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  • progressive education

    Progressive education, movement that took form in Europe and the United States during the late 19th century as a reaction to the alleged narrowness and formalism of traditional education. One of its main objectives was to educate the “whole child”—that is, to attend to physical and emotional, as

  • Progressive Education, A (poetry by Howard)

    Richard Howard: … (1991), Without Saying (2008), and A Progressive Education (2014).

  • Progressive Encounter–Broad Front (political party, Uruguay)

    José Mujica: …as a member of the Progressive Encounter–Broad Front (Encuentro Progresista–Frente Amplio; EP-FA) coalition, which captured majorities in both legislative houses and whose presidential candidate, socialist Tabaré Vázquez, also won election. In the process, Mujica was sworn in as Senate leader in February 2005. He also served as minister of agriculture…

  • Progressive Federal Party (political party, South Africa)

    Progressive Federal Party (PFP), former South African political party established in 1977 in the merger of the Progressive Reform Party (founded 1975) and defectors from the United Party (founded 1934; see also New Republic Party). During the late 1970s and the 1980s it was the official opposition

  • progressive health care (medicine)

    hospital: Extended health care: …cost of hospital operations, the progressive-care concept is more attractive, both for outpatient and inpatient care. Progressive care can be divided into five categories: (1) intensive care, (2) intermediate care, (3) self-care, (4) long-term care, and (5) organized home care.

  • progressive jazz (music)

    Stan Kenton: Kenton was responsible for the “progressive jazz” label that some mistake for all modern jazz and some use to identify all Kenton-linked jazz. Some critics place his music in the “cool jazz” category and, being based in California, many of his players—including Shorty Rogers, Bill Perkins, and Shelly Manne—were identified…

  • Progressive Labor Party (political party, Bermuda)

    Bermuda: History: …first Bermudian political party, the Progressive Labour Party (PLP), organized in 1963, claimed to represent the nonwhite citizens. In 1968 a new constitution gave strong powers to the elected head of the majority political party in the legislature, and the next election placed the multiracial United Bermuda Party (UBP) in…

  • Progressive Labour Party (political party, Bermuda)

    Bermuda: History: …first Bermudian political party, the Progressive Labour Party (PLP), organized in 1963, claimed to represent the nonwhite citizens. In 1968 a new constitution gave strong powers to the elected head of the majority political party in the legislature, and the next election placed the multiracial United Bermuda Party (UBP) in…

  • Progressive Liberal Party (political party, The Bahamas)

    The Bahamas: Political process: …main political parties are the Progressive Liberal Party (PLP; founded 1953), which led the movement for government by the majority in the 1950s and ’60s, and the Free National Movement (FNM; 1972), which grew out of the PLP.

  • progressive locomotor ataxia (pathology)

    Tabes dorsalis, rare neurologic form of tertiary syphilis, involving sensory deficits, loss of neuromuscular coordination, and diminished reflexes. Symptoms of this form of neurosyphilis chiefly affect the legs and may not appear for more than 25 years after the initial infection. Untreated, tabes

  • Progressive movement (United States history)

    United States: The character and variety of the Progressive movement: The inauguration of Pres. William McKinley in 1897 had seemed to mark the end of an era of domestic turmoil and the beginning of a new period of unparalleled tranquility. Prosperity was returning after the devastating panic of 1893. The agrarian uprising led…

  • progressive movement (sociology)

    social movement: Types of social movements: …of social affairs, while a progressive movement argues for a new social arrangement. A conservative movement opposes the changes proposed by other movements, or those seeming to develop through cultural drift, and advocates preservation of existing values and norms.

  • progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (pathology)

    nervous system disease: Slow viruses: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is another disease of the brain occurring in individuals whose immune system is suppressed by drugs or disease. Progressive loss of myelin occurs in the white matter of the brain, cerebellum, and spinal cord. The responsible agent is a polyoma virus.

