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  • Prisión verde (novel by Amaya Amador)

    Ramón Amaya Amador: …he wrote his best-known work, Prisión verde (1950; “Green Prison”), a novel that depicts the exploitative working conditions of the typical Honduran banana plantation in the 1930s and ’40s.

  • prism (optics)

    Prism, in optics, piece of glass or other transparent material cut with precise angles and plane faces, useful for analyzing and reflecting light. An ordinary triangular prism can separate white light into its constituent colours, called a spectrum. Each colour, or wavelength, making up the white

  • PRISM (United States surveillance program)

    National Security Agency: Internet service providers (PRISM) and the second collecting so-called metadata on cellular phone calls (information including phone numbers and length of the calls but not their content). Those programs were designed to target non-Americans, but they also collected a massive amount of information from Americans with whom those…

  • prism (crystallography)

    form: …two faces of another sphenoid; Prism: 3, 4, 6, 8, or 12 faces the intersection lines of which are parallel and (except for some monoclinic prisms) are parallel to a principal crystallographic axis; Pyramid: 3, 4, 6, 8, or 12 nonparallel faces that meet in a point; Scalenohedron: 8-faced (tetragonal)…

  • Prism (album by Perry)

    Katy Perry: …mainstream with her next release, Prism (2013), which produced, among other hits, the anthemic “Roar.” Her 2016 single “Rise” was featured in television coverage of that year’s Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. Perry’s fourth studio album, Witness (2017), more introspective than her earlier work, was less well received.

  • Prism, Laetitia (fictional character)

    Miss Prism, fictional character, a governess and former nursemaid in Oscar Wilde’s comic masterpiece The Importance of Being Earnest

  • Prism, Miss (fictional character)

    Miss Prism, fictional character, a governess and former nursemaid in Oscar Wilde’s comic masterpiece The Importance of Being Earnest

  • prismatic astrolabe (instrument)

    telescope: Astrolabes: Known as a prismatic astrolabe, it too is used for making precise determinations of the positions of stars and planets. It may sometimes be used inversely to determine the latitude and longitude of the observer, assuming the star positions are accurately known. The aperture of a prismatic astrolabe…

  • prismatic sulfur (chemistry)

    sulfur: Allotropy: …S8 ring allotropes is the monoclinic or β-form, in which two of the axes of the crystal are perpendicular, but the third forms an oblique angle with the first two. There are still some uncertainties concerning its structure; this modification is stable from 96 °C to the melting point, 118.9…

  • prison

    Prison, an institution for the confinement of persons who have been remanded (held) in custody by a judicial authority or who have been deprived of their liberty following conviction for a crime. A person found guilty of a felony or a misdemeanour may be required to serve a prison sentence. The

  • Prison (film by Bergman)

    Ingmar Bergman: Life: …of his own, Fängelse (1949; Prison, or The Devil’s Wanton). It recapitulated all the themes of his previous films in a complex, perhaps overambitious story, built around the romantic and professional problems of a young film director who considers making a film based on the idea that the Devil rules…

  • Prison and Chocolate Cake (memoir by Sahgal)

    Nayantara Sahgal: …the United States—Sahgal first wrote Prison and Chocolate Cake (1954), an autobiographical memoir about her youth amid the Nehru family. She then turned to fiction, often setting her stories of personal conflict amid Indian political crises. In her fourth novel, The Day in Shadow (1971), for example, the heroine is…

  • prison bars (game)

    Prisoner’s base, children’s game in which players of one team seek to tag and imprison players of the other team who venture out of their home territory, or base. Under the name of barres, this game is mentioned in 14th-century French writings and may have been one of the most popular games in

  • prison camp novel (literature)

    Fyodor Dostoyevsky: Political activity and arrest: …initiate the Russian tradition of prison camp literature, describes the horrors that Dostoyevsky actually witnessed: the brutality of the guards who enjoyed cruelty for its own sake, the evil of criminals who could enjoy murdering children, and the existence of decent souls amid filth and degradation—all these themes, warranted by…

  • Prison in Red Russia, A (work by Duguet)

    Solovetsky Island: …the Solovetsky labour camp was Un Bagne en Russie rouge (A Prison in Red Russia), written by Raymond Duguet and published in 1927. The current island population includes retired military officers and former camp personnel, and the former camp itself is now a tourist attraction.

