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  • probabilistic risk assessment

    nuclear reactor: The Reactor Safety Study of 1972–75: …study involved the application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques for the first time on a system as complex as a large nuclear power reactor. Also for the first time, the study compared the risk of a nuclear power plant accident with other events such as natural disasters and human-caused…

  • probability (mathematics)

    Probability and statistics, the branches of mathematics concerned with the laws governing random events, including the collection, analysis, interpretation, and display of numerical data. Probability has its origin in the study of gambling and insurance in the 17th century, and it is now an

  • Probability Approach in Econometrics, The (work by Haavelmo)

    Trygve Haavelmo: …and delivered his doctoral dissertation, “The Probability Approach in Econometrics,” at Harvard University in 1941. Although he had two doctorates from the University of Oslo, his innovative dissertation, cited by the Nobel committee for its influence, was first published in 1944 in an American periodical, Econometrica. During the 1940s Haavelmo…

  • probability curve (mathematics)

    Brownian motion: Einstein’s theory of Brownian motion: The graph is the familiar bell-shaped Gaussian “normal” curve that typically arises when the random variable is the sum of many independent, statistically identical random variables, in this case the many little pushes that add up to the total motion. The equation for this relationship is

  • probability density function (mathematics)

    Probability density function (PDF), in statistics, a function whose integral is calculated to find probabilities associated with a continuous random variable (see continuity; probability theory). Its graph is a curve above the horizontal axis that defines a total area, between itself and the axis,

  • probability distribution (mathematics)

    Distribution function, mathematical expression that describes the probability that a system will take on a specific value or set of values. The classic examples are associated with games of chance. The binomial distribution gives the probabilities that heads will come up a times and tails n − a

  • probability mass function (statistics)

    statistics: Random variables and probability distributions: …distribution is defined by a probability mass function, denoted by f(x). This function provides the probability for each value of the random variable. In the development of the probability function for a discrete random variable, two conditions must be satisfied: (1) f(x) must be nonnegative for each value of the…

  • probability measure (mathematics)

    probability theory: Measure theory: … of subsets of S, a probability measure is a function P that assigns to each set A ∊ M a nonnegative real number and that has the following two properties: (a) P(S) = 1 and (b) if A1, A2,… ∊ M and Ai ∩ Aj = Ø for all i…

  • probability sampling (statistics)

    sampling: …simple random sampling, based on probability theory. In this form of random sampling, every element of the population being sampled has an equal probability of being selected. In a random sample of a class of 50 students, for example, each student has the same probability, 1/50, of being selected. Every…

  • probability space (mathematics)

    automata theory: Computable probability spaces: Finally, it is to be observed that the concept of chance or random number, wherever it has occurred in the above discussion, submits to the interpretation of result of observation of an experiment or physical phenomenon. The chance ingredients in the weather data…

  • probability theory (mathematics)

    Probability theory, a branch of mathematics concerned with the analysis of random phenomena. The outcome of a random event cannot be determined before it occurs, but it may be any one of several possible outcomes. The actual outcome is considered to be determined by chance. The word probability has

  • probable cause (law)

    crime: Gathering evidence: …only if there is “probable cause for believing” or “reasonable ground for suspecting” that evidence will be found. In some cases a person may be stopped on the street and searched, provided that the police officers identify themselves and state the reasons for the search. In the United States…

  • probable-word method (cryptanalysis)

    Vigenère cipher: …is commonly known as the probable-word method. In this approach, words that are thought most likely to occur in the text are subtracted from the cipher. For example, suppose that an encrypted message to President Jefferson Davis of the Confederate States of America was intercepted. Based on a statistical analysis…

  • probate (law)

    Probate, in Anglo-American law, the judicial proceedings by which it is determined whether or not a paper purporting to be the last will of a deceased person is the legally valid last will. What appears to be a valid will may not be so: it may have been forged, not executed in the way required by

  • Probate Court (United States)

    inheritance: Probate: …developed in America was the Probate Court, which in most states is called by that name but in New York and New Jersey is known as Surrogate’s (or Surrogate) Court and in Pennsylvania as Orphan’s Court.

