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  • Panckoucke, Charles-Joseph (French publisher)

    encyclopaedia: Supplementary material: Charles-Joseph Panckoucke, a publisher, issued a four-volume supplement to the Encyclopédie (1776–77), in spite of Diderot’s refusal to edit it. The Britannica included a 200-page appendix in the last volume of the 2nd edition (1784) and issued a two-volume supplement to the 3rd edition (1801;…

  • Pancks (fictional character)

    Pancks, fictional character in the novel Little Dorrit (1855–57) by Charles Dickens. Pancks is a clerk who reluctantly collects exorbitant rents for the hypocritical landlord Casby. Because he makes Pancks do his dirty work, Casby by contrast appears to be generous, though he is ultimately

  • Pancoast, William (American physician)

    artificial insemination: Artificial insemination in humans: In 1884 American physician William Pancoast performed a modified artificial insemination procedure when he injected sperm from a donor into a woman who was under anesthesia. The woman, who was married, gave birth to a baby nine months later and did not know that she had been impregnated with…

  • pancratium (ancient sport)

    Pankration, ancient Greek sports event that combined boxing and wrestling, introduced at the XXXIII Olympiad (648 bce). Simple fisticuffs had been introduced in 688 bce. It was particularly popular among Spartans. Contests were savage, with hitting, kicking, twisting of limbs, strangling, and

  • pancreas (anatomy)

    Pancreas, compound gland that discharges digestive enzymes into the gut and secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon, vital in carbohydrate (sugar) metabolism, into the bloodstream. In humans the pancreas weighs approximately 80 grams (about 3 ounces) and is shaped like a pear. It is located in

  • pancreas transplant (medicine)

    transplant: The pancreas: The pancreas consists of two kinds of tissues: endocrine and exocrine. The latter produces pancreatic juice, a combination of digestive enzymes that empty via a duct into the small intestine. The endocrine tissue of the pancreas—the islets of Langerhans—secrete

  • pancreas, cystic fibrosis of the (pathology)

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), an inherited metabolic disorder, the chief symptom of which is the production of a thick, sticky mucus that clogs the respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal tract. Cystic fibrosis was not recognized as a separate disease until 1938 and was then classified as a childhood

  • pancreatic amylase (biochemistry)

    amylase: …by the salivary glands, whereas pancreatic amylase is secreted by the pancreas into the small intestine. The optimum pH of alpha-amylase is 6.7–7.0.

  • pancreatic cancer (pathology)

    Pancreatic cancer, a disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells in the pancreas, a 15-cm- (6-inch-) long gland located behind the stomach. The pancreas is primarily made up of two different tissues with separate functions: the exocrine pancreas, which secretes enzymes into the digestive

  • pancreatic cholera (pathology)

    prostaglandin: Smooth muscle contraction: …of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in Verner-Morrison syndrome, as well as the effects of cholera toxin.

  • pancreatic duct (anatomy)

    endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatoscopy: …examine the bile duct and pancreatic ducts for the presence of gallstones, tumours, or inflammation. In this procedure an endoscope is passed through the stomach into the duodenum to visualize the ampulla of Vater, the opening of the common bile duct into the duodenum. This enables the injection

  • pancreatic glucagon (hormone)

    Glucagon, a pancreatic hormone produced by cells in the islets of Langerhans. Glucagon is a 29-amino-acid peptide that is produced specifically by the alpha cells of the islets. It has a high degree of similarity with several glucagon-like peptides that are secreted by cells scattered throughout

  • pancreatic hormone (biochemistry)

    islets of Langerhans: …and delta cells) produce important hormones; the fourth component (C cells) has no known function.

  • pancreatic islets (anatomy)

    Islets of Langerhans, irregularly shaped patches of endocrine tissue located within the pancreas of most vertebrates. They are named for the German physician Paul Langerhans, who first described them in 1869. The normal human pancreas contains about 1,000,000 islets. The islets consist of four

  • pancreatic juice (biochemistry)

    transplant: The pancreas: The latter produces pancreatic juice, a combination of digestive enzymes that empty via a duct into the small intestine. The endocrine tissue of the pancreas—the islets of Langerhans—secrete the hormones insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream. These hormones are vital to the regulation

  • pancreatic polypeptide (biochemistry)

    Pancreatic polypeptide, peptide secreted by the F (or PP) cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Pancreatic polypeptide contains 36 amino acids. Its secretion is stimulated by eating, exercising, and fasting. It can inhibit gallbladder contraction and pancreatic exocrine secretion, but

  • pancreatitis (pathology)

    Pancreatitis, inflammation of the pancreas, either acute or chronic. The disorder is most commonly caused by excessive intake of alcohol, trauma, and obstruction of pancreatic ducts by gallstones. Inflammation is caused by the escape of pancreatic enzymes into the tissues of the pancreas. These

  • pancrein

    endocrinology: …presence of a substance called pancrein, which is thought to have been insulin, in pancreatic extracts); and in 1929 Edward Doisy isolated an estrus-producing hormone from the urine of pregnant females.