  • Prison Notebooks (work by Gramsci)

    Antonio Gramsci: …complete Quaderni del carcere (Prison Notebooks) appeared in 1975. Many of his propositions became a fundamental part of Western Marxist thought and influenced the post-World War II strategies of communist parties in the West. His reflections on the cultural and political concept of hegemony (notably in southern Italy), on…

  • prison privatization (penology)

    prison: Privatization: The term prison privatization can be applied to a variety of arrangements involving nongovernmental contractors. One privatization model, which originated in France and later spread to a number of countries, arranges responsibilities such that state employees control any functions that relate to deprivation of liberty while other…

  • prison reform

    Kiran Bedi: …who was instrumental in introducing prison reform in India.

  • prisoner

    prison: Prisoners’ rights: …human rights, the concept of prisoners’ rights has been upheld by a number of international declarations and national constitutions. The underlying assumption—that people who are detained or imprisoned do not cease to be human beings, no matter how serious the associated crime—was expressed in the International Covenant on Civil and…

  • Prisoner of Chillon (painting by Brown)

    Ford Madox Brown: …in London when painting his Prisoner of Chillon (1843). During a visit to Italy in 1845, he met Peter von Cornelius, a member of the former Lukasbund, or Nazarenes. This meeting undoubtedly influenced both Brown’s palette and his style. His interest in brilliant, clear colour and neomedievalism first appears in…

  • Prisoner of Chillon, The (poem by Byron)

    The Prisoner of Chillon, historical narrative poem in 14 stanzas by George Gordon, Lord Byron, published in 1816 in the volume The Prisoner of Chillon, and Other Poems. The poem concerns the political imprisonment of the 16th-century Swiss patriot François Bonivard in the dungeon of the château of

  • prisoner of conscience

    political prisoner: Definitional issues: …Peter Benenson coined the term prisoner of conscience to describe two Portuguese students who had been sentenced to seven-year prison terms for their alleged “crime”—making a simple toast to freedom in spite of the dictatorial government of António de Oliveira Salazar that was in power at the time. Since then,…

  • Prisoner of Second Avenue, The (film by Frank)

    Jack Lemmon: …comedies, The Out-of-Towners (1970) and The Prisoner of Second Avenue (1974), and garnered additional Oscar nominations for The China Syndrome (1979), Tribute (1980), and Missing (1982).

  • Prisoner of Shark Island, The (film by Ford [1936])

    John Ford: 1930s to World War II: …The Lost Patrol (1934) or The Prisoner of Shark Island (1936) as it is in the westerns that he shot in Utah and Arizona’s Monument Valley. Ford’s stately, carefully staged and composed medium and long shots of groups of characters interacting (with a relatively spare use of “star” close-ups) are…

  • Prisoner of the Caucasus, The (poem by Pushkin)

    Aleksandr Pushkin: Exile in the south: …narrative poems: Kavkazsky plennik (1820–21; The Prisoner of the Caucasus), Bratya razboyniki (1821–22; The Robber Brothers), and Bakhchisaraysky fontan (1823; The Fountain of Bakhchisaray).

  • prisoner of war (international law)

    Prisoner of war (POW), any person captured or interned by a belligerent power during war. In the strictest sense it is applied only to members of regularly organized armed forces, but by broader definition it has also included guerrillas, civilians who take up arms against an enemy openly, or

  • Prisoner of Zenda, The (novel by Hope)

    The Prisoner of Zenda, novel by Anthony Hope, published in 1894. This popular late-Victorian romance relates the adventures of Rudolf Rassendyll, an English gentleman living in Ruritania who impersonates the king in order to save him from a treasonous plot. Although the story is improbable, it is

  • Prisoner of Zenda, The (film by Cromwell [1937])

    The Prisoner of Zenda, American adventure film, released in 1937, that was based on a stage adaptation of Anthony Hope’s 1894 novel of the same name. Rudolf Rassendyll (played by Ronald Colman) is an Englishman vacationing in an unnamed central European country, where he attracts stares from locals

  • Prisoner of Zenda, The (film by Quine [1979])

    Richard Quine: …her most dramatic role, and The Prisoner of Zenda (1979), in which Peter Sellers, as he had done so often before, starred in multiple roles. In 1989 Quine died from a self-inflicted gunshot wound.