  • Probate, Divorce and Admiralty Division (English law)

    inheritance: Probate: …of the 1870s, the new Probate, Divorce and Admiralty Division was established in the High Court. It took over from the ecclesiastical courts the narrow jurisdiction left to them, that of scrutinizing instruments purporting to be testaments; but simultaneously its jurisdiction was extended to wills—i.e., instruments purporting to dispose of…

  • probation (penology)

    Probation, correctional method under which the sentences of selected offenders may be conditionally suspended upon the promise of good behaviour and agreement to accept supervision and abide by specified requirements. Probation is distinct from parole, which involves conditional release from

  • probe (biology)

    plant disease: Technological advances in the identification of pathogenic agents: … from a known species (the probe) is radioactively labeled and “mixed” with DNA from an unidentified species. If the probe and the unknown DNA are from identical species, they will have complementary DNA sequences that enable them to bind to one another. Bound to DNA from the unknown species, the…

  • probe (instrument)

    plasma: Determination of plasma variables: …types of sensory devices called probes help determine the magnitudes of such variables. With the electrostatic probe, ion densities, electron and ion temperatures, and electrostatic potential differences can be determined. Small search coils and other types of magnetic probes yield values for the magnetic field; and from Maxwell’s electromagnetic equations…

  • probe hole (mining)

    mining: Exploration: …technique is the drilling of probe holes. In this practice a drill with a diamond-tipped bit cuts a narrow kerf of rock, extracting intact a cylindrical core of rock in the centre (see core sampling). These core holes may be hundreds or even thousands of metres in length; the most…

  • probe rocket

    Sounding rocket, any unmanned rocket that is designed to probe atmospheric conditions and structure at heights (80–160 km [50–100 miles]) beyond the reach of airplanes and balloons but impractical to explore by means of artificial satellites. A sounding rocket usually has a vertical trajectory as i

  • probe, space

    extraterrestrial intelligence: Argument for extraterrestrial intelligence: In addition, space probes are trying to find evidence that the conditions for life might have emerged on Mars or other worlds in the solar system, thus addressing assumption 2. Proof of assumption 3, that thinking beings will evolve on some of the worlds with life, requires…

  • Proben der Volkslitteratur der türkischen Stämme (work by Radlov)

    Vasily Radlov: …collected appeared in part in Proben der Volkslitteratur der türkischen Stämme, 10 vol. (1866–1907; “Examples of the Folk Literature of the Turkic Tribes”). This and others of his works offered the first precise, systematic treatment of Central Asiatic ethnography and established the scientific study of the Turkic peoples.

  • probenecid (drug)

    Probenecid, drug used in the treatment of chronic gout, a disorder that is characterized by recurrent acute attacks of inflammation in one or more joints of the extremities. Probenecid inhibits the transport of most organic acids in the renal tubules of the kidneys. It was used in medicine

  • Probert, Bob (Canadian hockey player)

    Bob Probert, Canadian ice hockey player (born June 5, 1965, Windsor, Ont.—died July 5, 2010, Windsor), was a powerful and imposing 1.9-m (6-ft 3-in)-tall left winger who, while playing in the National Hockey League, gained a reputation for his punishing brawls while skating for the Detroit Red

  • probiotic (microorganism)

    Probiotic, any of various live microorganisms, typically bacteria or yeast, that are ingested or otherwise administered as a means of potentially aiding the prevention and treatment of certain health conditions, primarily gastrointestinal disorders. The notion that the ingestion of certain

  • problem (mathematics)

    mathematics: The Elements: …two kinds: “theorems” and “problems.” A theorem makes the claim that all terms of a certain description have a specified property; a problem seeks the construction of a term that is to have a specified property. In the Elements all the problems are constructible on the basis of three…

  • Problem Athletes and How to Handle Them (work by Ogilvie and Tutko)

    sports: Psychology of sports: In Problem Athletes and How to Handle Them (1966), Americans Bruce Ogilvie and Thomas Tutko attempted to apply motivational principles to improve sports performance. Their widely used Athletic Motivation Inventory was designed to measure personality traits, such as leadership and mental toughness, conducive to athletic achievement.…

  • Problem der Form in der bildenden Kunst, Das (work by Hildebrand)

    Adolf von Hildebrand: …he most effectively promulgated in Das Problem der Form in der bildenden Kunst (1893), which helped establish the theoretical foundation for modern sculpture.

