• 0-9
  • a
  • b
  • c
  • d
  • e
  • f
  • g
  • h
  • i
  • j
  • k
  • l
  • m
  • n
  • o
  • p
  • q
  • r
  • s
  • t
  • u
  • v
  • w
  • x
  • y
  • z
  • Prodoxidae (insect family)

    community ecology: The study of coevolution: …between moths of the family Prodoxidae and their host plants illustrates the interplay of phylogeny and ecology. Prodoxid moths include some species that have become major pollinators of plants. These pollinators include yucca moths (of the genera Tegeticula and Parategeticula) and Greya moths (see above Commensalism and other types of…

  • Prodoxinae (insect)

    Yucca moth, (genus Tegeticula), any of four species of insects of the Prodoxidae family of moths (order Lepidoptera). The adults are small, diurnal, and have tiny spines covering their wings. Each of the four species is adapted to a particular species of yucca. The moths emerge when the yucca

  • Prodoxus (insect)

    yucca moth: Larvae of the related bogus yucca moth (Prodoxus) feed in the stems and seed capsules of the yucca plant and also attack the century plant.

  • prodrome (pathology)

    migraine: Causes and symptoms: …cluster of symptoms, or “prodrome,” hours before the onset of the migraine headache. The prodrome can consist of yawning, fluid retention, pallor, nausea, light sensitivity, or mood changes, including sadness or irritability. Attempts to treat the prodrome and avoid the ensuing migraine have met with limited success; only a…

  • Prodromus Dissertationum Mathematicarum Continens Mysterium Cosmographicum (work by Kepler)

    astronomy: Kepler: Kepler’s first book, Mysterium cosmographicum (“Cosmographic Mystery,” 1596), was based on this idea. As a result of this book, Kepler received an invitation to work with Tycho Brahe, but nothing happened until 1600, when Tycho left his native Denmark and relocated to Prague under the patronage of the…

  • Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen (work by Brown)

    Robert Brown: …partially published in 1810 in Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen, a classic of systematic botany and his major work. Though the publication laid the foundations for Australian botany while refining the prevailing systems of plant classification, Brown was disappointed by its small sale and published only one…

  • Prodromus of Nicolaus Steno’s Dissertation Concerning a Solid Body Enclosed by Process of Nature Within a Solid, The (work by Steno)

    Nicolaus Steno: …Naturaliter Contento Dissertationis Prodromus (The Prodromus of Nicolaus Steno’s Dissertation Concerning a Solid Body Enclosed by Process of Nature Within a Solid). In this work, a milestone in the literature of geology, he laid the foundations of the science of crystallography. He reported that, although quartz crystals differ greatly…

  • Prodromus, Theodore (Byzantine author)

    Theodore Prodromus, Byzantine writer, well known for his prose and poetry, some of which is in the vernacular. He wrote many occasional pieces for a widespread circle of patrons at the imperial court. Some of the work attributed to him is unpublished and some of it may be wrongly attributed to him.

  • producer (music)

    hip-hop: Hip-hop in the 21st century: …which hip-hop had become a producers’ medium. In the 21st century the music—born from the sonic creations of the deejay—saw its greatest innovations in the work of such studio wizards as Timbaland, Swizz Beatz, and the Neptunes. The focus on producers as both a creative and a commercial force was…

  • producer (biology)

    carbon cycle: …and terrestrial green plants (producers) are the chief agents of carbon dioxide fixation through the process of photosynthesis, through which carbon dioxide and water are converted into simple carbohydrates. These compounds are used by the producers to carry on metabolism, the excess being stored as fats and polysaccharides. The…

  • producer (theatre)

    régisseur: …the American theatre and the producer in that of England. In ballet a régisseur coordinates the activities of the producer, stage technicians, and orchestra; handles the finances of the company; and makes all the arrangements for tours. In the cinema a régisseur’s duties—much like those of the assistant director in…

  • producer gas (chemical compound)

    Producer gas, mixture of flammable gases (principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen) and nonflammable gases (mainly nitrogen and carbon dioxide) made by the partial combustion of carbonaceous substances, usually coal, in an atmosphere of air and steam. Producer gas has lower heating value than

  • producer goods (economics)

    Producer goods, in economics, goods manufactured and used in further manufacturing, processing, or resale. Producer goods either become part of the final product or lose their distinct identity in the manufacturing stream. The prices of producer goods are not included in the summation of a

  • producer’s cooperative (business)

    marketing: Limited-service wholesalers: Producers’ cooperatives—owned by their members, who are farmers—assemble farm produce to be sold in local markets and share profits at the end of the year.