  • progressive muscular atrophy (pathology)

    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Course of the disease: …rare subtypes of ALS are progressive muscular atrophy and progressive bulbar palsy. Progressive muscular atrophy is a variety of ALS in which the neuron degeneration is most pronounced in the spinal cord. Symptoms are similar to the common form of ALS, though spasticity is absent and muscle weakness is less…

  • progressive muscular dystrophy (pathology)

    Muscular dystrophy, hereditary disease that causes progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles. Of the several types of muscular dystrophy, the more common are Duchenne, facioscapulohumeral, Becker, limb-girdle, and myotonic dystrophy. In all of these there is usually early

  • Progressive National Baptist Convention, Inc. (church association)

    Progressive National Baptist Convention, Inc., association of black Baptist churches, organized in 1961 at Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S. It developed from a group of black Baptists who left the National Baptist Convention, U.S.A., Inc., because they disagreed with the procedure for electing officers of

  • Progressive National Party (political party, Turks and Caicos Islands)

    Turks and Caicos Islands: History: …on November 9; the territory’s Progressive National Party (PNP) won eight of the 15 directly elected seats in the House of Assembly, and the rival People’s Democratic Movement (PDM) won seven. The PNP’s leader, Rufus Ewing, became premier. After the December 2016 election, power shifted as the PDM won 10…

  • Progressive Networks (American company)

    RealAudio: …by Progressive Networks, which became RealNetworks, Inc., in 1997.

  • Progressive Party (political party, Serbia)

    Vojislav Marinković: …the Serbian Parliament as a Progressive (1906), represented Serbia at the Paris Conference (1913) for the financial settlement of the Balkan Wars, and became minister of national economy (1914–17). As the leader of the Progressives from 1915, he took part in the drafting of the Corfu Declaration calling for a…

  • Progressive Party (political party, United States)

    Bull Moose Party, U.S. dissident political faction that nominated former president Theodore Roosevelt as its candidate in the presidential election of 1912; the formal name and general objectives of the party were revived 12 years later. Opposing the entrenched conservatism of the regular

  • Progressive Party (political party, Germany)

    Germany: The 1860s: the triumphs of Bismarck: …militant among them formed the Fortschrittspartei (Progressive Party), which sought to hasten the enactment of liberal legislation by exerting pressure on the government. The monarch, afraid that he was being pushed farther to the left than he wanted to go, became more adamant and uncompromising. Sooner or later a conflict…

  • Progressive Party (political party, Norway)

    Norway: Political process: Since the late 1980s the Progressive Party (Fremskrittspartiet), which advocates limiting both immigration and the welfare state, has become a major force in Norwegian politics. Other political parties that played important roles during that period include the Christian People’s (Democratic) Party, the Centre Party (called the Agrarian Party until 1958),…

  • Progressive Party (political party, Iceland)

    Iceland: Political process: The Progressive Party (1916), which generally has been the second leading party during this period, draws its strength from rural areas. In 2000 three left-of-centre parties—the Social Democratic Party (1916), the People’s Alliance (1956), and the Women’s Alliance (1983)—came together to become another major player, the…

  • Progressive Party (political party, Australia)

    The Nationals, Australian political party that for most of its history has held office as a result of its customary alliance with the Liberal Party of Australia. It often acted as a margin in the balance of power, but its own power declined over the years. In 1934 it could command 16 percent of the

  • Progressive Party (political party, United States [1924])

    Progressive Party, (1924), in the United States, a short-lived independent political party assembled for the 1924 presidential election by forces dissatisfied with the conservative attitudes and programs of the Democrats and Republicans. The Progressive Party included liberals, agrarians,

  • Progressive Party (political party, United States [1948])

    Progressive Party, (1948), in the United States, a dissident political faction founded in 1947 by Henry A. Wallace, who had broken with the Democratic administration of President Harry S. Truman. Unlike the Progressive organizations of 1912 and 1924, Wallace’s party campaigned on changes in foreign

  • Progressive Party (political party, Japan)

    Kaishintō, a leading Japanese political party from its founding in 1882 by the democratic leader Ōkuma Shigenobu until its merger with several smaller parties in 1896. It generally represented the urban elite of intellectuals, industrialists, and merchants. Its platform, like that of its main

  • Progressive Party (political party, South Africa)

    Helen Suzman: …Parliament formed the aggressively antiapartheid Progressive Party; of the 12, only Suzman was returned to office in the elections of 1961. From 1961 to 1974 she was the sole antiapartheid member of Parliament. Serving as an advocate for the disenfranchised, Suzman was in constant conflict with her conservative colleagues—particularly P.W.…

  • Progressive Party of Martinique (political party, Martinique)

    Martinique: Developments since World War II: …formed his own party, the Progressive Party of Martinique. In 1957 Césaire’s party won the Martinican elections by an enormous margin, and it seemed that independence would be achieved.

