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  • process control (industrial engineering)

    production management: Planning and control: Process control has two purposes: first, to ensure that operations are performed according to plan, and second, to continuously monitor and evaluate the production plan to see if modifications can be devised to better meet cost, quality, delivery, flexibility, or other objectives. For example, when…

  • process costing (accounting)

    accounting: Cost finding: …these methods is known as process costing. In this method, the accountant first accumulates the costs of each production operation or process for a specified time frame. This sum is then restated as an average by dividing the total costs of production by the total output in the period. Process…

  • process geomorphology (geology)

    continental landform: Uniformitarianism: …now often referred to as process geomorphology. In this area of study, research emphasis is placed on observing what can be accomplished by a contemporary geologic agency such as running water. Later, the role of moving ice, gravity, and wind in the molding of valleys and hillslopes came to be…

  • process metallurgy

    metallurgy: Extractive metallurgy: Following separation and concentration by mineral processing, metallic minerals are subjected to extractive metallurgy, in which their metallic elements are extracted from chemical compound form and refined of impurities.

  • Process of Education, The (work by Bruner)

    Jerome Bruner: His much-translated book The Process of Education (1960) was a powerful stimulus to the curriculum-reform movement of the period. In it he argued that any subject can be taught to any child at any stage of development, if it is presented in the proper manner. According to Bruner,…

  • Process of Government: A Study of Social Pressures, The (work by Bentley)

    Arthur F. Bentley: In The Process of Government: A Study of Social Pressures (1908), his most noted work, Bentley attempted to develop a methodology of behavioral social-science research and urged concentration of study on overt human activity, the raw material of the political process. He arranged political data in…

  • Process of National Reorganization (Argentine history)

    Dirty War, infamous campaign waged from 1976 to 1983 by Argentina’s military dictatorship against suspected left-wing political opponents. It is estimated that between 10,000 and 30,000 citizens were killed; many of them were “disappeared”—seized by the authorities and never heard from again. On

  • process painting (art)

    Action painting, direct, instinctual, and highly dynamic kind of art that involves the spontaneous application of vigorous, sweeping brushstrokes and the chance effects of dripping and spilling paint onto the canvas. The term was coined by the American art critic Harold Rosenberg to characterize

  • process philosophy

    Process philosophy, a 20th-century school of Western philosophy that emphasizes the elements of becoming, change, and novelty in experienced reality; it opposes the traditional Western philosophical stress on being, permanence, and uniformity. Reality—including both the natural world and the human

  • process privilege (law)

    executive privilege: Executive privilege in law and practice: …from the concept of “process privilege,” or the protection of administrative officials in the performance of their official responsibilities. The reasoning underlying process privilege is that were administrative officials acting in their official capacities subject to investigation, such a threat would have a chilling effect on the administrative process.…

  • process synchronization (computing)

    computer science: Parallel and distributed computing: …general prevention strategy is called process synchronization. Synchronization requires that one process wait for another to complete some operation before proceeding. For example, one process (a writer) may be writing data to a certain main memory area, while another process (a reader) may want to read data from that area.…

  • process theology (Christianity)

    Charles Hartshorne: …to be known as “process theology” or, as Hartshorne called it, “panentheism” (“all in God”). In Hartshorne’s philosophy, God’s perfection is seen in the evolution and the creativity of living beings, and God is conceived as dualistic—both free and unfree, conscious and unconscious, and eternal and temporal. He did…

  • processed meat (food)

    cancer: Strategies for cancer prevention: …beans) and less red meat, processed meat, and saturated fats—can increase the odds of avoiding cancer. International epidemiological and laboratory studies provide strong evidence that a high intake of dietary fat is associated with an increased incidence of breast, colon, rectal, and prostate cancer.