  • problem finding (psychology)

    human intelligence: Post-Piaget theories: …of development, such as “problem finding.” Problem finding comes before problem solving; it is the process of identifying problems that are worth solving in the first place. A second course has identified periods of development that are quite different from those suggested by Piaget. A third course has been…

  • Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide, A (work by Power)

    Samantha Power: …2002 book on the subject, A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide, won the 2003 Pulitzer Prize for general nonfiction and became a reference source for discussions of genocide and humanitarian intervention within both academia and government. Power, who was often characterized as a pragmatic idealist, argued…

  • problem literature (Scandinavian literature)

    Norwegian literature: Toward the modern breakthrough: …’80s in the realistic “problem” literature of Henrik Ibsen, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, and their contemporaries. l (1877; Pillars of Society) was the first of a succession of problem dramas by Ibsen to win him worldwide fame. By then he had already written two verse dramas, Brand (1866) and Peer Gynt…

  • problem novel (literature)

    Social problem novel, work of fiction in which a prevailing social problem, such as gender, race, or class prejudice, is dramatized through its effect on the characters of a novel. The type emerged in Great Britain and the United States in the mid-19th century. An early example is Elizabeth

  • Problem of Knowledge, The (work by Ayer)

    Sir A.J. Ayer: The Problem of Knowledge: At the end of the war, Ayer at last secured an Oxford fellowship. One year later, in 1946, he was appointed Grote Professor of Mental Philosophy at University College, London. Although little philosophy had been published in England during the war,…

  • Problem of Knowledge: Philosophy, Science, and History since Hegel, The (work by Cassirer)

    Kantianism: Epistemological Neo-Kantianism: …Wissenschaft der neueren Zeit (1906–20; The Problem of Knowledge: Philosophy, Science, and History since Hegel), transposed this same logisticism into a form that illumines the history of modern philosophy.

  • Problem of Method, The (work by Sartre)

    Jean-Paul Sartre: Political activities: title, Search for a Method). Sartre set out to examine critically the Marxist dialectic and discovered that it was not livable in the Soviet form. Although he still believed that Marxism was the only philosophy for the current times, he conceded that it had become ossified…

  • Problem of Social Cost, The (paper by Coase)

    Ronald Coase: …his most influential paper, “The Problem of Social Cost” (1960), he developed what later became known as the Coase theorem, arguing that when information and transaction costs are low, the market will produce an efficient solution to the problem of nuisances without regard to where the law places the…

  • problem play (drama)

    Problem play, type of drama that developed in the 19th century to deal with controversial social issues in a realistic manner, to expose social ills, and to stimulate thought and discussion on the part of the audience. The genre had its beginnings in the work of the French dramatists Alexandre

  • problem solving (psychology)

    Problem solving, Process involved in finding a solution to a problem. Many animals routinely solve problems of locomotion, food finding, and shelter through trial and error. Some higher animals, such as apes and cetaceans, have demonstrated more complex problem-solving abilities, including

  • Problem We All Live With, The (painting by Rockwell)

    Ruby Bridges: …inspired the Norman Rockwell painting The Problem We All Live With (1964), which depicts the young Bridges walking to school between two sets of marshals, a racial epithet marking the wall behind them. Her story was also recounted in Coles’s children’s book The Story of Ruby Bridges (1995), which has…

  • problem-oriented language (computer science)

    computer program: …for original formulation are called problem-oriented languages. A wide array of problem-oriented languages has been developed, some of the principal ones being COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language), FORTRAN (Formula Translation), BASIC (Beginner’s All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code), and Pascal. (See also computer programming language.)

  • problem-solving environment (computer science)

    numerical analysis: Modern applications and computer software: …analysis software, and it requires problem-solving environments (PSE) in which it is relatively easy to model a given situation. PSEs are usually based on excellent theoretical mathematical models, made available to the user through a convenient graphical user interface.