  • Progressive Party of the Working People (political party, Cyprus)

    Cyprus: Political process: …of the Working People (Anorthotiko Komma Ergazomenou Laou; AKEL), founded in 1941. A pro-Moscow communist party that controlled the principal trade union federation, it received about one-third of the vote in the first 25 years of the Republic of Cyprus. Following the collapse of communism in Russia and eastern…

  • Progressive Reform Party (political party, Suriname)

    Suriname: Political movements: …Reform Party (later called the Progressive Reform Party [Vooruitstrvende Hervormde Partij; VHP]) and the Indonesian Peasants’ Party (now the Party of National Unity and Solidarity [Kerukunan Tulodo Pranatan Inggil; KTPI]). Universal suffrage was instituted in 1948.

  • Progressive Republican Party (political party, Turkey)

    Turkey: Opposition: …to Mustafa Kemal: the small Progressive Republican Party (November 1924–June 1925) had only 29 members and was suppressed because he feared that its leading members, who included some of his most notable associates in the war of independence, might have too much influence in the army; and the similarly short-lived…

  • progressive resistance (exercise)

    exercise: Strength and endurance: These results are achieved by resistance training. Any exercise that causes the muscle to increase its tension, whether or not the muscle actually shortens during contraction, provides an appropriate strength-training stimulus. Resistance can be applied to a muscle group by attempting to move an immovable object, by working one muscle…

  • progressive rock (music)

    art rock: …is sometimes used synonymously with progressive rock, but the latter is best used to describe “intellectual” album-oriented rock by such British bands as Genesis, King Crimson, Pink Floyd, and Yes. The term art rock is best used to describe either classically influenced rock by such British groups as the Electric…

  • Progressive Society (Chinese political organization)

    China: Sun Yat-sen and the United League: …the league became divided: the Progressive Society (Gongjinhui), a parallel to the league, was born in Tokyo in 1907; a branch of this new society was soon opened at Wuhan with the ambiguous slogan “Equalization of human right.” The next year, Zhang Binglin tried to revive the Restoration Society.

  • Progressive Suriname People’s Party (political party, Suriname)

    Suriname: Political movements: The Progressive Suriname People’s Party (Progressieve Suriname Volkspartij; PSV) organized the working-class Creoles. Eventually, the South Asians and Indonesians were grouped respectively within the United Reform Party (later called the Progressive Reform Party [Vooruitstrvende Hervormde Partij; VHP]) and the Indonesian Peasants’ Party (now the Party of…

  • progressive systemic scleroderma (pathology)

    scleroderma: …scleroderma: a systemic form called progressive systemic scleroderma, which can be life-threatening, and a localized form, which is usually not as serious.

  • progressive tax (taxation)

    Progressive tax, tax that imposes a larger burden (relative to resources) on those who are richer. Its opposite, a regressive tax, imposes a lesser burden on the wealthy. Tax progressivity is based on the assumption that the urgency of spending needs declines as the level of spending increases

  • progressive tonality (music)

    sonata: The Classical era and later: This innovation, progressive tonality, used the home key as a goal to be worked toward from more or less distant key regions, so that a work ends in a different key from the one in which it began. Mahler and Nielsen arrived at the same notion independently…

  • Progressive Unionist Party (political party, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Ulster Volunteer Force: …UVF was affiliated with the Progressive Unionist Party (PUP) from the party’s founding in 1977.