  • producer’s risk (statistics)

    statistics: Acceptance sampling: …this error is called the producer’s risk. On the other hand, the error of accepting a poor-quality lot creates a problem for the purchaser or consumer; the probability of this error is called the consumer’s risk.

  • Producers Releasing Corporation (American company)

    Detour: Although Detour was made by Producers Releasing Corporation, one of several studios that specialized in cheaply made B-films, and thus was a “poverty row” movie, it has the distinction of being the first such film to be preserved in the National Film Registry of the Library of Congress. Shot in…

  • Producers, The (musical by Brooks and Meehan)

    The Producers: …and helped inspire the hit Broadway musical version of the movie, which debuted in 2001 starring Nathan Lane and Matthew Broderick, both of whom starred in the film version of the stage musical in 2005.

  • Producers, The (film by Brooks [1968])

    The Producers, American screwball comedy–musical film, released in 1968, that is Mel Brooks’s first feature and his most acclaimed work. Zero Mostel played a failed theatrical producer, and Gene Wilder was cast as his timid accountant. Together they hatch a bizarre plot to make a fortune from

  • Producers, The (film by Stroman [2005])

    Susan Stroman: …directed a film version of The Producers in 2005. Stroman repeated her dual role as director and choreographer in Thou Shalt Not (2001–02), a musical version of Émile Zola’s Thérèse Raquin, as well as in The Frogs (2004), a musical adaptation of the play by Aristophanes; Young Frankenstein (2007), which…

  • producing (theatre)

    régisseur: …the American theatre and the producer in that of England. In ballet a régisseur coordinates the activities of the producer, stage technicians, and orchestra; handles the finances of the company; and makes all the arrangements for tours. In the cinema a régisseur’s duties—much like those of the assistant director in…

  • producing (music)

    hip-hop: Hip-hop in the 21st century: …which hip-hop had become a producers’ medium. In the 21st century the music—born from the sonic creations of the deejay—saw its greatest innovations in the work of such studio wizards as Timbaland, Swizz Beatz, and the Neptunes. The focus on producers as both a creative and a commercial force was…

  • product (economics)

    production system: Underlying principles: All production systems, when viewed at the most abstract level, might be said to be “transformation processes”—processes that transform resources into useful goods and services. The transformation process typically uses common resources such as labour, capital (for machinery and equipment, materials, etc.), and space (land, buildings,…

  • product (business)

    marketing: Product: The first marketing-mix element is the product, which refers to the offering or group of offerings that will be made available to customers. In the case of a physical product, such as a car, a company will gather information about the features…

  • product (mathematics)

    arithmetic: Addition and multiplication: …× 5 is called the product. The symbol × of this operation is read “times.” If such letters as a and b are used to denote the numbers, the product a × b is often written a∙b or simply ab.

  • product cipher (cryptology)

    Product cipher, data encryption scheme in which the ciphertext produced by encrypting a plaintext document is subjected to further encryption. By combining two or more simple transposition ciphers or substitution ciphers, a more secure encryption may result. In the days of manual cryptography,

  • product development (business)

    aerospace industry: Product development and testing: Initiation of the product development process differs between the military and commercial sectors. In the United States the defense services normally provide detailed mission specifications for desired products, against which contractors submit proposals as part of a competitive process. Proposals are…

  • product differentiation (economics)

    monopoly and competition: Product differentiation: The structure of a market is also affected by the extent to which those who buy from it prefer some products to others. In some industries the products are regarded as identical by their buyers—as, for example, basic farm crops. In others the…