  • Problema vervolka v sredney polose (work by Pelevin)

    Viktor Pelevin: …vervolka v sredney polose (1994; A Werewolf Problem in Central Russia and Other Stories, also published as The Sacred Book of the Werewolf), both of which won a Russian Booker Prize. Not only were his works wildly popular with young Russian readers, but they also were highly regarded in the…

  • Problematic Characters (work by Spielhagen)

    Friedrich von Spielhagen: (1861; Problematic Characters), considered one of the best works of its time. The hero is pulled in opposite directions by the democratic ideals of society and state and by the distractions of social life. This was followed by Durch Nacht zum Licht, 4 vol. (1862; Through…

  • Problematische Naturen (work by Spielhagen)

    Friedrich von Spielhagen: (1861; Problematic Characters), considered one of the best works of its time. The hero is pulled in opposite directions by the democratic ideals of society and state and by the distractions of social life. This was followed by Durch Nacht zum Licht, 4 vol. (1862; Through…

  • Probleme der Lyrik (work by Benn)

    German literature: The post-1945 period: Stunde Null: …“Probleme der Lyrik” (1951; “Problems of the Lyric”), essentially a restatement of the formalist precepts of early 20th-century Modernism, enabled postwar German poetry to reconnect with the European tradition. Under Benn’s influence, much postwar poetry tended to be abstract and hermetic; but there was also a more socially critical…

  • Problèmes plaisans et delectables qui se font par les nombres (work by Bachet)

    number game: Pioneers and imitators: …of numbers (1621), and his Problèmes plaisans et delectables qui se font par les nombres (1612). The latter passed through five editions, the last as late as 1959; it was the forerunner of similar collections of recreations to follow. The emphasis was placed on arithmetic rather than geometric puzzles. Among…

  • Problems and Solutions About the First Principles (work by Damascius)

    Damascius: …peri tōn prōtōn archōn (Problems and Solutions About the First Principles), elaborates the comprehensive system of the Neoplatonist thinker Proclus. Despite its retention of Athenian Neoplatonism’s hairsplitting logic and theosophical fantasy, Damascius’ work opens the way to genuine mysticism by his insistence that human speculation can never attain to…

  • Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics (work by Bakhtin)

    Mikhail Bakhtin: …1963, retitled Problemy poetiki Dostoyevskogo; Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics), which he published under his own name just before he was arrested. It is considered one of the finest critical works on Dostoyevsky. In the book Bakhtin expressed his belief in a mutual relation between meaning and context involving the author,…

  • Problems of Leninism (work by Stalin)

    Marxism: Stalin: His work Voprosy leninizma (1926; Problems of Leninism), which appeared in 11 editions during his lifetime, sets forth an ideology of power and activism that rides roughshod over the more nuanced approach of Lenin.

  • Problems of Mathematics, The (work by Hilbert)

    Aleksandr Osipovich Gelfond: …the seventh of 23 famous problems that had been posed by the German mathematician David Hilbert in 1900. Gelfond’s methods were readily accepted by other mathematicians, and important new concepts in transcendental number theory were rapidly developed. Much of his work, including the construction of new classes of transcendental numbers,…

  • Problems of Philosophy, The (work by Russell)

    Bertrand Russell: …a best-selling introductory survey called The Problems of Philosophy (1911), Russell discovered that he had a gift for writing on difficult subjects for lay readers, and he began increasingly to address his work to them rather than to the tiny handful of people capable of understanding Principia Mathematica.

  • Problems of the Lyric (work by Benn)

    German literature: The post-1945 period: Stunde Null: …“Probleme der Lyrik” (1951; “Problems of the Lyric”), essentially a restatement of the formalist precepts of early 20th-century Modernism, enabled postwar German poetry to reconnect with the European tradition. Under Benn’s influence, much postwar poetry tended to be abstract and hermetic; but there was also a more socially critical…

  • Problemy poetiki Dostoyevskogo (work by Bakhtin)

    Mikhail Bakhtin: …1963, retitled Problemy poetiki Dostoyevskogo; Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics), which he published under his own name just before he was arrested. It is considered one of the finest critical works on Dostoyevsky. In the book Bakhtin expressed his belief in a mutual relation between meaning and context involving the author,…

  • Problemy tvorchestva Dostoyevskogo (work by Bakhtin)

    Mikhail Bakhtin: …1963, retitled Problemy poetiki Dostoyevskogo; Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics), which he published under his own name just before he was arrested. It is considered one of the finest critical works on Dostoyevsky. In the book Bakhtin expressed his belief in a mutual relation between meaning and context involving the author,…

  • Probolinggo (Indonesia)

    Probolinggo, city, central East Java (Jawa Timur) propinsi (or provinsi; province), Java, Indonesia. It is located on the southern side of Madura Strait, about 50 miles (80 km) southeast of Surabaya. There is a good harbour for small ships, and the fishing industry is important. Cottage industries