  • Progressive, The (American magazine)

    The Progressive, American monthly magazine devoted to social and political progressivism. Since its founding in 1909 by Robert La Follette, a pioneer of the Progressive movement in the United States, the publication has promoted peace, civil liberties, social justice, and human rights. The

  • progressive-relapsing multiple sclerosis (pathology)

    multiple sclerosis: Prevalence and types of multiple sclerosis: (SPMS), primary-progressive (PPMS), and progressive-relapsing (PRMS). About 80–85 percent of patients are diagnosed initially with RRMS. In this form of the disease, onset is usually gradual, and there are alternating intervals of symptom exacerbation and complete symptom remission. In many patients with RRMS, symptoms may worsen gradually during subsequent…

  • progressivism (political and social-reform movement)

    Progressivism, in the United States, political and social-reform movement that brought major changes to American politics and government during the first two decades of the 20th century. Progressive reformers made the first comprehensive effort within the American context to address the problems

  • Progressivnyi Blok (Russian political coalition)

    Progressive Bloc, coalition of moderate conservatives and liberals in the fourth Russian Duma (elected legislative body) that tried to pressure the imperial government into adopting a series of reforms aimed at inspiring public confidence in the government and at improving the management of

  • progymnosperm (fossil plant division)

    gymnosperm: Evolution and paleobotany: The extinct division Progymnospermophyta is thought to be ancestral to seed plants. The best-known progymnosperm is the Devonian Archaeopteris, originally assumed to be a fern, with wedge-shaped subdivided leaflets known as pinnules and sporangia borne on appendages in between the pinnules. Its wood was like that of many…

  • Progymnospermophyta (fossil plant division)

    gymnosperm: Evolution and paleobotany: The extinct division Progymnospermophyta is thought to be ancestral to seed plants. The best-known progymnosperm is the Devonian Archaeopteris, originally assumed to be a fern, with wedge-shaped subdivided leaflets known as pinnules and sporangia borne on appendages in between the pinnules. Its wood was like that of many…

  • Prohibited Books, Index of (Roman Catholicism)

    Index Librorum Prohibitorum, (Latin: “Index of Forbidden Books”), list of books once forbidden by Roman Catholic church authority as dangerous to the faith or morals of Roman Catholics. Publication of the list ceased in 1966, and it was relegated to the status of a historic document. Compiled by

  • Prohibition (documentary by Burns)

    Ken Burns: …his history of baseball; and Prohibition (2011).

  • Prohibition (United States history [1920–1933])

    Prohibition, legal prevention of the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages in the United States from 1920 to 1933 under the terms of the Eighteenth Amendment. Although the temperance movement, which was widely supported, had succeeded in bringing about this legislation,

  • prohibition (law)

    procedural law: Common law: …to a higher court), and prohibition (by which a higher court prohibits a lower court from exceeding its jurisdiction).

  • prohibition (alcohol interdict)

    Prohibition, legal prevention of the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcoholic beverages with the aim of obtaining partial or total abstinence through legal means. Some attempts at prohibition were made in Aztec society, ancient China, feudal Japan, the Polynesian islands, Iceland, Finland,

  • Prohibition Amendment (United States Constitution)

    Eighteenth Amendment, amendment (1919) to the Constitution of the United States imposing the federal prohibition of alcohol. The Eighteenth Amendment emerged from the organized efforts of the temperance movement and Anti-Saloon League, which attributed to alcohol virtually all of society’s ills and

  • Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, Organisation for the (international organization)

    Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), international organization established by the Chemical Weapons Convention (adopted 1992, entered into force 1997) to implement and enforce the terms of the international treaty, which prohibits the use, stockpiling, or transfer of

  • Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, Treaty on the (international treaty [2017])

    International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons: …role in the United Nations’ Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. The group received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2017.

  • Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction, Convention on the (international agreement)

    Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), international treaty that bans the use of biological weapons in war and prohibits all development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, or transfer of such weapons. The convention was signed in London, Moscow, and Washington, D.C., on April 10, 1972, and

  • Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, Convention on the (1993, UN)

    Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), international treaty that bans the use of chemical weapons in war and prohibits all development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, or transfer of such weapons. The CWC was adopted by the United Nations Conference on Disarmament on September 3, 1992, and the

  • Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, Convention on the (international treaty, 1997)

    arms control: Recent efforts: …to Ban Landmines (ICBL), a treaty prohibiting the use of antipersonnel mines was negotiated; it went into effect in 1999, and, by the early 21st century, nearly 150 countries had signed it, though China, Russia, and the United States had not.