  • product diversification (economics)

    automotive industry: Diversity of products: The automotive industry’s immense resources in production facilities and technical and managerial skills have been devoted predominantly to the building of motor vehicles, but there has been a consistent and strong incentive to extend into related products and occasionally into operations whose…

  • product liability insurance (insurance)

    liability insurance: Product liability and malpractice insurance present special problems because of the increasingly high cost of court awards of damages and because of the public’s high expectations of product safety and physician performance. An additional problem for product liability insurance is that the courts have tended…

  • product quality

    computer science: Social and professional issues: …should be linked to a quality-control system that maintains a database of quality information and alerts the manager if quality is deteriorating and possibly even provides a diagnosis as to the source of any problems that arise. Automatically tracking the flow of products from station to station on the factory…

  • product rule (mathematics)

    Product rule, Rule for finding the derivative of a product of two functions. If both f and g are differentiable, then (fg)′ = fg′ +

  • product set (mathematics)

    set theory: Operations on sets: The Cartesian product of two sets A and B, denoted by A × B, is defined as the set consisting of all ordered pairs (a, b) for which a ∊ A and b ∊ B. For example, if A = {x, y} and B = {3,…

  • product, chemical (industry)

    chemical industry: The complicated characteristics of the chemical industry: …changes, and some of the products of a modern refinery complex are chemicals by any definition. The term petrochemical is used to describe these chemical operations, but, because they are often carried out at the same plant as the primary distillation, the distinction between petroleum industry and chemical industry is…

  • production (economics)

    production system: Underlying principles: All production systems, when viewed at the most abstract level, might be said to be “transformation processes”—processes that transform resources into useful goods and services. The transformation process typically uses common resources such as labour, capital (for machinery and equipment, materials, etc.), and space (land, buildings,…

  • production casing (drilling technology)

    fracking: Horizontal drilling: …yet another pipe called the production casing. In many operations more than one well can be drilled from a single surface site (or “pad”), or more than one lateral section can radiate from a single borehole.

  • production cell (biology)

    biotechnology: … (often a human protein) into production cells—such as yeast, bacteria, or mammalian cells in culture—which then begin to produce the protein in volume. In the process of splicing a gene into a production cell, a new organism is created. At first, biotechnology investors and researchers were uncertain about whether the…

  • production chain (economics)

    Production chain, in economics, an analytical tool used to understand the nature of the production process (including production of both goods and services) and its transformations. The production process is a sequence of productive activities leading to an end use—a chain of linked functions, in

  • Production Code (motion-picture standards)

    Dracula: …ending, in accordance with Hollywood’s Production Code, for a 1936 rerelease of the film; the original ending was subsequently lost. The commercial success of Dracula helped establish Universal Pictures as the premier studio for horror pictures, with Frankenstein following soon thereafter. In 1998 composer Philip Glass was commissioned to write…

  • production function (economics)

    Production function, in economics, equation that expresses the relationship between the quantities of productive factors (such as labour and capital) used and the amount of product obtained. It states the amount of product that can be obtained from every combination of factors, assuming that the

  • production line (industrial engineering)

    Assembly line, industrial arrangement of machines, equipment, and workers for continuous flow of workpieces in mass-production operations. The design for an assembly line is determined by analyzing the steps necessary to manufacture each product component as well as the final product. All movement

  • production management (industrial engineering)

    Production management, planning and control of industrial processes to ensure that they move smoothly at the required level. Techniques of production management are employed in service as well as in manufacturing industries. It is a responsibility similar in level and scope to other specialties

  • production process

    automation: Manufacturing applications of automation and robotics: Three types of automation in production can be distinguished: (1) fixed automation, (2) programmable automation, and (3) flexible automation.

