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  • Princes, Fronde of the (French history)

    the Fronde: The Fronde of the Princes, the second phase of the civil war (January 1650 to September 1653), was a complex of intrigues, rivalries, and shifts of allegiance in which constitutional issues gave way to personal ambitions. One common factor among the aristocratic rebels was opposition to…

  • Princes, League of (German history)

    Fürstenbund, league founded on July 23, 1785, under the leadership of King Frederick II the Great of Prussia to preserve the status quo among the several German states and curb the ambitions in Germany of the Holy Roman emperor Joseph II. It represented the final phase of the conflict between

  • Princess Alexandra National Park (marine preserve, Turks and Caicos Islands)

    Providenciales: Princess Alexandra National Park, a marine preserve, includes the reef and encompasses two of the small cays off the northeastern tip of the island; the park’s waters are home to bottlenose dolphins. Another national park encompasses Chalk Sound, a 3-mile- (5-km-) long bay in the…

  • Princess and the Frog, The (film by Clements and Musker [2009])

    John Goodman: Film career: … (2000), Bee Movie (2007), and The Princess and the Frog (2009), as well as the Pixar hit Monsters, Inc. (2001) and its sequel Monsters University (2013).

  • Princess Bride, The (novel by Goldman)

    William Goldman: …of his most famous novels—The Princess Bride (1973), a romantic adventure comedy framed as an abridgment of a fictional fairy tale written by fictional author “S. Morgenstern,” and Marathon Man (1974), a thriller that he adapted for the screen two years later. He also wrote one of his best…

  • Princess Bride, The (film by Reiner [1987])

    Rob Reiner: Success as a film director: Reiner’s next directorial success was The Princess Bride (1987), based on a novel by William Goldman. A wry fantasy that mocked many of the tropes it employed, the film tossed a cast that included Robin Wright, Cary Elwes, and Billy Crystal into a world of adventure, romance, and arch, satirical…

  • Princess Casamassima, The (novel by James)

    The Princess Casamassima, novel by Henry James, published in three volumes in 1886. In the novel James examines the anarchist violence of the late 19th century by depicting the struggle of Hyacinth Robinson, a man who toys with revolution and is destroyed by it. James offers an interesting portrait

  • Princess Charlotte Bay (bay, Queensland, Australia)

    Princess Charlotte Bay, inlet of the Coral Sea, indenting northeastern Queensland, Australia. Lying on the east shore, at the base of Cape York Peninsula, it is bounded on the east by Cape Melville and on the west by Claremont Point and measures 38 by 15 miles (61 by 24 km). The bay receives the

  • Princess Di (British princess)

    Diana, princess of Wales, former consort (1981–96) of Charles, prince of Wales; mother of the heir second in line to the British throne, Prince William, duke of Cambridge (born 1982); and one of the foremost celebrities of her day. (For more on Diana, especially on the effect of her celebrity

  • Princess Diana (fictional character)

    Wonder Woman, American comic book heroine created for DC Comics by psychologist William Moulton Marston (under the pseudonym Charles Moulton) and artist Harry G. Peter. Wonder Woman first appeared in a backup story in All Star Comics no. 8 (December 1941) before receiving fuller treatment in

  • Princess Diaries 2: Royal Engagement, The (film by Marshall [2004])

    Julie Andrews: …Diaries (2001) and its sequel, The Princess Diaries 2: Royal Engagement (2004). She also narrated the fantasy Enchanted (2007) and provided the voice of the queen in several of the animated Shrek films (2004, 2007, and 2010). In addition, Andrews voiced characters in

  • Princess Diaries, The (film by Marshall [2001])

    Julie Andrews: …films included the family comedies The Princess Diaries (2001) and its sequel, The Princess Diaries 2: Royal Engagement (2004). She also narrated the fantasy Enchanted (2007) and provided the voice of the queen in several of the animated Shrek films (2004, 2007, and 2010

  • Princess Diarist, The (memoir by Fisher)

    Carrie Fisher: …the memoir Shockaholic (2011) and The Princess Diarist (2016), which includes a selection of journal entries written during the filming of the first Star Wars movie.