  • Prohibition Party (political party, United States)

    Prohibition Party, oldest minor U.S. political party still in existence. It was founded in 1869 to campaign for legislation to prohibit the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors, and from time to time has nominated candidates for state and local office in nearly every state of the Union.

  • proinsulin (biochemistry)

    hormone: Insulin: …cell as the single-chain compound proinsulin, which is disrupted by an enzyme-catalyzed reaction to form the two chains of the active hormone. As with other polypeptide hormones, extensive variation in amino acid composition of the molecule occurs among different species, with the differences tending to be greater between the more…

  • Project Apollo (space program)

    Apollo, project conducted by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the 1960s and ’70s that landed the first humans on the Moon. In May 1961 Pres. John F. Kennedy committed America to landing astronauts on the Moon by 1970. The choice among competing techniques for

  • Project Better Place (American company)

    Shai Agassi: …Agassi left SAP and launched Better Place (originally named Project Better Place), a company that developed battery-exchange stations and recharging spots for electric cars so as to spur the public to replace their gasoline-powered cars. Agassi’s business plan positioned Better Place as a service company that would provide drivers with…

  • Project Bustard (Indian national conservation program)

    great Indian bustard: Conservation status: …2012 the Indian government launched Project Bustard, a national conservation program to protect the great Indian bustard, along with the Bengal florican (Houbaropsis bengalensis), the lesser florican (Sypheotides indicus), and their habitats from further declines. The program was modeled after Project Tiger, a massive national effort initiated in the early…

  • Project Exploration (American science project)

    Paul Sereno: In 1999 Sereno cofounded Project Exploration with Lyon. This Chicago-based program was designed to organize science outreach initiatives for children, particularly minorities. Sereno served as its president until 2012.

  • Project for a Perpetual Peace (work by Kant)

    democratic peace: In Project for a Perpetual Peace (1795), Kant envisioned the establishment of a zone of peace among states constituted as republics. Although he explicitly equated democracy with despotism, contemporary scholars claim that Kant’s definition of republicanism, which emphasizes the representative nature of republican government, corresponds to…

  • Project for Setting an Everlasting Peace in Europe, A (work by Saint-Pierre)

    Charles-Irénée Castel, abbé de Saint-Pierre: His chief work, Le Projet de paix perpétuelle (1713; A Project for Setting an Everlasting Peace in Europe), exercised influence up to the 20th century. Saint-Pierre proposed a European peace based on the Peace of Utrecht and assured by a European confederation that would name a permanent arbitration…

  • Project for the New American Century (American think thank)

    John R. Bolton: …president in 1997–2001, and the Project for the New American Century. He also was an official of the Republican National Committee.

  • Project Greenlight (American television program)

    Ben Affleck: Starring roles in Armageddon, Pearl Harbor, and The Sum of All Fears: …a producer, most notably on Project Greenlight (2001, 2003, 2005), a reality show that documented aspiring filmmakers. In 2002 he appeared as CIA agent Jack Ryan in the successful film The Sum of All Fears, which was based on Tom Clancy’s espionage best seller. Affleck then starred opposite Jennifer Garner…

  • Project GROPE (computer science)

    virtual reality: Education and training: Project GROPE, started in 1967 at the University of North Carolina by Frederick Brooks, was particularly noteworthy for the advancements it made possible in the study of molecular biology. Brooks sought to enhance perception and comprehension of the interaction of a drug molecule with its…

  • Project Gutenberg (nonprofit organization)

    Project Gutenberg, a nonprofit organization (since 2000) that maintains an electronic library of public domain works that have been digitized, or converted into e-books, by volunteers and archived for download from the organization’s Web site: www.gutenberg.org. The project got its start on July 4,

  • Project Gutenberg (film by Chong [2018])

    Chow Yun-Fat: …Living); and Mo seung (2018; Project Gutenberg), about the mastermind of a counterfeit ring.

  • Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation (nonprofit organization)

    Project Gutenberg, a nonprofit organization (since 2000) that maintains an electronic library of public domain works that have been digitized, or converted into e-books, by volunteers and archived for download from the organization’s Web site: www.gutenberg.org. The project got its start on July 4,

  • Project MAC (computer science)

    Project MAC, a collaborative computer endeavour in the 1960s that sought to to create a functional time-sharing system. Project MAC, founded in 1963 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), was funded by the U.S. Department of Defense’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and the

  • Project on Mathematics and Computation (computer science)

    Project MAC, a collaborative computer endeavour in the 1960s that sought to to create a functional time-sharing system. Project MAC, founded in 1963 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), was funded by the U.S. Department of Defense’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and the

  • Project Plié (American dance program)

    Misty Copeland: …advisory committee for the ABT’s Project Plié, a program (started in 2013) offering training and mentorship to dance teachers in racially diverse communities around the country as well as in Boys & Girls Clubs. Copeland published the memoir Life in Motion: An Unlikely Ballerina (2014) and had endorsements with companies…

  • Project pour le rétablissement du théâtre français (work by Aubignac)

    François Hédelin, abbé d'Aubignac: Another work, Projet pour le rétablissement du théâtre français (“Plan for Reorganizing the French Theatre”), published after the Pratique, called for the establishment of a general directorship over all public theatres in order to raise comedies, in particular, from disrepute. He adamantly opposed the idea that advances…

  • Project Runway (American television show)

    Heidi Klum: …hostess of the reality programs Project Runway (2004–17), a fashion design competition of which she was also an executive producer, and Germany’s Next Topmodel (2006– ), in which players competed for a chance to win a contract with the IMG Models agency; in 2013 she won an Emmy Award for…

  • Project SCORE (United States government project)

    aerospace industry: The space age: …1958, in a program called Project SCORE, the U.S. Air Force launched the first low-orbiting communications satellite, premiering the transmission of the human voice from space. Others followed, initiating a rapidly growing national and international telecommunications satellite industry (see satellite communication).

  • project system (industrial engineering)

    production system: Types of production systems: …of production system is the project, or “one-shot” system. For a single, one-of-a-kind product, for example, a building, a ship, or the prototype of a product such as an airplane or a large computer, resources are brought together only once. Because of the singular nature of project systems, special methods…

  • Project Tiger (conservation program)

    Corbett National Park: …it is there that India’s Project Tiger was established in 1973 to provide havens for tigers in the country’s national parks. Among other mammals found in the park are langurs, sloth bears, Asiatic black bears, Indian gray mongooses, jungle cats, elephants, wild boars, chitals (spotted deer), barking deer, and nilgai…

  • projectile (mechanics)

    ammunition: …is the diameter of the projectile as measured in millimetres or inches. In general, projectiles less than 20 mm or .60 inch in diameter are classified as small-arm, and larger calibres are considered artillery. A complete round of ammunition consists of all the components necessary for one firing of the…

  • projectile motion (physics)

    mechanics: Projectile motion: Galileo was quoted above pointing out with some detectable pride that none before him had realized that the curved path followed by a missile or projectile is a parabola. He had arrived at his conclusion by realizing that a body undergoing ballistic motion…

  • projectile, guided (military technology)

    artillery: Nuclear shells, guided projectiles, and rocket assistance: …step was the development of guided projectiles. With the 155-millimetre Copperhead, a U.S. system, a forward observer could “illuminate” a target with laser light, a portion of which would be reflected and picked up by sensors in the approaching shell. The greater part of the shell’s flight would be entirely…

  • projection (cartography)

    Projection, in cartography, systematic representation on a flat surface of features of a curved surface, as that of the Earth. Such a representation presents an obvious problem but one that did not disturb ancient or medieval cartographers. Only when the voyages of exploration stimulated p

  • projection (psychology)

    Projection, the mental process by which people attribute to others what is in their own minds. For example, individuals who are in a self-critical state, consciously or unconsciously, may think that other people are critical of them. The concept was introduced to psychology by the Austrian

  • projection (photography)

    motion-picture technology: Projection technology and theatre design: Projectors. The projector is the piece of motion-picture equipment that has changed the least. Manufacturers produce models virtually identical to those of the 1950s, and even the 1930 model Super Simplex is still in wide use. The essential mechanism is…

  • projection (geometry)

    Projection, in geometry, a correspondence between the points of a figure and a surface (or line). In plane projections, a series of points on one plane may be projected onto a second plane by choosing any focal point, or origin, and constructing lines from that origin that pass through the points

  • projection formula (chemistry)

    Fischer projection, Method of representing the three-dimensional structures of molecules on a page, devised by Emil Fischer. By convention, horizontal lines represent bonds projecting from the plane of the paper toward the viewer, and vertical lines represent bonds projecting away from the viewer.