  • production rate (industrial engineering)

    mass production: A summary of mass production concepts: Similarly, a production line is usually designed to operate most efficiently at a specified rate. If the required production levels fall below that rate, operators and machines are being inefficiently used; and if the rate goes too high, operators must work overtime, machine maintenance cannot keep up,…

  • production reactor (nuclear reactor)

    nuclear reactor: Production reactors: The very first nuclear reactors were built for the express purpose of manufacturing plutonium for nuclear weapons, and the euphemism of calling them production reactors has persisted to this day. At present, most of the material produced by such systems is tritium

  • production rule (computer science)

    artificial intelligence: Knowledge and inference: …of this type are called production rules. The inference engine enables the expert system to draw deductions from the rules in the KB. For example, if the KB contains the production rules “if x, then y” and “if y, then z,” the inference engine is able to deduce “if x,…

  • production scheduling

    logistics: Production scheduling: Scheduling of production is done by others in the firm but with the assistance of the logistics staff. Production is scheduled in an attempt to balance demand for products with plant capacity and availability of inputs. Inbound materials and components must be scheduled…

  • production system (industrial engineering)

    Production system, any of the methods used in industry to create goods and services from various resources. All production systems, when viewed at the most abstract level, might be said to be “transformation processes”—processes that transform resources into useful goods and services. The

  • production theory (economics)

    Theory of production, in economics, an effort to explain the principles by which a business firm decides how much of each commodity that it sells (its “outputs” or “products”) it will produce, and how much of each kind of labour, raw material, fixed capital good, etc., that it employs (its “inputs”

  • production, factors of (economics)

    Factors of production, term used by economists to denote the economic resources, both human and other, which, if properly utilized, will bring about a flow or output of goods and services. Simply stated, factors of production are the “inputs” necessary to obtain an “output.” However, not all the

  • production, theory of (economics)

    Theory of production, in economics, an effort to explain the principles by which a business firm decides how much of each commodity that it sells (its “outputs” or “products”) it will produce, and how much of each kind of labour, raw material, fixed capital good, etc., that it employs (its “inputs”

  • production-smoothing problem (industrial engineering)

    production management: Planning and control: This is called the “production-smoothing” problem. When more than one product is involved, complex industrial engineering or operations research procedures are required to analyze the many factors that impinge on the problem.

  • Productive Thinking (work by Wertheimer)

    Max Wertheimer: His Productive Thinking, which discussed many of his ideas, was published posthumously in 1945.

  • productivity (economics)

    Productivity, in economics, the ratio of what is produced to what is required to produce it. Usually this ratio is in the form of an average, expressing the total output of some category of goods divided by the total input of, say, labour or raw materials. In principle, any input can be used in the

  • productivity, biological (biology)

    inland water ecosystem: Biological productivity: Central to all biological activity within inland aquatic ecosystems is biological productivity or aquatic production. This involves two main processes: (1) primary production, in which living organisms form energy-rich organic material (biomass) from energy-poor inorganic materials in the environment through photosynthesis, and (2)…

  • PROE

    rules of engagement: Peacetime rules of engagement (PROE) were also developed that differentiated hostile acts versus hostile intent and also emphasized that a response must be appropriate to the level of threat. Prior to the development of PROE, rules of engagement had only served to inform wartime actions;…

  • proecdysis (zoology)

    crustacean: Exoskeleton: …into four main stages: (1) Proecdysis, or premolt, is the period during which calcium is resorbed from the old exoskeleton into the blood. The epidermis separates from the old exoskeleton, new setae form, and a new exoskeleton is secreted. (2) Ecdysis, or the actual shedding of the old exoskeleton, takes…

  • Proell, Annemarie (Austrian skier)

    Annemarie Moser-Pröll, Austrian Alpine skier who held the all-time record of six women’s World Cup championships, five in succession (1971–75). Pröll skied from the age of four. She tried out for the Austrian national ski team at the age of 15. Her Olympic Winter Games success came late. She won

  • proembryo (plant anatomy)

    plant development: Origin of the primary organs: …mass of tissue called the proembryo. No cotyledon, stem apex, or root apex is organized in this early period; these organs do not appear until after germination has occurred.