  • Princess Ida; or, Castle Adamant (operetta by Gilbert and Sullivan)

    Arthur Sullivan: These were Iolanthe (1882), Princess Ida (1884), The Mikado; or, The Town of Titipu (1885), Ruddigore (1887), The Yeomen of the Guard (1888), and The Gondoliers (1889). The collective works of Gilbert and Sullivan became known as the “Savoy Operas.”

  • Princess Mononoke (film by Miyazaki)

    Miyazaki Hayao: …stage for 1997’s Mononoke-hime (Princess Mononoke), a blockbuster that broke Japanese box-office records. The film revisited some of Miyazaki’s recurring themes, such as the conflict between human progress and natural order and the persistence of the spiritual world alongside the mundane. In addition, its depiction of kodama (Japanese tree…

  • Princess O’Rourke (film by Krasna)
  • Princess of France (fictional character)

    Love's Labour's Lost: …into disarray, however, when the Princess of France, attended by three ladies (Rosaline, Maria, and Katharine), arrives on a diplomatic mission from the king of France and must therefore be admitted into Navarre’s park. The gentlemen soon discover that they are irresistibly attracted to the ladies. Their attempts at concealing…

  • Princess of Mars, A (novel by Burroughs)

    Edgar Rice Burroughs: …work was later novelized as A Princess of Mars [1917] and adapted as the film John Carter [2012].) The first Tarzan story appeared in 1912; it was followed in 1914 by Tarzan of the Apes, the first of 25 such books about the son of an English nobleman abandoned in…

  • Princess Raccoon (film by Suzuki [2005])

    Zhang Ziyi: …in Operetta tanuki goten (Princess Raccoon), an elaborate musical adaptation of a Japanese folktale that was directed by legendary Japanese filmmaker Suzuki Seijun. Her subsequent films include Ye yan (2006; The Banquet), which was loosely based on William Shakespeare’s Hamlet; Mei Lanfang (2008), a biopic about the jingxi (Peking…

  • Princess Royal Harbour (harbour, Western Australia, Australia)

    Albany: …on the northern shore of Princess Royal Harbour, King George Sound.

  • Princess Royal Island (island, British Columbia, Canada)

    Princess Royal Island, island in British Columbia, Canada, that lies about a mile off the mainland in Hecate Strait (northern Pacific), which separates it from Haida Gwaii (formerly the Queen Charlotte Islands). One of many offshore islands, it is about 52 miles (84 km) long and 7–26 miles (11–42

  • princess style (dress)

    Princess style, in dress design, style of women’s clothing characterized by garments that are closely fitted to the waistline, which is unbroken by a seam. The princess style first was introduced in 1848 but was little worn until the 1860s. At that time, the princess gown was made of fitted

  • Princess X (work by Brancusi)

    Constantin Brancusi: Maturity: …to the Salon of 1920, Princess X, a portrait of an imaginary person that takes on a curiously phallic form, created a scandal. The police intervened and forced him to remove the work because it led to improper interpretation. In 1922 he sculpted the first versions of The Fish in…

  • Princess, a Medley, The (poem by Tennyson)

    The Princess, long poem by Alfred, Lord Tennyson, published in 1847; a third edition in 1850 added some new lyrics. This odd narrative fantasy sometimes anticipates 20th-century poetry in its fragmented, nontraditional structure and was well received in its time. Seven young men and women gather on

  • Princess, The (poem by Tennyson)

    The Princess, long poem by Alfred, Lord Tennyson, published in 1847; a third edition in 1850 added some new lyrics. This odd narrative fantasy sometimes anticipates 20th-century poetry in its fragmented, nontraditional structure and was well received in its time. Seven young men and women gather on

  • Princesse de Clèves, La (novel by La Fayette)

    La Princesse de Clèves, novel written by Marie-Madeleine, comtesse de La Fayette, and published anonymously in 1678. Often called France’s first historical novel, the work influenced the course of French fiction. It is set during the 16th-century reign of Henry II and is the story of a virtuous

  • Princesses Luise and Friederike, The (work by Schadow)

    Gottfried Schadow: …works is the group of the princesses Luise and Friederike of Prussia (1797).