  • Prisoner on the Hell Planet (work by Spiegelman)

    Art Spiegelman: The second, Prisoner on the Hell Planet, was an attempt to understand his mother’s suicide through panels that evoked the bold intensity of German Expressionist woodcuts. These strips, along with other works, were collected in Breakdowns (1977).

  • prisoner’s base (game)

    Prisoner’s base, children’s game in which players of one team seek to tag and imprison players of the other team who venture out of their home territory, or base. Under the name of barres, this game is mentioned in 14th-century French writings and may have been one of the most popular games in

  • prisoner’s dilemma (game theory)

    Prisoner’s dilemma, imaginary situation employed in game theory. One version is as follows. Two prisoners are accused of a crime. If one confesses and the other does not, the one who confesses will be released immediately and the other will spend 20 years in prison. If neither confesses, each will

  • prisoners’ rights (sociology and penology)

    prison: Prisoners’ rights: As an aspect of human rights, the concept of prisoners’ rights has been upheld by a number of international declarations and national constitutions. The underlying assumption—that people who are detained or imprisoned do not cease to be human beings, no matter how serious…

  • Prisonnière, La (work by Bourdet)

    Édouard Bourdet: …however, by La Prisonnière (1926; The Captive), a psychological study of the sufferings of a troubled woman. With Vient de paraître (1928; “Just Appeared”), a satire on the literary world, Bourdet established a formula for the series of satirical comedies that he produced between the world wars. Notable plays in…

  • prisons, market model of (penology and economics)

    prison: Privatization: …is the concept of the market model of prisons. As a consequence of this model, many of the costs of increased imprisonment are hidden in the short term. In fiscal terms, high capital expenditure is converted into long-term revenue expenditure, which reduces current (short-term) financial costs while increasing future (long-term)…

  • Pristella riddlei (fish)

    characin: …a red-finned, silvery fish, and Pristella riddlei, a red-tailed characin with black and white in its dorsal and anal fins.

  • Pristidae (fish)

    Sawfish, (family Pristidae), any of five species of sharklike rays forming the genera Pristis and Anoxypristis in the family Pristidae. Sawfishes are found in shallow water in subtropical and tropical regions of the world. They are bottom dwellers, frequenting bays and estuaries and sometimes

  • Pristigasteridae (fish family)

    clupeiform: Annotated classification: Family Pristigasteridae (longfin herrings) Mouth superior or terminal; abdominal scutes present; anal fin long, 30–92 rays; no notch in third hypural bone of caudal skeleton. Primarily marine, some freshwater; Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans. 9 genera, 34 species. Until the revision of the

  • Pristina (national capital, Kosovo)

    Pristina, city, capital and administrative centre of Kosovo. It is linked to Skopje, North Macedonia, by road and rail and, via Kraljevo, Serbia, to the Serbian capital of Belgrade; it also has an airport. Near Pristina, lead, silver, and zinc are mined in the Kopaonik Mountains. Pristina was the

  • Priština (national capital, Kosovo)

    Pristina, city, capital and administrative centre of Kosovo. It is linked to Skopje, North Macedonia, by road and rail and, via Kraljevo, Serbia, to the Serbian capital of Belgrade; it also has an airport. Near Pristina, lead, silver, and zinc are mined in the Kopaonik Mountains. Pristina was the

  • Priština, University of (university, Priština, Kosovo)

    Kosovo: Education: The University of Pristina, founded in 1970, is the major public university in Kosovo. It is now primarily an Albanian-language institution that also serves Albanian populations in Serbia, North Macedonia, and Montenegro. The Serb component of the university relocated to Mitrovicë (Mitrovica) in the early 21st…

  • Pristiophoridae (fish)

    Saw shark, (order Pristiophoriformes), any of about nine species of long-snouted marine sharks belonging to the order Pristiophoriformes. Saw sharks are found in tropical and temperate marine waters of the western Atlantic Ocean near Florida and the Bahamas, the Indian Ocean near India and

  • Pristiophoridei (shark suborder)

    chondrichthyan: Annotated classification: Suborder Pristiophoridei Family Pristiophoridae (saw sharks) Anal fin lacking, snout greatly elongated, each edge studded with sharp toothlike structures; upper eyelid is free; gill slits at the side of the head, not underneath as in the sawfish; ovoviviparous. Good food fish, harmless to humans. 2 genera…

  • Pristiophorus (shark genus)

    saw shark: …pairs of gill openings, and Pristiophorus, with five.