  • processing (photography)

    technology of photography: Black-and-white processing and printing: Amateurs usually process films in developing tanks. In this type of development roll or miniature film is wound around a reel with a spiral groove, which keeps adjacent turns separated and allows access by the processing solutions. Once the tank…

  • processing fabric

    textile: Processing fabrics: Processing fabrics are used by various manufacturers for such purposes as filtration, for bolting cloths used for various types of sifting and screening, and in commercial laundering as press covers and as nets segregating lots during washing. In textile finishing, back grays are…

  • processing, food

    Food processing, any of a variety of operations by which raw foodstuffs are made suitable for consumption, cooking, or storage. A brief treatment of food processing follows. For fuller treatment of storage methods, see food preservation. Food processing generally includes the basic preparation of

  • processing, materials

    Materials processing, the series of operations that transforms industrial materials from a raw-material state into finished parts or products. Industrial materials are defined as those used in the manufacture of “hard” goods, such as more or less durable machines and equipment produced for

  • processing, production

    automation: Manufacturing applications of automation and robotics: Three types of automation in production can be distinguished: (1) fixed automation, (2) programmable automation, and (3) flexible automation.

  • procession (religion)

    Procession, in Christianity, organized body of people advancing in formal or ceremonial manner as an element of Christian ritual or as a less official expression of popular piety. Public processions seem to have come into vogue soon after the recognition of Christianity as the religion of the

  • Procession of the Magi (painting by Gozzoli)

    Benozzo Gozzoli: …the latter commission, his “Procession of the Magi” reveals an artist of great decorative talent, with a pronounced gift for landscape and portraiture. By 1463 he was working at San Gimignano on a cycle of 17 scenes from the life of St. Augustine in the choir of Sant’Agostino (last…

  • Procession of the Three Magi, The (painting by Schnorr)

    Western painting: Germany: …Frankfurt am Main) and Schnorr’s “The Procession of the Three Magi” (1819; Museum of Fine Art, Leipzig). Alfred Rethel, a late arrival, however, manages to avoid such an effect in his haunting “King David with His Harp” (c. 1831; Museum of Art, Düsseldorf). Not long afterward there was a move…

  • processional staging (theatre)

    theatre: Staging conventions: Processional staging was particularly popular in Spain. The wagons, called carros, on which the scenery was mounted were positioned next to platforms that had been erected in every town. Developments were somewhat different in England and the Netherlands. There, the mansions themselves became portable, being…

  • Processional Way (road, Middle East)

    roads and highways: Roads of Persia and Babylon: …the royal palaces with the Processional Way, a major road in which burned bricks and carefully shaped stones were laid in bituminous mortar.

  • processionary caterpillar (insect larva)

    Processionary caterpillar, larval stage characteristic of the small insect family Thaumetopoeidae (order Lepidoptera), sometimes classified as part of the prominent moth family (Notodontidae). These hairy caterpillars live in communal webs and march in columns to their food source. During the

  • Procházka, Jan (Czech author)

    Czechoslovak history: The growing reform movement: …expelled from the party; and Jan Procházka was dismissed from the party’s Central Committee, of which he was a candidate member. This repression merely strengthened opposition to Novotný, however.

  • Procheiroi kanones (work by Ptolemy)

    astronomy: Ptolemy: …composed the Procheiroi kanones (Handy Tables), in which the astronomical tables of the Almagest were expanded and accompanied by directions for using them but were stripped of the theoretical discussion.

  • Próchno (work by Berent)

    Wacław Berent: In Próchno (1903; “Rotten Wood”) Berent expressed interest in the decadent lifestyle of artistic bohemians in contemporary urban settings—Berlin, in this case—an interest common to the Young Poland movement. He portrayed domestic problems in his Ozimina (1911; “Winter Crop”), putting a strong emphasis on the diverse…

  • Procida, Island of (island, Italy)

    Island of Procida, island near the northwest entrance to the Bay of Naples, Campania regione, southern Italy. It lies between Ischia Island and Cape Miseno on the mainland, and its highest point reaches 250 feet (76 metres) above sea level. Of volcanic origin, it is made up, with the adjacent

  • Prock, Markus (Austrian luger)

    Georg Hackl: …runs and beating silver medalist Markus Prock (Austria) by 0.3 second in the final standings.