  • Proemio e carta al condestable de Portugal (work by Santillana)

    Iñigo López de Mendoza, marquis de Santillana: …to his collected works, the Proemio, the first example in Spanish of formal literary criticism, distinguishes three literary styles: high, for classical writing in Greek and Latin; middle, for formal works in the vernacular; and low, for ballads and songs without formal order.

  • proenzyme (biochemistry)

    Zymogen, any of a group of proteins that display no catalytic activity but are transformed within an organism into enzymes, especially those that catalyze reactions involving the breakdown of proteins. Trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen, zymogens secreted by the pancreas, are activated in the i

  • Proerosia (Greek festival)

    Demeter: (3) Proerosia, at which prayers were offered for an abundant harvest, before the land was plowed for sowing. It was also called Proarktouria, an indication that it was held before the rising of Arcturus. The festival took place, probably sometime in September, at Eleusis. (4) Thalysia,…

  • Proesch, Gilbert (British artist)

    Gilbert & George: …collaborative team made up of Gilbert Proesch (b. Sept. 17, 1943, Dolomites, Italy) and George Passmore (b. Jan. 8, 1942, Plymouth, Devon, Eng.), whose dynamic and often humorous insertion of themselves into their art proved an important chapter in postwar British conceptual art.

  • Proeski, Todor (Macedonian singer-songwriter)

    Tose Proeski, (Todor Proeski), Macedonian pop singer-songwriter (born Jan. 25, 1981, Prilep, Macedonia, Yugos.—died Oct. 16, 2007, near Nova Gradiska, Croatia), delighted fans across the Balkan region with his upbeat, often romantic pop music; his appeal—based in part on his good looks and

  • Proeski, Tose (Macedonian singer-songwriter)

    Tose Proeski, (Todor Proeski), Macedonian pop singer-songwriter (born Jan. 25, 1981, Prilep, Macedonia, Yugos.—died Oct. 16, 2007, near Nova Gradiska, Croatia), delighted fans across the Balkan region with his upbeat, often romantic pop music; his appeal—based in part on his good looks and

  • proestrus (reproductive cycle)

    dog: Reproductive cycle: The first stage is called proestrus. It begins with mild swelling of the vulva and a bloody discharge. This lasts for about 9 days, although it may vary by 2 or 3 days. During this phase the bitch may attract males, but she is not ready to be bred and…

  • Proetus (Greek mythology)

    Proetus, in Greek mythology, a king of Argos, grandson of Danaus. He quarreled with his twin brother, Acrisius, and divided the kingdom with him, Proetus taking Tiryns, which he fortified with huge blocks of stone carried by the Cyclopes. Proetus had three daughters with Stheneboea (called Anteia

  • Profaci, Joseph (American criminal)

    Joseph Profaci, one of the most powerful bosses in U.S. organized crime from the 1940s to the early 1960s. Twice arrested and once imprisoned for a year in his native Sicily, he emigrated to the United States in 1921 and, thereafter, though arrested several times, managed always to avoid prison. By

  • profanation (religion)

    Sacrilege, originally, the theft of something sacred; as early as the 1st century bc, however, the Latin term for sacrilege came to mean any injury, violation, or profanation of sacred things. Legal punishment for such acts was already sanctioned, in the Levitical code of ancient Israel. The

  • Profelis aurata (mammal)

    golden cat: …of the family Felidae: the African golden cat (Profelis aurata), or the Asian golden cat (Catopuma temminckii), also known as Temminck’s cat.

  • profesor inútil, El (work by Jarnés)

    Benjamín Jarnés: …was established by his second, El profesor inútil (1926; “The Useless Professor”), a series of episodes with little narrative action that point out a professor’s ineptitude and inability to tell reality from unreality. Similar motifs occur in El convidado de papel (1928; “The Paper Guest”), in which erotic pictures and…

  • Professeur Taranne, Le (play by Adamov)

    Arthur Adamov: Le Professeur Taranne (performed 1953) was about a university professor unable to live up to his public role; though the play is dictated by the absurd logic of a dream, the construction and characterizations are firm and clear. In his best known play, Le Ping-pong…