  • Pristiphora erichsonii (insect)

    sawfly: The larch sawfly (Pristiphora erichsonii) is sometimes highly destructive to larch trees in the United States and Canada. The elm leaf miner (Fenusa ulmi) is sometimes a serious pest of elm trees.

  • Pristis (fish genus)

    sawfish: …sharklike rays forming the genera Pristis and Anoxypristis in the family Pristidae. Sawfishes are found in shallow water in subtropical and tropical regions of the world. They are bottom dwellers, frequenting bays and estuaries and sometimes swimming considerable distances up rivers; one species, the largetooth sawfish (P. pristis) lives

  • Pristis pectinata (fish)

    sawfish: In 2015 the smalltooth sawfish (P. pectinata) was observed to have the ability to reproduce via parthenogenesis (a condition in which an unfertilized egg develops into an embryo). The species was one of the first vertebrate groups found to be capable of parthenogenesis in the wild. The strategy…

  • Pristis perotteti (fish)

    sawfish: …up rivers; one species, the largetooth sawfish (P. pristis) lives and breeds in the fresh waters of Lake Nicaragua. Sawfishes have a long flattened head and body and an elongated snout, much like that of the saw shark, that forms a long flat blade edged with strong teeth. The largest…

  • Pristis pristis (fish)

    sawfish: …up rivers; one species, the largetooth sawfish (P. pristis) lives and breeds in the fresh waters of Lake Nicaragua. Sawfishes have a long flattened head and body and an elongated snout, much like that of the saw shark, that forms a long flat blade edged with strong teeth. The largest…

  • Pristis zijsron (fish)

    sawfish: …the largetooth sawfish, and the green sawfish (P. zijsron) are considered critically endangered.

  • Pritam, Amrita Kaur (Indian author and poet)

    Amrita Kaur Pritam, Punjabi writer and poet (born Aug. 31, 1919, Gujranwala, British India [now in Pakistan]—died Oct. 31, 2005, New Delhi, India), wrote increasingly more feminist poems and other works in which she exposed the suffering of oppressed women and the violence and misery endured by P

  • Pritchard, Michael Ryan (American musician)

    Green Day: ), Mike Dirnt (byname of Michael Ryan Pritchard, b. May 4, 1972, Oakland), and Tré Cool (byname of Frank Edwin Wright III, b. December 9, 1972, Willits, California). Other members included Al Sobrante (byname of John Kiffmeyer).

  • Pritchard, Sir John (British conductor)

    Sir John Pritchard, British conductor who traveled widely and was known for his interpretations of operas by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and for his support of contemporary music. Pritchard, whose father was a violinist in the London Symphony Orchestra, studied violin, piano, and conducting in Italy.

  • Pritchard, Sir John Michael (British conductor)

    Sir John Pritchard, British conductor who traveled widely and was known for his interpretations of operas by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and for his support of contemporary music. Pritchard, whose father was a violinist in the London Symphony Orchestra, studied violin, piano, and conducting in Italy.

  • Pritchard, Thomas (British engineer)

    bridge: Early designs: Designed by Thomas Pritchard and built in 1779 by Abraham Darby, the Ironbridge, constructed of cast-iron pieces, is a ribbed arch whose nearly semicircular 30-metre (100-foot) span imitates stone construction by exploiting the strength of cast iron in compression. In 1795 the Severn region was wracked by…

  • Pritchett, Sir Victor Sawdon (British writer)

    V.S. Pritchett, British novelist, short-story writer, and critic known throughout his long writing career for his ironic style and his lively portraits of middle-class life. Pritchett left his London school at age 15 to work in the leather trade. He became a full-time journalist in 1922, working as

  • Pritchett, V. S. (British writer)

    V.S. Pritchett, British novelist, short-story writer, and critic known throughout his long writing career for his ironic style and his lively portraits of middle-class life. Pritchett left his London school at age 15 to work in the leather trade. He became a full-time journalist in 1922, working as

  • Prithi Chand (Sikh rebel leader)

    Sikhism: Guru Arjan: Prithi Chand, the oldest brother of Guru Arjan (1563–1606), took a distinctly hostile view of his brother’s appointment and in retaliation attempted to poison Hargobind, Arjan’s only son. Prithi Chand and his followers also circulated hymns that they alleged were written by the earlier Gurus.…