  • proclamation (United States government)
  • Proclamation Society (British organization)

    William Wilberforce: …“reformation of manners” called the Proclamation Society (to suppress the publication of obscenity) and the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade—the latter more commonly called the Anti-Slavery Society. He and his associates—Thomas Clarkson, Granville Sharp, Henry Thornton, Charles Grant, Edward James Eliot, Zachary Macaulay, and James Stephen—were…

  • Proclus (Greek philosopher)

    Proclus, the last major ancient Greek philosopher. He was influential in helping Neoplatonic ideas to spread throughout the Byzantine, Islamic, and Roman worlds. Proclus was reared at Xanthus in Lycia, and he studied philosophy under Olympiodorus the Elder at Alexandria. He also studied under the

  • Proclus of Constantinople (patriarch of Constantinople)

    patristic literature: The Chalcedonian Fathers: …mention are Theodoret of Cyrrhus, Proclus of Constantinople, and John Cassian. The first was probably responsible for drafting the Formula of Union (433) that became the basis of the Chalcedonian Definition. Proclus was an outstanding pulpit orator, and several of his sermons as well as seven letters concerned with the…

  • Procne (Greek mythology)

    Tereus: …or of Phocis, who married Procne, daughter of Pandion, king of Athens. Later Tereus seduced his wife’s sister Philomela, pretending that Procne was dead. In order to hide his guilt, he cut out Philomela’s tongue. But she revealed the crime to her sister by working the details in embroidery. Procne…

  • Procnias (bird genus)

    bellbird: …America and constitute the genus Procnias, although only one, the white bellbird (P. alba), has a call that can actually be described as “bell-like.” Females are drably coloured, but the males are mostly or entirely white. Only the males vocalize, and in three of the four species, the males possess…

  • Procnias alba (bird)

    bellbird: …Procnias, although only one, the white bellbird (P. alba), has a call that can actually be described as “bell-like.” Females are drably coloured, but the males are mostly or entirely white. Only the males vocalize, and in three of the four species, the males possess fleshy ornamentation on the head.…

  • Procnias averano (bird)

    bellbird: The mossy-throated, bearded, or black-winged bellbird (P. averano) has many thin wattles hanging from the throat. The three-wattled bellbird (P. tricarunculata), confined to Central America, has three bill wattles. One hangs from each corner of the mouth, and another dangles from the bill’s upper base, each wattle measuring about…

  • Procnias nudicollis (bird)

    bellbird: The naked-throated bellbird (P. nudicollis) has a green face and throat. These jay-sized, fruit-eating birds produce calls that can be heard for long distances.

  • Procnias tricarunculata (bird)

    bellbird: The three-wattled bellbird (P. tricarunculata), confined to Central America, has three bill wattles. One hangs from each corner of the mouth, and another dangles from the bill’s upper base, each wattle measuring about one-third the length of the entire 30-cm (12-inch) bird. The naked-throated bellbird (P.…

  • Procol Harum (British musical group)

    art rock: Giant, the Moody Blues, and Procol Harum or the fusion of progressive rock and English folk music created by such groups as Jethro Tull and the Strawbs. In common, all these bands regularly employ complicated and conceptual approaches to their music. Moreover, there has been a relatively fluid movement of…

  • Procolobus (primate)

    colobus: …red colobus (genus Piliocolobus), and olive colobus (genus Procolobus).

  • Procolophonia (fossil reptile order)

    reptile: Annotated classification: †Order Procolophonia (procolophonians) Upper Permian to Upper Triassic. Three or 4 families, about 30 genera. Small (typically less than 0.5 metres [1.6 feet]) terrestrial lizardlike reptiles. Pineal eye foramen near frontoparietal suture on top of skull. Order Testudines (turtles)

  • proconodontid (fossil)

    Proconodontid, a small toothlike structure found in marine rocks formed over a long span of geologic time, that is among the most primitive of the conodonts. It lived during the Late Cambrian Period (the Cambrian Period began about 542 million years ago and ended about 488 million years ago). In

  • proconsul (ancient Roman official)

    Proconsul, in the ancient Roman Republic, a consul whose powers had been extended for a definite period after his regular term of one year. From the mid-4th century bc the Romans recognized the necessity, during lengthy wars, of extending the terms of certain magistrates; such extension was termed

  • Proconsul (fossil anthropoid)

    ape: …to the modern apes are Proconsul, Afropithecus, Dryopithecus, and Sivapithecus, the latter being a possible ancestor of the orangutan.