  • profession

    classical scholarship: The rise of professionalism: Associated with Germany was the movement toward what may be called professionalism during the second half of the 19th century. Though Wolf’s example in founding a classical periodical in the vernacular had been followed elsewhere (e.g., the English Classical Journal, 1810–29), journals written primarily…

  • Profession of Faith (statement by Valdes)

    Waldenses: Early history: …this council Valdes made his Profession of Faith (which still survives); it is a statement of orthodox beliefs such as accused heretics were required to sign. Valdes, however, did not receive the ecclesiastical recognition that he sought. Undeterred, he and his followers (Pauperes, “Poor”) continued to preach; the archbishop of…

  • Profession of Faith of a Savoyard Vicar, The (essay by Rousseau)

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Years of seclusion and exile: …foi du vicaire savoyard (1765; The Profession of Faith of a Savoyard Vicar) Rousseau sets out what may fairly be regarded as his own religious views, since that book confirms what he says on the subject in his private correspondence. Rousseau could never entertain doubts about God’s existence or about…

  • Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (American organization)

    Ronald Reagan: First days: …of air traffic controllers, the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (PATCO)—one of the few unions to endorse Reagan in the 1980 election—walked off their jobs, demanding higher pay and better working conditions. As federal employees, the PATCO members were forbidden by law to strike, and Reagan, on the advice of…

  • Professional Bowlers Association of America (American sports organization)

    Don Carter: …and first president of the Professional Bowlers Association (PBA; founded in 1958). He began bowling as a boy while working as a pinsetter. He built his own lane in the basement of the family home, and in 1953 he joined the St. Louis Budweiser team. Carter was bowler of the…

  • Professional Chess Association (chess organization)

    chess: The world championship and FIDE: …of a new organization, the Professional Chess Association (PCA). Before Kasparov defeated Short in London in late 1993 in the first PCA championship, FIDE disqualified Kasparov and organized its own world championship match, won by Karpov.

  • professional confidence (law)

    Privileged communication, in law, communication between persons who have a special duty of fidelity and secrecy toward each other. Communications between attorney and client are privileged and do not have to be disclosed to the court. However, in the wake of terrorist attacks against the United

  • Professional Correctness: Literary Studies and Political Change (work by Fish)

    Stanley Fish: …a Good Thing, Too (1994), Professional Correctness: Literary Studies and Political Change (1995), The Trouble with Principle (1999), and How Milton Works (2001). How to Write a Sentence: And How to Read One and Winning Arguments: What Works and Doesn’t Work in Politics, the Bedroom, the Courtroom, and the Classroom…

  • professional cramp (physiology)

    cramp: Professional or occupational cramp is a functional spasm affecting certain muscles that are used constantly in a daily occupation. At first there is a gradually increasing difficulty, or clumsiness, in making the movements required for the work at hand. Writers, for example, cannot move the pen or…

  • professional education

    library: Training institutes: …the education and training of professionals have come from librarians or their professional associations. In the United States the first university school for librarians was established in 1887 by Melvil Dewey at Columbia University. The American Library Association (ALA) pursued a policy of accreditation in an effort to ensure that…

  • professional fraternity

    fraternity and sorority: The membership of professional fraternities is limited to students and faculty members engaged in a particular field of specialization. Membership qualifications are broader than for the social groups and emphasize activities designed to develop professional competency rather than social life. The first professional fraternity, Kappa Lambda, was founded…

  • Professional Golfers Association (British sports organization)

    golf: British tournaments and players: …for the formation of the Professional Golfers Association in 1901. This body is responsible for professional tournaments in Great Britain and for the biennial Ryder Cup match (for professionals) when it is played there.