  • Princeteau, René (French painter)

    Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec: Childhood and education: …professional teacher in painting was René Princeteau, a friend of the Lautrec family. Princeteau’s fame, such as it was, arose from his depiction of military and equestrian subjects, done in a 19th-century academic style. Though Toulouse-Lautrec got on well with Princeteau, he moved on to the atelier of Léon Bonnat…

  • Princeton (New Jersey, United States)

    Princeton, borough (town) and township, Mercer county, western New Jersey, U.S. It lies along the Millstone River, 11 miles (18 km) northeast of Trenton. The borough was incorporated in 1813; it is surrounded by the township (incorporated 1838) that also includes the community of North Princeton.

  • Princeton (Indiana, United States)

    Tri-State Tornado of 1925: towns of Griffin, Owensville, and Princeton and devastated about 85 farms in between. Having taken 71 lives in Indiana, the storm dissipated about 4:30 pm approximately 3 miles (5 km) southwest of Petersburg.

  • Princeton (United States ship)

    naval ship: Propulsion: …first screw-driven steam man-of-war, USS Princeton, a large 10-gun sloop.

  • Princeton (West Virginia, United States)

    Princeton, city, seat (1837) of Mercer county, southern West Virginia, U.S., about 10 miles (16 km) northeast of Bluefield. The site was settled in 1826 and named for the American Revolutionary War general Hugh Mercer, who was mortally wounded at the Battle of Princeton on January 3, 1777. During

  • Princeton School

    Charles Hodge: This body, like the “Princeton School” of orthodox Calvinist theology, in which Hodge was a major figure, stressed the verbal infallibility of the Bible and asserted other generally conservative views.

  • Princeton Theological Seminary (seminary, Princeton, New Jersey, United States)

    Christian fundamentalism: Origins: …this challenge, theologians at the Princeton Theological Seminary argued for the verbal (word-for-word) inspiration of Scripture and affirmed that the Bible was not only infallible (correct when it spoke on matters of faith and morals) but inerrant (correct when it spoke on any matters, including history and science).

  • Princeton University (university, Princeton, New Jersey, United States)

    Princeton University, coeducational, privately endowed institution of higher learning at Princeton, New Jersey, U.S. It was founded as the College of New Jersey in 1746, making it the fourth oldest institution of higher education in the United States. It was in Princeton’s Nassau Hall in 1783 that

  • Princetown (England, United Kingdom)

    Dartmoor: …few settlements; the largest is Princetown, founded in 1806 to serve adjoining Dartmoor Prison, which was built to hold French captives from the Napoleonic Wars. Since 1850 it has been England’s chief confinement centre for serious offenders.

  • Princip, Gavrilo (Slavic nationalist)

    Gavrilo Princip, South Slav nationalist who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his consort, Sophie, Duchess von Hohenberg (née Chotek), at Sarajevo, Bosnia, on June 28, 1914. Princip’s act gave Austria-Hungary the excuse that it had sought for opening

  • Principado de Asturias (region, Spain)

    Asturias, comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) and historic region of Spain that is coextensive with the northwestern Spanish provincia (province) of Asturias. It is bounded by the autonomous communities of Cantabria to the east, Castile-León to the south, and Galicia to the west. The

  • principal (suretyship)

    insurance: Suretyship: The three parties are the principal, who is the person bonded; the obligee, the person who is protected; and the surety, the person or corporation agreeing to reimburse the obligee for any losses stemming from failures or dishonesty of the principal. The bond covers events within the control of the…

  • principal (organ stop)

    diapason: …pipes are also known as principals.

  • Principal Articles of the Religion (work by Chong Yak-jong)

    Saint Chŏng Yak-jong: He also wrote the Principal Articles of the Religion, the first guidebook to Roman Catholicism written in Korean; it contributed toward the spread of the Korean alphabet, which had been generally neglected in favour of Chinese.

  • principal axis (optics)

    lens: Optical principles for lenses: …single straight line called the principal axis of the lens. A frequently used measure of the quality of any lens system is its ability to form an image that is sharp enough to separate, or resolve, two very close dots or lines in an object. Resolving power depends on how…

  • principal curvature (mathematics)

    curvature: …principal directions are called the principal curvatures of the surface. The mean curvature of the surface at the point is either the sum of the principal curvatures or half that sum (usage varies among authorities). The total (or Gaussian) curvature (see differential geometry: Curvature of surfaces) is the product of…

  • principal focus (optics)

    lens: Optical principles for lenses: This point is called the focal point, or principal focus, of the lens (often depicted in ray diagrams as F). Refraction of the rays of light reflected from or emitted by an object causes the rays to form a visual image of the object. This image may be either real—photographable…