  • Proboscidea (mammal)

    Proboscidean, (order Proboscidea), any of the group of mammals that includes elephants and their extinct relatives such as mammoths and mastodons. Although only three species of elephant are extant today, more than 160 extinct proboscidean species have been identified from remains found on all

  • proboscidean (mammal)

    Proboscidean, (order Proboscidea), any of the group of mammals that includes elephants and their extinct relatives such as mammoths and mastodons. Although only three species of elephant are extant today, more than 160 extinct proboscidean species have been identified from remains found on all

  • probosciform penis (anatomy)

    cirripede: The reproductive system: …enters the base of the probosciform penis, situated between the last pair of legs, and runs its length. The penis may be clothed with fine setae, randomly distributed or arranged in discrete rows, or modified into simple or complex spines and hooks.

  • Probosciger aterrimus (bird)

    cockatoo: …among psittaciform birds is the palm, or great black, cockatoo (Probosciger aterrimus), 65 to 75 cm (about 25 to 30 inches) long. This solitary bird of northeastern Australia, New Guinea, and the Aru Islands has a threadlike erectile crest. It has a piercing whistlelike call, and the male grips a…

  • proboscis (anatomy)

    circulatory system: Hemichordata: …and have a short, conical proboscis, which gives them their common name. The vascular system of the Enteropneusta is open, with two main contractile vessels and a system of sinus channels. The colourless blood passes forward in the dorsal vessel, which widens at the posterior of the proboscis into a…

  • proboscis monkey (primate)

    Proboscis monkey, (Nasalis larvatus), long-tailed arboreal primate found along rivers and in swampy mangrove forests of Borneo. Named for the male’s long and pendulous nose, the proboscis monkey is red-brown with pale underparts. The nose is smaller in the female and is upturned in the young. Males

  • proboscis worm (invertebrate)

    Ribbon worm, any member of the invertebrate phylum Nemertea (sometimes called Nemertinea, or Rhynchocoela), which includes mainly free-living forms but also a few parasites of crustaceans, mollusks, and sea squirts. The majority of the approximately 900 known nemertean species are found in marine

  • proboscis worm (Glycera dibranchiata)

    bloodworm: The marine proboscis worm Glycera (class Polychaeta, family Glyceridae) is sometimes called bloodworm. G. dibranchiata is found along the eastern coast of North America. It grows to 37 centimetres (about 15 inches) in length.

  • Proboseidea louisianica (plant)

    unicorn plant: …plant order Lamiales, and particularly Proboseidea louisianica. There are nine species of unicorn plants, most having large purple or creamy white flowers.

  • Probst, Christoph (German activist)

    White Rose: …investigation uncovered the participation of Christoph Probst, a fellow University of Munich medical student, in the White Rose. The Scholls and Probst were quickly tried, and the three were beheaded on February 22, 1943. In the months that followed, dozens were imprisoned for their (real or imagined) connections to the…

  • Probus (Roman emperor)

    Probus, Roman emperor from ad 276 to 282. The son of a Balkan military officer, Probus served with distinction in the army and apparently was eastern praetorian prefect when his troops proclaimed him emperor in opposition to Florian, who was soon killed by his own men. Probus’s reign was spent in

  • Probus, Marcus Aurelius (Roman emperor)

    Probus, Roman emperor from ad 276 to 282. The son of a Balkan military officer, Probus served with distinction in the army and apparently was eastern praetorian prefect when his troops proclaimed him emperor in opposition to Florian, who was soon killed by his own men. Probus’s reign was spent in

  • Probus, Marcus Valerius (Roman critic)

    classical scholarship: Republic and early empire: …Augustus; of editors such as Marcus Valerius Probus (c. ad 20–105), who made critical editions of Plautus, Terence, Lucretius, Virgil, and Horace; of grammarians such as Verrius Flaccus, the author of a vast work on the meaning of words; of the elder Pliny (ad 23/24–79), whose encyclopaedic Historia naturalis (Natural…

  • procainamide (drug)

    cardiovascular drug: Heart rate: Quinidine, procainamide, lidocaine, and phenytoin exert their antiarrhythmic effects by reducing electrical excitability. Quinidine and procainamide have the disadvantage that they reduce the force of contraction of the heart and tend to lower blood pressure. They are also liable to cause side effects such as nausea…