  • Prithvi Nārāyaṇ Shah (Gurkha king of Nepal)

    Prithvi Nārāyaṇ Shah, member of the ruling Shah family of the Gurkha (Gorkha) principality, Nepal, who conquered the three Malla kingdoms of Kāthmāndu, Pātan, and Bhādgaon in 1769 and consolidated them to found the modern state of Nepal. He also established the capital of Nepal at Kāthmāndu. In

  • Prithvi Raj Raso (poem by Bardāī)

    Rajasthan: Literature: …tradition, Chand Bardai’s epic poem Prithviraj Raso (or Chand Raisa), the earliest manuscript of which dates to the 12th century, is particularly notable.

  • Prithvi Theatre (Indian theatrical troupe)

    South Asian arts: Modern theatre: …actor Prithvi Raj Kapoor founded Prithvi Theatres in Bombay (Mumbai) in 1944 and brought robust realism to Hindi drama, then closed down in 1960 with a sense of completion after many tours throughout India. Prithvi’s sons, nephews, and old associates worked in his large company, which became a training centre…

  • Prithviraj Chauhan (Rajput Chauhan king)

    Prithviraja III, Rajput warrior king of the Chauhan (Chahamana) clan of rulers who established the strongest kingdom in Rajasthan. Prithviraja’s defeat in 1192 in the second battle of Taraori (Tarain) at the hands of the Muslim leader Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Sām (Muḥammad Ghūrī) marked a

  • Prithviraja III (Rajput Chauhan king)

    Prithviraja III, Rajput warrior king of the Chauhan (Chahamana) clan of rulers who established the strongest kingdom in Rajasthan. Prithviraja’s defeat in 1192 in the second battle of Taraori (Tarain) at the hands of the Muslim leader Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Sām (Muḥammad Ghūrī) marked a

  • Prittwitz und Gaffron, Max von (German military officer)

    Battle of Tannenberg: Initial developments on the Eastern Front: Max von Prittwitz’s Eighth Army at the Battle of Gumbinnen (now Gusev, Russia) on August 19–20. By this time Samsonov had reached the southern frontier of East Prussia to advance against Friedrich von Scholtz’s XX Corps. He had been so hurried on by Zhilinsky that…

  • Pritzer, Cindy (American philanthropist)

    Pritzker Prize: …in 1979 by Jay and Cindy Pritzker of Chicago, who funded it as a foundation through their family business, the Hyatt Corporation. The original stated goal of the prize was to push architecture and architects into the public’s awareness and to support the notion that buildings have a real influence…

  • Pritzker Architecture Prize (international architectural award)

    Pritzker Prize, international award given annually to recognize the contributions of a living architect. It has often been called the Nobel Prize of architecture. The Pritzker Prize was founded in 1979 by Jay and Cindy Pritzker of Chicago, who funded it as a foundation through their family

  • Pritzker family (American business family)

    Pritzker family, American family prominent in business and philanthropy during the later 20th century. The family’s fortunes began with Abram Nicholas Pritzker (b. January 6, 1896, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.—d. February 8, 1986, Chicago), who was the son of a Ukrainian Jewish immigrant who had come to

  • Pritzker Prize (international architectural award)

    Pritzker Prize, international award given annually to recognize the contributions of a living architect. It has often been called the Nobel Prize of architecture. The Pritzker Prize was founded in 1979 by Jay and Cindy Pritzker of Chicago, who funded it as a foundation through their family

  • Pritzker, Jay (American entrepreneur and philanthropist)

    Jay Pritzker, American businessman and philanthropist who founded the Hyatt hotel chain and in 1979 endowed what became the most prestigious award in architecture, the $100,000 Pritzker Architectural Prize, often referred to as the Nobel Prize of architecture (b. Aug. 26, 1922, Chicago, Ill.—d.