  • principal in the first degree (law)

    criminal law: Degrees of participation: …his own hand” is a principal in the first degree. His counterpart in French law is the auteur (literally, “author”), or coauteur when two or more persons are directly engaged. A principal in the second degree is one who intentionally aids or abets the principal in the first degree, being…

  • principal in the fourth degree (law)

    criminal law: Degrees of participation: The fourth and last degree of participation is that of accessory after the fact, who is punishable for receiving, concealing, or comforting one whom that person knows to have committed a crime so as to obstruct the criminal’s apprehension or to otherwise obstruct justice. In continental…

  • principal in the second degree (law)

    Principal in the second degree, person who assists another in the commission of a crime and is present when the crime is being committed but does not actually participate in the crime. For example, an individual standing guard at the door during the armed robbery of a service station would be

  • principal in the third degree (law)

    criminal law: Degrees of participation: …fact; in continental law this third degree of participation is covered partly by the concept of instigation and partly by the above-mentioned aide et assistance. The fourth and last degree of participation is that of accessory after the fact, who is punishable for receiving, concealing, or comforting one whom that…

  • Principal Navigations, Voyages and Discoveries of the English Nation, The (work by Hakluyt)

    Richard Hakluyt: This was The Principall Navigations, Voiages and Discoveries of the English Nation, which, by its scholarship and comprehensiveness, transcended all geographical literature to date; the first edition, in one volume, appeared in 1589. About this time he married Duglesse Cavendish, a relative of Thomas Cavendish, the circumnavigator,…

  • principal quantum number (chemistry and physics)

    orbital: The numerals, called principal quantum numbers, indicate energy levels as well as relative distance from the nucleus. A 1s electron occupies the energy level nearest the nucleus. A 2s electron, less strongly bound, spends most of its time farther away from the nucleus. The letters, s, p, d,…

  • Principal, Victoria (American actress)

    Dallas: …role), and Pamela Barnes (Victoria Principal), the sister of rival oil tycoon—and J.R.’s chief nemesis—Cliff Barnes (Ken Kercheval).

  • principalia (Filipino history)

    Philippines: The Spanish period: …nobility were known as the principalia and played an important role in the friar-dominated local government.

  • principality (political unit)

    Germany: The continued ascendancy of the princes: …into numerous loosely defined territorial principalities had reached an advanced stage.

  • Principality of Andorra

    Andorra, small independent European coprincipality situated among the southern peaks of the Pyrenees Mountains and bounded by France to the north and east and by Spain to the south and west. It is one of the smallest states in Europe. The capital is Andorra la Vella. Andorra consists of a cluster

  • Principality of Asturias (region, Spain)

    Asturias, comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) and historic region of Spain that is coextensive with the northwestern Spanish provincia (province) of Asturias. It is bounded by the autonomous communities of Cantabria to the east, Castile-León to the south, and Galicia to the west. The

  • Principality of Liechtenstein

    Liechtenstein, western European principality located between Switzerland and Austria. It is one of the smallest countries of Europe; its capital is Vaduz. The eastern two-thirds of the country is composed of the rugged foothills of the Rhätikon Mountains, part of the central Alps. The highest peak

  • Principality of Tver (historical principality, Russia)

    Tver, medieval principality located in the region northwest of Moscow and centring on the city of Tver and including the towns of Kashin, Mikulin, Kholm, Dorogobuzh, and Staritsa. Descendants of Prince Yaroslav Yaroslavich (brother of Alexander Nevsky and son of Yaroslav Vsevolodovich) founded the

  • principall Navigations, Voiages and Discoveries of the English Nation, The (work by Hakluyt)

    Richard Hakluyt: This was The Principall Navigations, Voiages and Discoveries of the English Nation, which, by its scholarship and comprehensiveness, transcended all geographical literature to date; the first edition, in one volume, appeared in 1589. About this time he married Duglesse Cavendish, a relative of Thomas Cavendish, the circumnavigator,…

  • Principat d’Andorra

    Andorra, small independent European coprincipality situated among the southern peaks of the Pyrenees Mountains and bounded by France to the north and east and by Spain to the south and west. It is one of the smallest states in Europe. The capital is Andorra la Vella. Andorra consists of a cluster

  • principate (government)