  • pancreine

    endocrinology: …presence of a substance called pancrein, which is thought to have been insulin, in pancreatic extracts); and in 1929 Edward Doisy isolated an estrus-producing hormone from the urine of pregnant females.

  • pancreozymin (hormone)

    Cholecystokinin (CCK), a digestive hormone released with secretin when food from the stomach reaches the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). Cholecystokinin and pancreozymin were once considered two separate hormones because two distinct actions had been described: the release of enzymes

  • pancuronium bromide (chemical compound)

    lethal injection: …in about 20 seconds, (2) pancuronium bromide, a total muscle relaxant that, given in sufficient dosages, paralyzes all voluntary muscles, thereby causing suffocation, and (3) potassium chloride, which induces irreversible cardiac arrest. If all goes as planned, the entire execution takes about five minutes, with death usually occurring less than…

  • pancytopenia (pathology)

    aplastic anemia: …form of the disease called pancytopenia, or there may be a lack of one or more cell types. Rarely, the disease may be congenital (Fanconi anemia); more commonly, it is acquired by exposure to certain drugs (e.g., the antibiotic chloramphenicol) or chemicals (e.g., benzene) or to ionizing radiation. About half…

  • panda bear (mammal)

    Giant panda, (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), bearlike mammal inhabiting bamboo forests in the mountains of central China. Its striking coat of black and white, combined with a bulky body and round face, gives it a captivating appearance that has endeared it to people worldwide. According to the IUCN Red

  • panda plant (plant)

    kalanchoe: Major species: …their unusual foliage, include the panda plant (Kalanchoe tomentosa); penwiper plant (K. marmorata); velvet leaf, or felt bush (K. beharensis); and devil’s backbone, or mother of thousands (K. daigremontiana). A range of attractive potted plants, commonly known as florist’s kalanchoe and distinguished by their colourful flowers, have been derived from…

  • panda, giant (mammal)

    Giant panda, (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), bearlike mammal inhabiting bamboo forests in the mountains of central China. Its striking coat of black and white, combined with a bulky body and round face, gives it a captivating appearance that has endeared it to people worldwide. According to the IUCN Red

  • Pandaceae (plant family)

    Malpighiales: Ungrouped families: Pandaceae contains 3 genera and 15 species of trees to shrubs, growing from Africa to New Guinea. Microdesmis (10 species) grows almost throughout the range of the family. The branches often look like compound leaves, and the male and female flowers are small and borne…

  • Pandai Island (island, Indonesia)

    Pantar Island, island in the Alor group, Nusa Tenggara Timur provinsi (“province”), Indonesia. Pantar lies about 45 miles (72 km) north of Timor, across the Ombai Strait. It is 30 miles (50 km) long north-south and 7 to 18 miles (11 to 29 km) wide east-west, and it has an area of 281 square miles

  • Pandaka pygmaea (fish)

    goby: …long or less; the Philippine Pandaka pygmaea, one of the smallest living vertebrates, grows no longer than about 13 millimetres (38 inch).

  • Pandalus montagui (crustacean)

    crustacean: Reproduction and life cycles: In Pandalus montagui, of the order Decapoda, for example, some individuals begin life as males but change into functional females after about 13 months. Isopods of the genus Rhyscotoides show a similar change from male to female as they grow older.

  • Pandanaceae (plant family)

    Pandanales: Pandanaceae: The four genera of the family Pandanaceae—Pandanus (screw pine), Freycinetia, Sararanga, and Martellidendron—are distributed in coastal or marshy areas in the tropics and subtropics of the Old World (Paleotropics). They are abundant

  • Pandanales (plant order)

    Pandanales, diverse order of the monocotyledon (monocot) group, whose 1,345 species range from large arborescent plants of rainforests and coastal areas in the tropics to twining herbs and lianas, as well as minute, saprophytic herbs of the forest floor. The order is made up of five families:

  • Pandanus (plant)

    Pandanus, (genus Pandanus), any of some 600 tropical species of Old World trees and shrubs of the screw pine family (Pandanaceae). Pandanus species typically have slender palmlike stems and produce from their trunks and stems aerial prop roots that are often huge; those, together with their

  • pandanus (plant)

    Pandanus, (genus Pandanus), any of some 600 tropical species of Old World trees and shrubs of the screw pine family (Pandanaceae). Pandanus species typically have slender palmlike stems and produce from their trunks and stems aerial prop roots that are often huge; those, together with their

  • Pandanus candelabrum (plant)

    pandanus: The candelabrum tree (P. candelabrum) is grown as an outdoor ornamental in warm regions and may indicate the presence of diamond-bearing kimberlite in its native Africa.