  • Professional Golfers’ Association of America (American sports organization)

    Professional Golfers’ Association of America (PGA of America), organization formed in the United States in 1916 at the instigation of Rodman Wanamaker, a Philadelphia businessman, with the stated purpose of promoting interest in professional golf, elevating the standards of the game, and advancing

  • professional liability insurance

    insurance: Professional liability insurance: Known as malpractice, or errors-and-omissions, insurance, professional liability contracts are distinguished from general business liability policies because of the specialized nature of the liability. Professional persons requiring liability contracts include physicians and surgeons, lawyers, accountants, engineers, and insurance agents. Important differences between…

  • professional networking (social interaction)

    Networking, the development, maintenance, or use of social or professional contacts for the purpose of exchanging information, resources, or services. A professional network can be thought of as a web or series of interconnected webs—whereby links or ties exist between focal individuals and the

  • professional organization

    teaching: Educational associations and teachers’ unions: Professional groups all over the world have organized for collective action to do two quite different things. One objective of a professional organization is to improve the economic status and the working conditions of its members. A second broad objective is to improve the service…

  • professional painters (Chinese art)

    Dai Jin: …was later placed within the lineage of “professional” painters and held in lesser regard in contrast to the school of literary “amateurs,” who were more concerned with personal expression and who were then represented in the Wu school in which Shen Zhou held an equivalent place of leadership.

  • Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association (American organization)

    rodeo: Origins and history: …(RCA) in 1945 and the Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association (PRCA) in 1975, and its rules became accepted by most rodeos.

  • professional support system (information system)

    information system: Professional support systems: Professional support systems offer the facilities needed to perform tasks specific to a given profession. For example, automotive engineers use computer-aided engineering (CAE) software together with virtual reality systems to design and test new models as electronic prototypes for fuel efficiency, handling,…

  • professional wrestling (entertainment)

    Vince McMahon: ), American professional wrestling impresario who used showmanship and tireless promotion to make wrestling, formerly a niche entertainment, into a vastly lucrative industry.

  • Professional, The (film by Besson [1994])

    Natalie Portman: …film role in Léon (1994; The Professional). She starred opposite French actor Jean Reno as an adolescent girl training to be an assassin after her parents have been murdered. Hershlag assumed her maternal grandmother’s last name at this time in order to protect herself from unwanted attention as a result…

  • professionalism

    Professionalism, the standards, practices, or motivations associated with a profession. The concepts of professionalism, profession, and professionalization have received considerable and sometimes critical attention in sociology. In early British and American analyses, professionalism was

  • professionalization

    professionalism: …as a successful ideology and professionalization as a process of dominance over an occupation or a market. Professionalization, according to that interpretation, was intended to promote professionals’ own occupational self-interest with respect to salary, status, and power, as well as monopoly protection of an occupational jurisdiction. Professionalization was a process…

  • Professionals, The (film by Brooks [1966])

    The Professionals, American western film, released in 1966, that was an action-packed, testosterone-driven adventure featuring an all-star cast. Four fortune hunters are hired by rich land baron Joe Grant (played by Ralph Bellamy) to ride into Mexico and rescue his young wife, Maria (Claudia

  • Professor and the Madman, The (film by Shemran [2019])

    John Boorman: Boorman also cowrote the drama The Professor and the Madman (2019).

  • Professor Griff (American rapper)

    Public Enemy: …1966, New York City), and Professor Griff (original name Richard Griffin; b. August 1, 1960, Long Island).

  • Professor Hieronimus (work by Skram)

    Amalie Skram: …two autobiographical novels from 1895, Professor Hieronimus and På St. Jørgen (“At St. Jorgen’s”), in which she gives an artistically controlled but thinly veiled description of her own treatment for a nervous disorder at a mental institution in Copenhagen. English translations of both novels were published in one volume, Under…

  • Professor Longhair (American singer and musician)

    Professor Longhair, American singer and pianist who helped shape the sound of New Orleans rhythm and blues from the mid-1940s. As a young boy living in New Orleans, Byrd learned the rudiments of music from his mother. He constructed his own instruments and played and danced in the streets for tips.

  • Professor Lovdahl (work by Kielland)

    Norwegian literature: Toward the modern breakthrough: Professor Lovdahl). The foremost stylist of his age, Kielland was an elegant, witty novelist with a strong social conscience and an active reforming zeal stemming from an admiration for English philosopher John Stuart Mill.

  • Your preference has been recorded
    Check out Britannica's new site for parents!
    Subscribe Today!