    Augustus: …regime is known as the principate because he was the princeps, the first citizen, at the head of that array of outwardly revived republican institutions that alone made his autocracy palatable. With unlimited patience, skill, and efficiency, he overhauled every aspect of Roman life and brought durable peace and prosperity…

  • príncipe constante, El (play by Calderón)

    Pedro Calderón de la Barca: Religious plays: …is El príncipe constante (1629; The Constant Prince), which dramatizes the martyrdom of Prince Ferdinand of Portugal. El mágico prodigioso (1637; The Wonder-Working Magician) is a more complex religious play. Los dos amantes del cielo (The Two Lovers of Heaven) and El Joséf de las mujeres (c. 1640; “The Joseph…

  • Príncipe Island (island, Sao Tome and Principe)

    Sao Tome and Principe: Land: …in shape, is larger than Príncipe, which lies about 90 miles (145 km) northeast of its sister island. The capital of the country, São Tomé city, is situated in the northeastern part of São Tomé island. The country’s closest neighbours are Gabon and Equatorial Guinea on the Atlantic coast of…

  • Príncipe Peak (mountain, Sao Tome and Principe)

    Sao Tome and Principe: Relief and drainage: …metres) above sea level, and Príncipe Peak on the smaller island reaches 3,110 feet (948 metres). These mountainous areas are deeply dissected by stream erosion, and spectacular isolated volcanic plugs stand out as landmarks. Swift and rocky streams rush down to the coast in every direction.

  • Principe Perfeito, O (king of Portugal)

    John II, king of Portugal from 1481 to 1495, regarded as one of the greatest Portuguese rulers, chiefly because of his ruthless assertion of royal authority over the great nobles and his resumption of the exploration of Africa and the quest for India. John was the great-grandson of the founder of t

  • Principe, Il (treatise by Machiavelli)

    The Prince, political treatise by Niccolò Machiavelli, written in 1513. A short treatise on how to acquire power, create a state, and keep it, The Prince represents Machiavelli’s effort to provide a guide for political action based on the lessons of history and his own experience as a foreign

  • Principes (plant order)

    Arecales, order of flowering plants that contains only one family, Arecaceae (also known as Palmae), which comprises the palms. Nearly 2,400 species in 189 genera are known. The order includes some of the most important plants in terms of economic value. The members of the Arecales are distinctive

  • Principes de la flûte traversière (work by Hotteterre)

    Jacques Hotteterre: Hotteterre’s first published work, Principes de la flûte traversière (1707), is the first known essay on flute-playing. It contains instructions for playing the recorder and oboe, as well as the flute, and was an immense success throughout Europe, undergoing numerous reprints. This treatise proved to be a valuable source…

  • Principes de la nature et de la grâce fondés en raison (work by Leibniz)

    Western philosophy: The rationalism of Spinoza and Leibniz: In the Principes de la nature et de la grâce fondés en raison (1714; “Principles of Nature and of Grace Founded in Reason”), Leibniz stated a maxim that could fairly represent the entire school:

  • Principia (work by Newton)

    Isaac Newton: The Principia: Newton originally applied the idea of attractions and repulsions solely to the range of terrestrial phenomena mentioned in the preceding paragraph. But late in 1679, not long after he had embraced the concept, another application was suggested in a letter from Hooke,…

  • Principia Ethica (work by Moore)

    Western philosophy: The Western tradition: …example of the second; the Principia Ethica (1903) of G.E. Moore (1873–1958), a founder of analytic philosophy, is an example of the first. Beginning with a simple question about justice, the Republic in its discursiveness slowly but progressively brings more and more areas into the discussion: first ethics, then politics,…

  • Principia Mathematica (work by Newton)

    Isaac Newton: The Principia: Newton originally applied the idea of attractions and repulsions solely to the range of terrestrial phenomena mentioned in the preceding paragraph. But late in 1679, not long after he had embraced the concept, another application was suggested in a letter from Hooke,…

  • Principia Mathematica (work by Russell and Whitehead)

    history of logic: Principia Mathematica and its aftermath: First-order logic is not capable of expressing all the concepts and modes of reasoning used in mathematics; equinumerosity (equicardinality) and infinity, for example, cannot be expressed by its means. For this reason, the best-known work in 20th-century logic, Principia Mathematica…