  • Pandanus leram (plant)

    pandanus: utilis and the Nicobar Islands breadfruit, P. leram) are edible. A few species are grown as greenhouse subjects (e.g., P. pygmaeus [native to Madagascar] and P. veitchii [a popular houseplant]). The leaves of P. amaryllifolius are used in Southeast Asian cooking, notably in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. P.…

  • Pandanus odoratissimus (plant)

    pandanus: P. odoratissimus, which is native to South and Southeast Asia, has flowers whose essence (called pandanus, or kewra, water) is used as a flavouring in North Indian foods. The candelabrum tree (P. candelabrum) is grown as an outdoor ornamental in warm regions and may indicate…

  • pandanus palm (plant)

    pandanus: …especially of those from the thatch screw pine, or pandanus palm (Pandanus tectorius), which is native to Micronesia and Hawaii, and the common screw pine (P. utilis). Fibres are also obtained from the aerial roots. The fleshy fruits and seeds of some species (including P. utilis and the Nicobar Islands…

  • Pandanus tectorius (plant)

    pandanus: …especially of those from the thatch screw pine, or pandanus palm (Pandanus tectorius), which is native to Micronesia and Hawaii, and the common screw pine (P. utilis). Fibres are also obtained from the aerial roots. The fleshy fruits and seeds of some species (including P. utilis and the Nicobar Islands…

  • Pandanus utilis (plant)

    pandanus: …Micronesia and Hawaii, and the common screw pine (P. utilis). Fibres are also obtained from the aerial roots. The fleshy fruits and seeds of some species (including P. utilis and the Nicobar Islands breadfruit, P. leram) are edible. A few species are grown as greenhouse subjects (e.g., P. pygmaeus [native…

  • Pandanus veitchii (plant)

    houseplant: Trees: Similar in appearance is Pandanus veitchii, which has a rosette of leathery, sword-shaped leaves—glossy green and banded white—arranged in spirals.

  • Pandarus (Greek mythology)

    Pandarus, in Greek legend, son of Lycaon, a Lycian. In Homer’s Iliad, Book IV, Pandarus breaks the truce between the Trojans and the Greeks by treacherously wounding Menelaus, the king of Sparta; he is ultimately slain by the warrior Diomedes. In Geoffrey Chaucer’s Troilus and Criseyde and William

  • Pāṇḍav (literature)

    Southeast Asian arts: Shadow-puppet theatre: …Mahabharata epics, while the majority—the Pandawa (Pāṇḍav in Sanskrit) cycle of about 100 plays—are essentially Javanese creations in which the five heroic Pandawa brothers are placed in different situations. Three and sometimes four god-clown-servants and a set of ogre-antagonists who are not in the epics at all suggest how far…

  • Pāṇḍavas (Hindu legend)

    Pāṇḍavas, in Hindu legend, the five sons of the dynastic hero Pāṇḍu who were victorious in the great epic war with their cousins, the Kauravas. See

  • Pandawa play (literature)

    Southeast Asian arts: Shadow-puppet theatre: …Mahabharata epics, while the majority—the Pandawa (Pāṇḍav in Sanskrit) cycle of about 100 plays—are essentially Javanese creations in which the five heroic Pandawa brothers are placed in different situations. Three and sometimes four god-clown-servants and a set of ogre-antagonists who are not in the epics at all suggest how far…

  • Panday, Basdeo (prime minister of Trinidad and Tobago)

    Trinidad and Tobago: Independent Trinidad and Tobago: …to the UNC, whose leader, Basdeo Panday, thus became prime minister. Panday was the first Indo-Trinidadian prime minister, and his government was the first in Trinidad and Tobago to be controlled by a party whose electoral base was the Indo-Trinidadian population. After leaving office, Panday was charged in 2002 with…

  • pandean pipes (musical instrument)