  • Prius (automobile)

    automobile: Electric-gasoline hybrids: …1997 Toyota introduced its four-passenger Prius hybrid to the Japanese market. Combining a small gasoline engine and an electric motor through a sophisticated control system, the Prius uses gasoline power only when necessary to supplement electric propulsion or to recharge its batteries. (That same year in Europe, the hybrid Audi…

  • Privacy Act of 1974 (United States [1974])

    Privacy Act of 1974, U.S. legislation that restricts the dissemination of personal information about an individual by federal agencies and requires that when such information is collected, the individual to whom it pertains be informed of the ways in which it could be used. The Privacy Act was

  • privacy, rights of

    Rights of privacy, in U.S. law, an amalgam of principles embodied in the federal Constitution or recognized by courts or lawmaking bodies concerning what Louis Brandeis, citing Judge Thomas Cooley, described in an 1890 paper (cowritten with Samuel D. Warren) as “the right to be let alone.” The

  • privado (Spanish minister)

    Spain: The reign of Philip III: …to have a minister (privado) who would do all his work for him. His choice, Francisco Gómez de Sandoval y Rojas, duque de Lerma, however, turned out to be a singularly unfortunate one. Amiable, incompetent, and, inevitably, under heavy attack from those who envied his position, Lerma strove to…

  • private (military rank)

    Private, in most armies, the lowest grade of enlisted personnel. In the armies of the United States, Germany, and France, a private ranks below a private first class, who in turn ranks below a corporal. In the army of the People’s Republic of China, private second class ranks below private first

  • Private Affairs of Bel Ami, The (film by Lewin [1947])

    Albert Lewin: …turned to literary adaptations with The Private Affairs of Bel Ami (1947), which was from Guy de Maupassant’s novel Bel-Ami. It featured Sanders and Lansbury as the roguish hero and the woman he foolishly forsakes, respectively.

  • Private Angelo (novel by Linklater)

    Eric Linklater: Private Angelo (1946; film 1949) was a comedic tale told from the perspective of a timorous soldier in the Italian army during World War II. The Dark of Summer (1956) concerns a Scottish soldier’s investigation of Norwegian collaboration with the Nazis. Linklater was a prolific…

  • Private Audience, Hall of (building, Fatehpur Sikri, India)

    Akbar period architecture: …Hall of Private Audience (Diwan-i-Khas) is arresting in its interior arrangement, which has a single massive column encircled by brackets supporting a stone throne platform, from which radiate four railed balconies. The palace of Jodha Bai, Akbar’s wife, and the residence of Mahesh Das (commonly known as Bīrbal, Akbar’s…

  • Private Audience, Hall of (building, Agra, India)

    Agra Fort: The Hall of Private Audience (Diwan-i-Khas) was used for receiving distinguished visitors. The famous Peacock Throne was once kept there, before Aurangzeb took it to Delhi. Near the Hall of Private Audience stands the tall Octagonal Tower (Musamman Burj), the residence of Shah Jahān’s favourite empress,…

  • Private Benjamin (film by Zieff [1980])

    Nancy Meyers: …she had a breakthrough with Private Benjamin, which she wrote with Charles Shyer, who became her collaborator and domestic partner, and Harvey Miller. One of the early comedies to centre on women—Goldie Hawn played a widowed newlywed who impulsively joins the army—it was a huge hit, and Meyers earned an…

  • private block (medicine)

    hospital: Private hospitals: …more costly accommodations in so-called private blocks—that is, in a part of the hospital specially designed and equipped for private patients. Patients in a private block pay a large portion of the total cost of their medical care, including that of surgery.

  • Private Buckaroo (film by Cline [1942])

    the Andrews Sisters: …of musical comedies, which included Private Buckaroo (1942), What’s Cookin’? (1942), and Swingtime Johnny (1943). The trio’s many hits from these years included “Hold Tight,” “Don’t Sit Under the Apple Tree,” “Rum and Coca-Cola,” “Beer Barrel Polka,” and “Ac-Cent-Tchu-Ate the Positive.” Their recorded performances were heard in the sound tracks…

  • private carrier (transportation)

    carriage of goods: Common-law common carrier: …as common carriers are termed private carriers; carriers of goods by sea or by inland water that are not classified as common carriers may be public carriers, namely, professional carriers who do not hold themselves out as ready to serve the general public or persons who carry goods incidentally to…

  • Private Committee (political organization, Russia)

    Alexander I: Ascent to the throne: …and Nikolay Novosiltsev—he formed the Private Committee (Neglasny Komitet). Its avowed purpose was to frame “good laws, which are the source of the well-being of the Nation.”