  • procaine hydrochloride (drug)

    Procaine hydrochloride, synthetic organic compound used in medicine as a local anesthetic. Introduced in 1905 under the trade name Novocaine, it became the first and best-known substitute for cocaine in local anesthesia. Generally used in a 1 to 10 percent saline solution, procaine hydrochloride

  • procambium (plant tissue)

    plant development: The activity of meristems: The procambium is a meristematic tissue concerned with providing the primary tissues of the vascular system; the cambium proper is the continuous cylinder of meristematic cells responsible for producing the new vascular tissues in mature stems and roots. The cork cambium, or phellogen, produces the protective…

  • Procapra (mammal genus)

    gazelle: Asian gazelles: …Asian species of the genus Procapra that are also called gazelles: the Tibetan gazelle (P. picticaudata), Przewalski’s gazelle (P. przewalskii), and the Mongolian gazelle (P. gutturosa). The last, with a population estimated at well over one million, may be the most numerous of all hoofed mammals.

  • Procapra gutturosa (mammal)

    gazelle: Asian gazelles: przewalskii), and the Mongolian gazelle (P. gutturosa). The last, with a population estimated at well over one million, may be the most numerous of all hoofed mammals.

  • Procapra picticaudata (mammal)

    gazelle: Asian gazelles: …are also called gazelles: the Tibetan gazelle (P. picticaudata), Przewalski’s gazelle (P. przewalskii), and the Mongolian gazelle (P. gutturosa). The last, with a population estimated at well over one million, may be the most numerous of all hoofed mammals.

  • Procapra przewalskii (mammal)

    gazelle: Asian gazelles: picticaudata), Przewalski’s gazelle (P. przewalskii), and the Mongolian gazelle (P. gutturosa). The last, with a population estimated at well over one million, may be the most numerous of all hoofed mammals.

  • procaryote (organism)

    Prokaryote, any organism that lacks a distinct nucleus and other organelles due to the absence of internal membranes. Bacteria are among the best-known prokaryotic organisms. The lack of internal membranes in prokaryotes distinguishes them from eukaryotes. The prokaryotic cell membrane is made up

  • Procavia capensis (mammal)

    hyrax: …bush hyraxes (Heterohyrax) and the rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) are terrestrial animals that live in groups among rocks and are active by day. The tree hyraxes (Dendrohyrax) are arboreal, solitary, and nocturnal. All are primarily vegetarian.

  • procedural language (computer language)

    computer programming language: Control structures: Programs written in procedural languages, the most common kind, are like recipes, having lists of ingredients and step-by-step instructions for using them. The three basic control structures in virtually every procedural language are:

  • procedural law

    Procedural law, the law governing the machinery of the courts and the methods by which both the state and the individual (the latter including groups, whether incorporated or not) enforce their rights in the several courts. Procedural law prescribes the means of enforcing rights or providing

  • procedural memory (psychology)

    memory: Long-term memory: …as either “declarative” or “nondeclarative,” depending on whether their content is such that it can be expressed by a declarative sentence. Thus, declarative memories, like declarative sentences, contain information about facts and events. Nondeclarative memory, also known as procedural memory, is the repository of information about basic skills, motor…

  • procedural sedation (anesthesia)

    anesthetic: General anesthetics: …as conscious sedation (also called procedural sedation). This semiconscious or drowsy state can be induced when the drugs are administered in relatively small doses. Conscious sedation typically is used for outpatient diagnostic or minor surgical procedures, such as dental procedures, laceration repair, or endoscopy. Examples of drugs used for procedural…

  • procedural stability (political science)

    constitution: Procedural stability: Certain fundamental procedures must not be subject to frequent or arbitrary change. Citizens must know the basic rules according to which politics are conducted. Stable procedures of government provide citizens with adequate knowledge of the probable consequences of their actions. By contrast, under…

  • procedure (computer science)

    computer programming language: Control structures: …is an example of a subprogram (also called a procedure, subroutine, or function). A subprogram is like a sauce recipe given once and used as part of many other recipes. Subprograms take inputs (the quantity needed) and produce results (the sauce). Commonly used subprograms are generally in a collection or…

  • procedure, De (novel by Mulisch)

    Harry Mulisch: De procedure (1998; The Procedure) echoes the Jewish golem myth with the story of a scientist who creates life from crystals found in clay. Siegfried (2001) is an alternate history novel in which it is revealed to the main character that Adolf Hitler had a son with Eva…