  • projection printer (photography)

    Enlarger, in photography, device for producing a photographic print or negative larger than the original negative or transparency. The modern enlarger consists of a projection assembly attached to a vertical column that is mounted on a horizontal base. The projection assembly includes an enclosed

  • projection screen (optics)

    Projection screen, surface on which the image from an optical projector is shown. Many materials are suitable for screens, the principal requirement being a high degree of reflectivity. The three most common types of screen are the mat white, the glass bead, and the lenticular. Mat white is a

  • projection, orthographic (engineering)

    Orthographic projection, common method of representing three-dimensional objects, usually by three two-dimensional drawings in each of which the object is viewed along parallel lines that are perpendicular to the plane of the drawing. For example, an orthographic projection of a house typically

  • projective geometry

    Projective geometry, branch of mathematics that deals with the relationships between geometric figures and the images, or mappings, that result from projecting them onto another surface. Common examples of projections are the shadows cast by opaque objects and motion pictures displayed on a screen.

  • projective plane

    projective geometry: Projective invariants: …the reality plane and the projective plane are essentially interchangeable—that is, ignoring distances and directions (angles), which are not preserved in the projection. Other properties are preserved, however. For instance, two different points have a unique connecting line, and two different lines have a unique point of intersection. Although almost…

  • projective test (psychology)

    Projective test, in psychology, examination that commonly employs ambiguous stimuli, notably inkblots (Rorschach Test) and enigmatic pictures (Thematic Apperception Test), to evoke responses that may reveal facets of the subject’s personality by projection of internal attitudes, traits, and

  • Projective Verse (essay by Olson)

    Charles Olson: …in his landmark essay “Projective Verse” (1950) that poetry was a form of “energy transferred from where the poet got it” to the reader. In distinction from the “closed form” of conventional poetic metre, Olson proposed an “open field” that “projects” organically from the poem’s content—i.e., the perception of…

  • projectivism (philosophy)

    realism: Reductionism, error theories, and projectivism: …to a version of “projectivism,” according to which, in making such statements, one is not seeking to correctly describe features of a mind-independent world but is merely projecting one’s own responses and attitudes onto it.

  • projector (photographic device)

    Projector, device for transferring photographic and other images in an enlarged form onto a viewing screen. All types of projectors employ a light source and a lens system. A simple still-photo or slide projector for exhibiting transparencies has two sets of lenses, one between the light source and

  • Projet de paix perpétuelle, Le (work by Saint-Pierre)

    Charles-Irénée Castel, abbé de Saint-Pierre: His chief work, Le Projet de paix perpétuelle (1713; A Project for Setting an Everlasting Peace in Europe), exercised influence up to the 20th century. Saint-Pierre proposed a European peace based on the Peace of Utrecht and assured by a European confederation that would name a permanent arbitration…

  • prokaryote (organism)

    Prokaryote, any organism that lacks a distinct nucleus and other organelles due to the absence of internal membranes. Bacteria are among the best-known prokaryotic organisms. The lack of internal membranes in prokaryotes distinguishes them from eukaryotes. The prokaryotic cell membrane is made up

  • prokaryotic cell (organism)

    Prokaryote, any organism that lacks a distinct nucleus and other organelles due to the absence of internal membranes. Bacteria are among the best-known prokaryotic organisms. The lack of internal membranes in prokaryotes distinguishes them from eukaryotes. The prokaryotic cell membrane is made up

  • Prokhorov, Aleksandr Mikhaylovich (Soviet physicist)

    Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Prokhorov, Soviet physicist who, with Nikolay G. Basov and Charles H. Townes, won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1964 for fundamental research in quantum electronics that led to the development of the maser and laser. Prokhorov’s father was involved in revolutionary

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