  • Proconsul africanus (fossil primate)

    Louis Leakey: …Kenya, of the remains of Proconsul africanus, a common ancestor of both humans and apes that lived about 25 million years ago. At Fort Ternan (east of Lake Victoria) in 1962, Leakey’s team discovered the remains of Kenyapithecus, another link between apes and early man that lived about 14 million…

  • Proconsulidae (fossil primate family)

    primate: Miocene: …it in a separate family, Proconsulidae. Since the 1980s a number of other genera (Limnopithecus, Dendropithecus, Afropithecus, Kamoypithecus, and others) have been added to the family. The location of the actual ancestors of living hominoids remained mysterious until previously known specimens from Moroto Island, in Lake Victoria, were

  • Procopius (Byzantine historian)

    Procopius, Byzantine historian whose works are an indispensable source for his period and contain much geographical information. From 527 to 531 he was adviser (consilarius) to the military commander Belisarius on his first Persian campaign. In 533 and 534 he took part in an expedition against the

  • Procopius (Roman emperor)

    ancient Rome: The reign of Valentinian and Valens: …by the attempted usurpation of Procopius (365–366), a pagan relative of Julian’s who failed and was killed by the army, which remained faithful to Valens. Modestus instituted harsh persecutions in Antioch of the educated pagan elite. Valens was a fanatic Arian, who exiled even moderate Nicaean bishops and granted to…

  • Procopius Anthemius (Roman emperor)

    Anthemius, Western Roman emperor who reigned from April 12, 467, to July 11, 472. The son-in-law of the Eastern emperor Marcian, Anthemius was appointed to his office by Marcian’s successor, Leo I, who wanted help in attacking the Vandals in North Africa. The powerful patrician Ricimer, kingmaker

  • Procopius the Great (Bohemian priest)

    Prokop The Bald, Bohemian warrior-priest who was the foremost leader of the Hussite Reformation forces in the later period of the Hussite wars. Initially Prokop was a conservative (Utraquist) priest, but then he joined the heretical religious movement that had sprung from the teachings of the

  • Procoptas (Greek mythological figure)

    Procrustes, in Greek legend, a robber dwelling somewhere in Attica—in some versions, in the neighbourhood of Eleusis. His father was said to be Poseidon. Procrustes had an iron bed (or, according to some accounts, two beds) on which he compelled his victims to lie. Here, if a victim was shorter

  • Procris (Greek mythology)

    Cephalus: …of Phocis, and husband of Procris, daughter of King Erechtheus of Athens. In this version of the story, Cephalus’s devotion to hunting aroused in Procris suspicions that she had a rival, and so she followed him. Emerging suddenly from a thicket, she was fatally struck by Cephalus, who mistook her…

  • Procris (insect)

    Forester moth, (genus Procris or Ino), any of a group of moths in the family Zygaenidae (order Lepidoptera) that are closely related to the burnet moths. The adult forester moth has shining green forewings with a span of about 3 cm (1.2 inches), translucent, dark hind wings, and an iridescent body.

  • Procrustes (Greek mythological figure)

    Procrustes, in Greek legend, a robber dwelling somewhere in Attica—in some versions, in the neighbourhood of Eleusis. His father was said to be Poseidon. Procrustes had an iron bed (or, according to some accounts, two beds) on which he compelled his victims to lie. Here, if a victim was shorter

  • procryptic coloration (biology)

    Concealing coloration, in animals, the use of biological coloration to mask location, identity, and movement, providing concealment from prey and protection from predators. Background matching is a type of concealment in which an organism avoids recognition by resembling its background in

  • Procter & Gamble Company (American company)

    Procter & Gamble Company, major American manufacturer of soaps, cleansers, and other household products. Headquarters are in Cincinnati, Ohio. The company was formed in 1837 when William Procter, a British candlemaker, and James Gamble, an Irish soapmaker, merged their businesses in Cincinnati. The

  • Procter, Henry A. (British brigadier general)

    Battle of the Thames: …commander at Detroit, Brigadier General Henry A. Procter, found his position untenable and began a hasty retreat across the Ontario peninsula. He was pursued by about 3,500 U.S. troops under Major General William Henry Harrison, who was supported by the U.S. fleet in command of Lake Erie. The forces met…