    Panpipe, wind instrument consisting of cane pipes of different lengths tied in a row or in a bundle held together by wax or cord (metal, clay, wood, and plastic instruments are also made) and generally closed at the bottom. They are blown across the top, each providing a different note. The panpipe

  • Pandectae (Roman law digest)

    Pandects, (Greek: “All-Encompassing”) collection of passages from the writings of Roman jurists, arranged in 50 books and subdivided into titles according to the subject matter. In ad 530 the Roman emperor Justinian entrusted its compilation to the jurist Tribonian with instructions to appoint a

  • Pandectarum sive Partitionum universalium Conradi Gesneri…libri xxi (work by Gesner)

    Conrad Gesner: Publications: …1548 by the encyclopaedic work Pandectarum sive Partitionum universalium Conradi Gesneri…libri xxi, in which Gesner attempted to survey the recorded knowledge of the world under 21 headings. The first 19 books were published in 1548; the last, devoted to theological thought, was published in 1549, while the 20th, on medicine,…

  • Pandectists (philosophical school)

    property law: Marxism, liberalism, and the law: On the Continent the pandectists, a group of systematic jurists prominent in Germany, took the agglomerative tendency inherent in the Roman conception of property and developed it to a point that most modern commentators find goes far beyond what the Roman sources themselves suggest. Their ideas were embodied in…

  • Pandects (Roman law digest)

    Pandects, (Greek: “All-Encompassing”) collection of passages from the writings of Roman jurists, arranged in 50 books and subdivided into titles according to the subject matter. In ad 530 the Roman emperor Justinian entrusted its compilation to the jurist Tribonian with instructions to appoint a

  • pandeiro (musical instrument)

    capoeira: … (single-headed, standing, conical drums), a pandeiro (tambourine), an agogô (double bell), and sometimes also a reco-reco (scraped bamboo tube), all of which accompany call-and-response songs, usually led by one of the berimbau players.

  • pandeism (religious philosophy)

    Deism: Influence of Deism since the early 20th century: …such modern variants as “pandeism,” which attempted to unite aspects of Deism with pantheism, held that through the act of creation God became the universe. There is thus no theological need to posit any special relationship between God and creation; rather, God is the universe and not a transcendent…

  • pandemic (disease outbreak)

    Pandemic, outbreak of infectious disease that occurs over a wide geographical area and that is of high prevalence, generally affecting a significant proportion of the world’s population, usually over the course of several months. Pandemics arise from epidemics, which are outbreaks of disease

  • Pandemos (Greek mythology)

    Aphrodite, ancient Greek goddess of sexual love and beauty, identified with Venus by the Romans. The Greek word aphros means “foam,” and Hesiod relates in his Theogony that Aphrodite was born from the white foam produced by the severed genitals of Uranus (Heaven), after his son Cronus threw them

  • Pandemrix (vaccine)

    influenza pandemic (H1N1) of 2009: Treatment and prevention: …was used against H1N1 was Pandemrix, which was developed by GlaxoSmithKline and was approved for use in September 2009 by the European Commission. Pandemrix was used widely, with doses administered in 47 countries worldwide and with some 30 million doses used in Europe alone.

  • Pander, Christian Heinrich (German anatomist)

    zoology: Historical background: Another German-trained embryologist, Christian Heinrich Pander, introduced in 1817 the concept of germ, or primordial, tissue layers into embryology.

  • Panderma (Turkey)

    Bandırma, port and town, northwestern Turkey, on the Sea of Marmara. It was used in the 13th century by the Latin Crusaders as a base of operation against the Greeks of Asia Minor (Anatolia) and was taken by the Ottomans in the next century. Its protected harbour is now an active transit port

  • Panderma rug

    Panderma rug, any of several types of floor coverings handwoven at Panderma (now Bandırma), a town in Turkey on the southern shore of the Sea of Marmora, usually as imitations of Ghiordes prayer-rug designs. The enterprise was begun early in the 20th century, perhaps with weavers from Ghiordes,

  • pandermite (mineral)

    Priceite, an earthy, white borate mineral, hydrated calcium borate (Ca4B10O19·7H2O). It has been found as masses and nodules in a hot-spring deposit near Chetco, Ore., U.S.; as nodules in shale in Death Valley, Calif., U.S.; and as very large masses (weighing up to a ton) underlying gypsum and

  • Pandey, Mangal (Indian soldier)

    Mangal Pandey, Indian soldier whose attack on British officers on March 29, 1857, was the first major incident of what came to be known as the Indian, or Sepoy, Mutiny (in India the uprising is often called the First War of Independence or other similar names). Pandey was born in a town near