  • Principia Philosophiae (work by Descartes)

    René Descartes: Physics, physiology, and morals: In 1644 Descartes published Principles of Philosophy, a compilation of his physics and metaphysics. He dedicated this work to Princess Elizabeth (1618–79), daughter of Elizabeth Stuart, titular queen of Bohemia, in correspondence with whom he developed his moral philosophy. According to Descartes, a human being is a union of…

  • Principia Rerum Naturalium (work by Swedenborg)

    Emanuel Swedenborg: Swedenborg’s philosophy of nature: …the first of which, the Principia Rerum Naturalium (“Principles of Natural Things”), contains Swedenborg’s mature philosophy of nature. In this work he reached by inductive argument several conclusions that resemble the theories of modern scientists. Swedenborg posited that matter consists of particles that are indefinitely divisible, and that these particles…

  • principio del placer, El (work by Pacheco)

    José Emilio Pacheco: The short stories in El principio del placer (1972; “The Pleasure Principle”) are united by the recurrent theme of anguish. In the poems of Islas a la deriva (1976; “Islands Adrift”), Pacheco reinterpreted history and mythology.

  • Principiorum Primorum Cognitionis Metaphysicae Nova Dilucidatio (work by Kant)

    Immanuel Kant: Tutor and Privatdozent: In a third dissertation, Principiorum Primorum Cognitionis Metaphysicae Nova Dilucidato (1755; “New Elucidation of the First Principles of Metaphysical Cognition”), Kant analyzed especially the principle of sufficient reason, which in Wolff’s formulation asserts that for everything there is a sufficient reason why it should be rather than not be.…

  • principle learning (psychology)

    learning theory: Principle learning: A subject may be shown sets of three figures (say, two round and one triangular; next, two square and one round, and so on). With proper rewards, the subject may learn to distinguish any “odd” member of any set from those that are…

  • Principle of Protestantism, The (work by Schaff)

    Philip Schaff: …a controversial address, published as The Principle of Protestantism, in which he expressed his view that the positive values of both Roman Catholicism and Protestantism would eventually be blended in an ecumenical, evangelical Catholicism. The address provoked criticism and charges of heresy, but Schaff was exonerated by the Eastern Synod…

  • principle of superposition (geology)

    Earth sciences: Paleontology and stratigraphy: His principle of superposition of strata states that in a sequence of strata, as originally laid down, any stratum is younger than the one on which it rests and older than the one that rests upon it.

  • principle of virtual velocities (physics)

    mechanics: The principle of virtual work: A special class of problems in mechanics involves systems in equilibrium. The problem is to find the configuration of the system, subject to whatever constraints there may be, when all forces are balanced. The body or system will be at rest (in the…

  • principle, first (philosophy)

    Western philosophy: Monistic cosmologies: Thus, the term arche, which originally simply meant “beginning,” acquired the new meaning of “principle,” a term that henceforth played an enormous role in philosophy down to the present. This concept of a principle that remains the same through many transmutations is, furthermore, the presupposition of the idea…

  • Principle, School of (Chinese philosophy)

    Lu Jiuyuan: …the Learning of Principle (lixue), often called the Cheng-Zhu school after its leading philosophers, Cheng Yi and Zhu Xi.

  • principles and parameters (linguistics)

    Noam Chomsky: Principles and parameters: …theoretical framework known as “principles and parameters” (P&P), which Chomksy introduced in Lectures on Government and Binding (1981) and elaborated in Knowledge of Language (1986). Principles are linguistic universals, or structural features that are common to all natural languages; hence, they are part of the child’s native endowment. Parameters,…

  • Principles and Practice of Medicine, The (work by Osler)

    Sir William Osler, Baronet: …used the time to write The Principles and Practice of Medicine, first published in 1892. In the same year, he married Grace Gross, widow of a surgical colleague at Philadelphia and great-granddaughter of Paul Revere.

  • Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, Treaty on (1967)

    Outer Space Treaty, (1967), international treaty binding the parties to use outer space only for peaceful purposes. In June 1966 the United States and the Soviet Union submitted draft treaties on the uses of space to the United Nations. These were reconciled during several months of negotiation in

  • Principles of Art (work by Collingwood)

    aesthetics: Expressionism: Collingwood (Principles of Art, 1938) was similarly dismissive of representation and similarly concerned with presenting a theory of art that would justify the revolutionary practice of his contemporaries (in this case, the post-Symbolist poetry of T.S. Eliot’s The Waste Land ). As pointed out earlier, Collingwood…

  • Principles of Art History (work by Wölfflin)

    Heinrich Wölfflin: …work was Kunstgeschichtliche Grundbegriffe (1915; Principles of Art History), which synthesized his ideas into a complete aesthetic system that was to become of great importance in art criticism.

  • Principles of Behavior (work by Hull)

    Clark L. Hull: …further developed these ideas in Principles of Behavior (1943), which suggested that the stimulus-response connection depends on both the kind and the amount of reinforcement. His lasting legacy to psychology is thought to be his approach to the study of behaviour, rather than the specifics of his theories.

  • Principles of Biology (work by Spencer [1864])

    survival of the fittest: …it in his 1864 book Principles of Biology. (Spencer came up with the phrase only after reading Darwin’s work.)

  • Principles of Chemistry, The (work by Mendeleyev)

    Dmitri Mendeleev: Formulation of the periodic law: …result was Osnovy khimii (1868–71; The Principles of Chemistry), which became a classic, running through many editions and many translations. When Mendeleev began to compose the chapter on the halogen elements (chlorine and its analogs) at the end of the first volume, he compared the properties of this group of…

  • Principles of Economics (work by Marshall)

    Alfred Marshall: Marshall’s Principles of Economics (1890) was his most important contribution to economic literature. It was distinguished by the introduction of a number of new concepts, such as elasticity of demand, consumer’s surplus, quasirent, and the representative firm—all of which played a major role in the subsequent…

  • Principles of General Physiology (work by Bayliss)

    Sir William Maddock Bayliss: …his best known work is Principles of General Physiology (1915), considered to be the best text on the subject at that time. He was knighted in 1922.

  • Principles of Geology (work by Lyell)

    archaeology: First steps to archaeology: Lyell, in his Principles of Geology (1830–33), popularized this new system and paved the way for the acceptance of the great antiquity of man. Charles Darwin regarded Lyell’s Principles as one of the two germinal works in the formation of his own ideas on evolution. Early stone tools…

  • Principles of Gestalt Psychology (work by Koffka)

    Kurt Koffka: A major work, Principles of Gestalt Psychology (1935), dealt with a wide range of applied psychology but contributed mainly to the study of perception, memory, and learning.

  • Principles of Harmony and Contrast of Colours and Their Applications to the Arts, The (work by Chevreul)

    Orphism: …contraste simultané des couleurs (1839; The Principles of Harmony and Contrast of Colours and Their Applications to the Arts) by the chemist Michel-Eugène Chevreul. The Neo-Impressionist painter Georges Seurat had employed those theories in figurative and landscape compositions during the 1880s, but the Orphist style applied them in an abstract…

  • Principles of International Law (work by Kelsen)

    Hans Kelsen: In such works as Principles of International Law (1952) he envisioned a world unity under law superimposed on the legal order within each nation.

  • Principles of Linguistic Change (work by Labov)

    William Labov: …ways, culminating in his monumental Principles of Linguistic Change (1994). The discovery that American English pronunciation was becoming regionally more, rather than less, divergent countered popular belief and attracted the attention of many outside his field. In 2006, together with Sharon Ash and Charles Boberg, he published Atlas of North…

  • Principles of Literary Criticism (work by Richards)

    I.A. Richards: …pioneer work on semantics; and Principles of Literary Criticism (1924) and Practical Criticism (1929), companion volumes that he used to develop his critical method. The latter two were based on experimental pedagogy: Richards would give students poems in which the titles and authors’ names had been removed and then use…

  • Principles of Logic, The (work by Bradley)

    F.H. Bradley: In The Principles of Logic (1883), Bradley denounced the deficient psychology of the Empiricists, whose logic was limited, in his view, to the doctrine of the association of ideas held in the human mind. He gave Hegel due credit for borrowed ideas in both books, but…

  • Principles of Mathematics, The (work by Russell)

    Bertrand Russell: …logicism—was stated at length in The Principles of Mathematics (1903). There Russell argued that the whole of mathematics could be derived from a few simple axioms that made no use of specifically mathematical notions, such as number and square root, but were rather confined to purely logical notions, such as…

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