodic table not found in nature on Earth. Conclusive chemical proof of the existence of promethium, the last of the rare-earth elements to be discovered, was obtained in 1945 (but not announced until

  • promin (chemical compound)

    leprosy: History: …derivative of the compound, called promin, on patients. Promin had drawbacks—it had to be given intravenously, on a regular schedule, and for a long period of time—but it reversed the course of the disease in enough cases to be heralded as the “miracle at Carville.” Over the following decade researchers…

  • prominence (astronomy)

    Solar prominence, dense cloud of incandescent ionized gas projecting from the Sun’s chromosphere into the corona. Prominences sometimes extend hundreds of thousands of kilometres above the Sun’s chromosphere. Their causes are uncertain but probably involve magnetic forces. Prominences vary

  • prominent moth (insect)

    Prominent moth, (family Notodontidae), any of a group of moths (order Lepidoptera) that are characterized by projecting wing tufts in the adult and dorsal humps in the larva. The nocturnal moths have stout, hairy bodies and somewhat narrow forewings. Most species are dull gray, yellow, or brown

  • promiscuity (behaviour)

    animal social behaviour: Social interactions involving sex: In marine invertebrates with broadcast promiscuity, both eggs and sperm are shed into the sea to drift or swim in search of each other. Promiscuous mating, on the other hand, refers to cases in which males and females do not form long-term pair bonds and individuals of at least one…

  • Promise (album by Sade)

    Sade: A second album, Promise (1985), enjoyed similar popularity and was followed by a world tour. The album featured the hit song “The Sweetest Taboo,” which stayed on the American pop charts for six months. In 1988 Sade embarked on a second world tour to coincide with the release…

  • promise (common law)

    contract: Common law: …available for breach of a promise, made in an instrument with a seal, to pay a fixed sum of money. A so-called action at covenant could also be brought, but only for breach of a promise under seal. These actions did not, however, provide a remedy for the breach of…

  • Promise Me This (film by Kusturica [2007])

    Emir Kusturica: The 21st century: …a Miracle) and Zavet (2007; Promise Me This). The former deals with life in a small Bosnian town as the war approaches, and the latter concerns the vow given by a grandfather to his grandson. Though both films are typically heartwarming, they are generally considered less successful and somewhat repetitive.…

  • Promise of May, The (work by Tennyson)

    Alfred, Lord Tennyson: Major literary work: …1884), and the “village tragedy” The Promise of May, which proved a failure at the Globe in November 1882. This play—his only prose work—shows Tennyson’s growing despondency and resentment at the religious, moral, and political tendencies of the age. He had already caused some sensation by publishing a poem called…

  • Promise Scholarship Program (higher education)

    Locke v. Davey: Facts of the case: …Washington state legislature established the Promise Scholarship Program to assist eligible postsecondary students with education-related expenses. The scholarship, which was renewable for one year, was paid for out of the state’s general fund and prorated among all eligible students. In 1999–2000 the scholarship awarded $1,125 to each student. In order…

  • promise, breach of (law)

    family law: Engagement: …to reject an action of breach of promise (while permitting an action in delict—that is, on the ground that one party has been wronged). The common law, on the other hand, allows claims for breach of promise, though the modern tendency is to eliminate this form of action by statute.

  • Promise, The (film by George [2016])

    Christian Bale: …then played a journalist in The Promise (2016), about a love triangle during the Armenian Genocide.

  • Promise, The (story by Steinbeck)

    The Red Pony: … are “The Great Mountains,” “The Promise,” and “The Leader of the People,” in which Jody develops empathy and also learns from his grandfather about “westering,” the migration of people to new places and the urge for new experiences.

  • Promise, The (novel by Steel)

    Danielle Steel: …publication of her fourth novel, The Promise (1978), an instant best seller that was followed by a series of popular paperbacks. Her fictional romance novels typically centred on strong yet glamorous women overcoming major obstacles or ordeals to secure a career, love, and a family. Although most critics gave tepid…

  • Promise, The (film by Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne [1996])

    Dardenne brothers: Art-house favourite La Promesse (1996; The Promise), about a teenage boy’s attempts to make good on his pledge to a dying man, was widely regarded as the brothers’ breakout film.

  • Promised Land (American television series)

    Cloris Leachman: …guest role on the series Promised Land (1996–99). Leachman was a cast member on The Ellen Show (2001–02; starring Ellen DeGeneres) and had a recurring role on Touched by an Angel (1997–2003). From 2001 to 2006 she portrayed Grandma Ida on Malcolm in the Middle, earning Emmy Awards in 2002…

  • Promised Land (film by Van Sant [2012])

    Matt Damon: The Departed, Invictus, and True Grit: …costar John Krasinski the drama Promised Land (2012), in which Damon played a gas-company representative seeking to obtain drilling rights in a rural community.

  • Promised Land, The (autobiography by Antin)

    Mary Antin: …remembered for her autobiographical work The Promised Land and other books on immigrant life in the United States.

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