  • private company (civil law)

    business organization: Limited-liability companies, or corporations: …distinctions for tax purposes between private, or close, companies or corporations on the one hand and public companies or corporations on the other. English law also distinguishes between private and public companies for some purposes of company law; for example, a private company cannot have more than 50 members and…

  • private corporation (civil law)

    business organization: Limited-liability companies, or corporations: …distinctions for tax purposes between private, or close, companies or corporations on the one hand and public companies or corporations on the other. English law also distinguishes between private and public companies for some purposes of company law; for example, a private company cannot have more than 50 members and…

  • Private Dancer (album by Turner)

    Tina Turner: …released her debut solo album, Private Dancer, in 1984. It was a triumph, both critically and commercially, selling more than 20 million copies worldwide and winning three Grammy Awards, including record of the year and best female vocal performance for “What’s Love Got to Do with It.” The single became…

  • private enterprise economy

    Capitalism, economic system, dominant in the Western world since the breakup of feudalism, in which most means of production are privately owned and production is guided and income distributed largely through the operation of markets. A brief treatment of capitalism follows. For full treatment, see

  • private express trust (law)

    trust: Private express trusts are probably the most common form of trust. They are a traditional means of providing financial security for families. By will or by deed of trust, a testator or settlor places property in trust to provide for his family after he is…

  • private good (economics)

    Private good, a product or service produced by a privately owned business and purchased to increase the utility, or satisfaction, of the buyer. The majority of the goods and services consumed in a market economy are private goods, and their prices are determined to some degree by the market forces

  • private health insurance (insurance)

    health insurance: …a contract, is known as private, or voluntary, health insurance. Private health insurance is usually financed on a group basis, but most plans also provide for individual policies. Private group plans are usually financed by groups of employees whose payments may be subsidized by their employer, with the money going…

  • Private Hell 36 (film by Siegel [1954])

    Don Siegel: Early action dramas: Almost as exciting was Private Hell 36 (1954), a noir about the problems that arise after two detectives (Steve Cochran and Howard Duff) decide to keep stolen money that they have recovered; Ida Lupino played a nightclub singer, and she cowrote the script (with Collier Young).

  • Private Initiative and Decentralization, League of (Ottoman organization)

    Young Turks: His group, called the League of Private Initiative and Decentralization, espoused many of the same liberal principles as those propounded by the CUP, but, unlike the latter, it favoured administrative decentralization and European assistance to implement reforms.

  • private international law

    Conflict of laws, the existence worldwide, and within individual countries, of different legal traditions, different specific rules of private law, and different systems of private law, all of which are administered by court systems similarly subject to different rules and traditions of procedure.

  • private is political, the (society)

    The personal is political, political slogan expressing a common belief among feminists that the personal experiences of women are rooted in their political situation and gender inequality. Although the origin of the phrase “the personal is political” is uncertain, it became popular following the

  • Private Jokinen’s Marriage Leave (play by Meri)

    Veijo Meri: …play, Sotamies Jokisen vihkiloma (1965; Private Jokinen’s Marriage Leave), is set in the war years of the 1940s. An autobiography, Kersantin poika (“The Son of a Sergeant”), was published in 1971.

  • private language (philosophy)

    positivism: Other issues: …the very possibility of a private language, maintained that, unless humans have objective criteria for the occurrence of mental states, they cannot even begin to communicate meaningfully with each other about their direct experiences. Wittgenstein thus repudiated the traditional view according to which one’s knowledge of other persons’ minds must…

  • private law

    administrative law: Distinctions between public administration and private action: …law is quite different from private law regulating the actions, interests, and obligations of private persons. Civil servants do not generally serve under a contract of employment but have a special status. Taxes are not debts, nor are they governed by the law relating to the recovery of debts by…

  • private library (library science)

    library: Private libraries: The libraries owned by private individuals are as varied in their range of interest as the individuals who collected them, and so they do not lend themselves to generalized treatment. The phrase private library is anyway unfortunate because it gives little idea of…

  • Private Life (novel by Smiley)

    Jane Smiley: …Decameron set in Hollywood; and Private Life (2010), which examines a woman’s marriage and interior life. Some Luck (2014), which covers 33 years in the history of the Langdons, a farming family, was the first entry in a trilogy. Early Warning and Golden Age (both 2015), the second and third…

  • Private Life (film by Jenkins [2018])

    Paul Giamatti: …a disquieting postapocalyptic drama; and Private Life, a dramedy about the tribulations of fertility treatment (all 2018).

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