  • Procter, Thomas (English engineer)

    roads and highways: The master road builders: In 1607 Thomas Procter published the first English-language book on roads. The first highway engineering school in Europe, the School of Bridges and Highways, was founded in Paris in 1747. Late in the 18th century the Scottish political economist Adam Smith, in discussing conditions in England, wrote,

  • Procter, William Cooper (American businessman)

    William Cooper Procter, American manufacturer who established the nation’s first profit-sharing plan for employees. The soapmaking firm of Procter & Gamble was founded in Cincinnati by Procter’s grandfather William Procter, a candlemaker, who joined with James Gamble, an Irish soapmaker, in 1837.

  • proctitis (pathology)

    Proctitis, acute inflammatory infection of the anus and rectum. The most common cause of proctitis is the direct inoculation of pathogenic microorganisms into the rectum during anal intercourse, but it may be caused by sexually transmitted diseases, Crohn disease, or ulcerative colitis. The usual

  • proctocele (medical disorder)

    Rectocele, disorder in which the rectum bulges into the back wall of the vagina. It is caused when the muscles and connective tissues supporting the rectum and back wall of the vagina are weakened, usually due to repeated childbirth or to aging, and the rectum sags until it abuts the vagina. A

  • proctocolitis (pathology)

    proctitis: …sigmoid colon, it is termed proctocolitis; this disorder usually involves the additional symptoms of diarrhea, abdominal cramping, and fever.

  • proctodaeum (anatomy)

    nutrition: Herbivores: …use of leafy foods through hindgut fermentation. In animal species generally, the main breakdown of foods by enzymes and absorption into the bloodstream occurs in the small intestine. The main function of the large intestine is then to absorb most of the water remaining so as to conserve losses when…

  • proctor (law)

    Proctor, in English law, formerly a practitioner in ecclesiastical and admiralty courts, who performed duties similar to those of solicitors in ordinary courts. After the Judicature Act of 1873, the title of proctor in this sense became obsolete, the term solicitor being extended to include

  • proctoscope (medical instrument)

    sigmoidoscopy: The proctoscope and anoscope, shorter rigid instruments used to visualize the lower rectum and anus, are used to diagnose and treat hemorrhoids and other lesions in the anorectal area.

  • proctosigmoidoscope (medical instrument)

    colorectal cancer: Diagnosis: …narrow, flexible tube called a sigmoidoscope to look at the lining of the rectum and the end of the colon. Colonoscopy uses a similar device to examine the entire colon. A biopsy may also be conducted in which abnormal tissue is removed by using the colonoscope and then examined under…

  • procuracy (Russian and Soviet history)

    Procuracy, in the former Soviet legal system, a government bureau concerned with ensuring administrative legality. The Soviet constitution invested the procurator general (Russian: generalny prokuror) with the responsibility of supervising the observance of the law by all government ministries a

  • procurador (Spanish official)

    Cortes: …estates: nobles, clergy, and the procuradores (attorneys or town clerks) of the concejos (fortified municipalities), who bore poderes (written instructions) from their electors. The king convened the Cortes’ meetings when and where he pleased. During the 14th century the procuradores dominated the Cortes because only they could authorize the special…

  • procurator (ancient Roman official)

    Procurator, government financial agent in ancient Rome. From the reign of the emperor Augustus (27 bc–ad 14), procurators were regularly appointed to official posts in the imperial administration of the provinces or in the departments of the imperial government concerning such matters as the grain

  • Procurator Giovanni Querini (painting by Tiepolo)

    Giovanni Battista Tiepolo: Later life: …the superb portrait of the Procurator Giovanni Querini (?), owned by the Galleria Querini-Stampalia of Venice; it represents not only a man but also an undermined aristocracy destined to fall.

  • procurator-fiscal (Scottish official)

    crime: The decision to prosecute: …jurisdictions of the United States, procurator-fiscal in Scotland, and crown attorney in Canada). The prosecutor may be an elected local official (as in many jurisdictions in the United States) or a member of an organization responsible to a minister of the national government.