  • Procedure, The (novel by Mulisch)

    Harry Mulisch: De procedure (1998; The Procedure) echoes the Jewish golem myth with the story of a scientist who creates life from crystals found in clay. Siegfried (2001) is an alternate history novel in which it is revealed to the main character that Adolf Hitler had a son with Eva…

  • procedure-oriented language (computer language)

    computer programming language: Control structures: Programs written in procedural languages, the most common kind, are like recipes, having lists of ingredients and step-by-step instructions for using them. The three basic control structures in virtually every procedural language are:

  • procellariiform (bird)

    Procellariiform, (order Procellariiformes), any of the group of seabirds that includes the albatrosses (family Diomedeidae); shearwaters, fulmars, prions, and large petrels (Procellariidae); storm petrels (Hydrobatidae); and diving petrels (Pelecanoididae). There are approximately 117 living

  • Procellariiformes (bird)

    Procellariiform, (order Procellariiformes), any of the group of seabirds that includes the albatrosses (family Diomedeidae); shearwaters, fulmars, prions, and large petrels (Procellariidae); storm petrels (Hydrobatidae); and diving petrels (Pelecanoididae). There are approximately 117 living

  • procerus muscle (eye anatomy)

    human eye: The muscles of the lids: The pyramidalis, or procerus, muscles occupy the bridge of the nose; they arise from the lower portion of the nasal bones and are attached to the skin of the lower part of the forehead on either side of the midline; they pull the skin into transverse furrows. In…

  • Procès de Jeanne d’Arc, Le (film by Bresson)

    Robert Bresson: …Procès de Jeanne d’Arc (1962; The Trial of Joan of Arc), abruptly concluded with the leading character quietly and stoically accepting the inevitability of fate.

  • Procés-verbal, Le (novel by Le Clézio)

    Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio: …1963 of Le Procès-verbal (The Interrogation) and gained widespread acclaim as a young author when the book—which had been sent as an unsolicited manuscript to the prestigious Gallimard publishing house—was awarded the Prix Renaudot. Other publications that further enhanced Le Clézio’s reputation in France and abroad included the short-story…

  • Proceso de Reorganización Nacional (Argentine history)

    Dirty War, infamous campaign waged from 1976 to 1983 by Argentina’s military dictatorship against suspected left-wing political opponents. It is estimated that between 10,000 and 30,000 citizens were killed; many of them were “disappeared”—seized by the authorities and never heard from again. On

  • Proceso, El (Argentine history)

    Dirty War, infamous campaign waged from 1976 to 1983 by Argentina’s military dictatorship against suspected left-wing political opponents. It is estimated that between 10,000 and 30,000 citizens were killed; many of them were “disappeared”—seized by the authorities and never heard from again. On

  • Process (novel by Boyle)

    Kay Boyle: Process, a long-lost first novel by Boyle (written about 1924) was discovered and edited by Sandra Spanier and published posthumously in 2001.

  • process (thermodynamics)

    thermodynamics: Thermodynamic equilibrium: …the system is called a process. In general, a system is not in equilibrium as it adjusts to an abrupt change in its environment. For example, when a balloon bursts, the compressed gas inside is suddenly far from equilibrium, and it rapidly expands until it reaches a new equilibrium state.…

  • Process and Reality (work by Whitehead)

    Alfred North Whitehead: Career in the United States: …one of its greatest books, Process and Reality (1929).

  • process annealing (metallurgy)

    annealing: Process annealing is carried out intermittently during the working of a piece of metal to restore ductility lost through repeated hammering or other working. Full annealing is done to give workability to such parts as forged blanks destined for use in the machine-tool industry. Annealing…

  • process camera (photography)

    photoengraving: Camera and darkroom equipment: The engravers’ camera, called a process camera, is a rigidly built machine designed to allow precise positioning of the lens and copyboard so as to provide control over the enlargement or reduction in size of the copy. It has a colour-corrected lens designed to give the sharpest possible overall image…

  • process cheese (food)

    dairy product: Pasteurized process cheese: Some natural cheese is made into process cheese, a product in which complete ripening is halted by heat. The resulting product has an indefinite shelf life. Most process cheese is used in food service outlets and other applications where convenient, uniform melting is…

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