  • procuratores (ancient Roman official)

    Procurator, government financial agent in ancient Rome. From the reign of the emperor Augustus (27 bc–ad 14), procurators were regularly appointed to official posts in the imperial administration of the provinces or in the departments of the imperial government concerning such matters as the grain

  • procurement (business)

    logistics: Purchasing: Closely related to production scheduling is purchasing, because many of the inputs needed for production must be purchased from outside vendors. The logistics staff advises as to the transportation services that must be used to ensure that the purchased materials arrive on schedule. If…

  • Procuress, The (painting by Vermeer)

    Johannes Vermeer: Artistic training and early influences: …traditions is apparent in Vermeer’s The Procuress (1656). The subject of this scene of mercenary love is derived from a painting by the Utrecht-school artist Dirck van Baburen in the collection of Vermeer’s mother-in-law, while the deep reds and yellows and the strong chiaroscuro effects are reminiscent of Rembrandt’s style…

  • Procuress, The (painting by Baburen)

    Dirck van Baburen: …from everyday life), such as The Procuress (1622). A certain coarseness in conception, irregular compositional rhythms, and less atmospheric quality distinguish Baburen’s art from that of his greater contemporaries, but his manner of painting can be said to be broad and forceful.

  • procureur (French official)

    ministère public: … is represented by agents (procureurs) in most of the courts of France, except police courts.

  • procureur général (French official)

    Cour de Cassation: …and a chief prosecutor (procureur général), who is assisted by several advocates. Petitions for appeal go directly to the relevant chamber, which decides whether it will hear them. Although most cases are brought up on appeal from one of the parties, the procureur général keeps an eye out for…

  • procuticle (anatomy)

    arthropod: The exoskeleton and molting: …thick, inner, chitin–protein layer, the procuticle. In most terrestrial arthropods, such as insects and spiders, the epicuticle contains waxes that aid in reducing evaporative water loss. The procuticle consists of an outer exocuticle and an inner endocuticle. In the exocuticle there is cross-bonding of the chitin–protein chains (tanning), which provides…

  • Procynosuchidae (fossil tetrapod family)

    cynodont: …to some classifications, five families—Procynosuchidae, Galesauridae, Tritylodontidae, Chiniquodontidae, and Trithelodontidae. The first mammals probably derived from small carnivorous chiniquodontids or trithelodonts sometime in the Middle Triassic Epoch (245.9 million to 228.7 million years ago).

  • Procyon (star)

    Procyon, brightest star in the northern constellation Canis Minor (Lesser Dog) and one of the brightest in the entire sky, with an apparent visual magnitude of 0.41. Procyon lies 11.4 light-years from Earth and is a visual binary, a bright yellow-white subgiant with a faint, white dwarf companion

  • Procyon (mammal)

    Raccoon, (genus Procyon), any of seven species of nocturnal mammals characterized by bushy ringed tails. The most common and well-known is the North American raccoon (Procyon lotor), which ranges from northern Canada and most of the United States southward into South America. It has a conspicuous

  • Procyon cancrivorus (mammal)

    raccoon: The crab-eating raccoon (P. cancrivorus) inhabits South America as far south as northern Argentina. It resembles the North American raccoon but has shorter, coarser fur. The other members of genus Procyon are not well known. Most are tropical and probably rare. They are the Barbados raccoon…

  • Procyon lotor (mammal)

    raccoon: …common and well-known is the North American raccoon (Procyon lotor), which ranges from northern Canada and most of the United States southward into South America. It has a conspicuous black “mask” across the eyes, and the tail is ringed with 5 to 10 black bands.

  • procyonid (mammal)

    Procyonid, (family Procyonidae), any of a group of tree-climbing mammals comprising raccoons, coatis, olingos, the New World ringtail, the cacomistle, and the kinkajou. Though the 18 species are classified as carnivores, procyonids are actually omnivorous and are closely related to bears (family

  • Procyonidae (mammal)

    Procyonid, (family Procyonidae), any of a group of tree-climbing mammals comprising raccoons, coatis, olingos, the New World ringtail, the cacomistle, and the kinkajou. Though the 18 species are classified as carnivores, procyonids are actually omnivorous and are closely related to bears (family

  • Prodanov, Christo (Bulgarian mountaineer)

    Mount Everest: Developments in Nepal: …Bulgarian to reach the summit, Christo Prodanov, climbed without supplemental oxygen, was forced to bivouac overnight during the descent, and died—one of four summiteers who climbed without oxygen in the 1980s and failed to return.

  • Prodea Systems (American company)

    Anousheh Ansari: In 2006 she cofounded Prodea Systems, an Internet-of-things company, and served as the company’s first chief executive officer. She wrote an autobiography, My Dream of Stars: From Daughter of Iran to Space Pioneer (2010; with Homer Hickham).

  • Proden, Maria Elena (British designer)

    Maria Bjørnson, (Maria Elena Proden), British costume and set designer (born Feb. 16, 1949, Paris, France—died Dec. 13, 2002, London, Eng.), created imaginative and innovative designs for more than 125 opera, ballet, and theatre productions in a career that spanned 32 years. She was most a

  • Prodi, Romano (prime minister of Italy)

    Romano Prodi, Italian politician who was twice prime minister of Italy (1996–98; 2006–08) and who served as president of the European Commission (1999–2004). Prodi graduated from Catholic University in Milan in 1961 and did postdoctoral work at the London School of Economics. After serving as a

  • Prodicus (Greek Sophist)

    history of logic: Precursors of ancient logic: Gorgias, Hippias, Prodicus, and Protagoras (all 5th century bce)—cultivated the art of defending or attacking a thesis by means of argument. This concern for the techniques of argument on occasion merely led to verbal displays of debating skills, what Plato called “eristic.” But it is also true…

  • Pródiga (work by Gonçalves)

    António Aurélio Gonçalves: Pródiga (1956; “The Prodigal Daughter”) examines the life of a wayward daughter who leaves home, has an affair, and returns to the fold. O Enterro de Nhá Candinha Sena (1957; “The Burial of Mrs. Candinha Sena”) delves into the narrator’s childhood relationship with a childless…

  • Prodigal Son, The (ballet by Prokofiev)

    George Balanchine: The European years: …and Le Fils prodigue (The Prodigal Son, 1929).

  • Prodigal Son, The (sculpture by Brancusi)

    Constantin Brancusi: Maturity: His first sculpture in wood, The Prodigal Son, in 1914, was very close to abstraction; it is a piece of rudely carved oak with the scarcely perceptible features of a human being. He would follow this path with a whole series of wood sculptures that are among his strangest works.…

  • Prodigal Summer (novel by Kingsolver)

    Barbara Kingsolver: In Prodigal Summer (2001) the intertwined lives of several characters living in Appalachia illuminate the relationship between humans and the natural world. Her next novel, The Lacuna (2009), combines history and fiction as it traces the life of a Mexican American novelist who befriends Frida Kahlo…

  • Prodigal, The (poem by Walcott)

    Derek Walcott: ) The book-length poem The Prodigal (2004), its setting shifting between Europe and North America, explores the nature of identity and exile. Selected Poems, a collection of poetry from across Walcott’s career, appeared in 2007. Aging is a central theme in White Egrets (2010), a volume of new poems.

  • Prodigious Snob, The (play by Molière)

    The Bourgeois Gentleman, comedy in five acts by Molière, gently satirizing the pretensions of the social climber whose affectations are absurd to everyone but himself. It was first performed as Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme in 1670, with music by Jean-Baptiste Lully, and was published in 1671. It has

  • prodigy

    Prodigy, a child who, by about age 10, performs at the level of a highly trained adult in a particular sphere of activity or knowledge. In this sense, neither high intelligence nor eccentric skills by themselves qualify a child as a prodigy. Rather, it is the capacity to perform in a recognized

  • Prodigy, the (British music group)

    techno: …success of albums by the Prodigy and the Chemical Brothers.

  • prodomal period (medicine)

    virus: Infectious patterns: …this stage is called the prodromal period of the illness. During the next few days, the virus enters the draining lymph nodes and then the bloodstream, where it is spread throughout the tissues of the body, resulting in fever and rash (in the case of measles and chickenpox) and inflammation…

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