  • Pandharpur (India)

    Pandharpur, town, southern Maharashtra state, western India. It lies in an upland plateau region along the Bhima River, about 35 miles (55 km) west of Solapur city. Pandharpur, easily reached by road and rail, is a religious town visited throughout the year by thousands of Hindu pilgrims. Four

  • pandiatonicism (music)

    harmony: Polytonality: …in a sense to Stravinsky’s pandiatonicism, or use of diatonic chords without the limitations of classical harmonic function, is the tendency toward polytonality in the works of the post-World War I group of French composers known as “Les Six.” These composers, notably Darius Milhaud, worked for a time with simple,…

  • Pandinus imperator (arachnid)

    scorpion: Size range and diversity of structure: Giants among scorpions include the black emperor scorpion (Pandinus imperator), an African species found in Guinea, which attains a body length of about 18 cm (7 inches) and a mass of 60 grams (more than 2 ounces). The longest scorpion in the world is the rock scorpion (Hadogenes troglodytes) of…

  • Pandion haliaetus (bird)

    Osprey, (Pandion haliaetus), large, long-winged hawk, about 65 cm (26 inches) long, that lives along seacoasts and larger interior waterways, where it catches fish. It is brown above and white below, with some white on the head. An osprey flies over the water to hunt. It hovers above its prey and

  • Pandionidae (bird)

    osprey: …only species in the family Pandionidae, which is sometimes considered a subfamily (Pandioninae) of the hawk and eagle family, Accipitridae, of the order Falconiformes.

  • Pandit, Kulbhushan Nath (Indian actor)

    Raaj Kumar, (KULBHUSHAN NATH PANDIT), Indian motion picture actor whose elegant delivery of dialogue graced more than 60 films in some 40 years and helped make him a cult figure among college youths (b. Oct. 8, 1927?--d. July 3,

  • Pandit, Vijaya Lakshmi (Indian politician and diplomat)

    Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit, Indian political leader and diplomat, one of the world’s leading women in public life in the 20th century. She was the daughter of Motilal Nehru, a wealthy and aristocratic nationalist leader, and sister of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of independent India. In

  • Paṇḍitārādhya Caritra (poem by Pālkuriki Sōmanātha)

    South Asian arts: Period of the Tamil Cōḷa Empire (10th–13th century): His Paṇḍitārādhya Caritra is a life of the Śaiva devotee Paṇḍitārādhya as well as a book of general knowledge including social customs, arts, crafts, and particularly music. His Vṛṣādhipa Śatakam consists of verses in Tamil, Kannada, Marathi, Sanskrit, and Telugu. This work was probably the first…

  • Pandji (Javanese literature)

    Southeast Asian arts: Female court dance-dramas: …nok drama, and the Javanese Pandji stories as subject matter. Romantic episodes from the long Pandji tale were ideal for staging in the elegant and delicate style of female court dance, accompanied by songs and the music of a large pi phat ensemble. In the unhurried court atmosphere, dance scenes…

  • Pandolfi, Vito (Italian critic, theatrical scholar, and director)

    Vito Pandolfi, Italian critic, theatrical scholar, and director known for his adherence to traditional forms of Italian drama. In 1944, after receiving his diploma in motion picture direction from the Academy of Dramatic Arts in Rome, Pandolfi began his professional career and was soon known for

  • Pandolpho (Italian-English churchman)

    Pandulph, papal legate to England and bishop of Norwich who was deeply involved in English secular politics. Pandulph’s early life is unknown. In 1211 Pope Innocent III sent him to England in an effort to secure King John’s acceptance of Stephen Langton as archbishop of Canterbury. When the n

  • Pandora (Greek mythology)

    Pandora, (Greek: “All-Gifts”) in Greek mythology, the first woman. According to Hesiod’s Theogony, after Prometheus, a fire god and divine trickster, had stolen fire from heaven and bestowed it upon mortals, Zeus, the king of the gods, determined to counteract this blessing. He accordingly

  • Pandora (astronomy)

    Saturn: Orbital and rotational dynamics: Pandora and its nearest neighbour moon, Prometheus, have been dubbed shepherd moons because of their influence on ring particles. During Voyager 1’s flyby, the two bodies were discovered orbiting on either side of the narrow F ring, which itself had been found only a year…

  • Pandora (Internet web service)

    Niklas Zennström: Joost: …assets were sold to competitor Pandora for some $75 million. As part of the deal, Rdio also filed for bankruptcy protection.

  • Pandora and the Flying Dutchman (film by Lewin [1951])

    Albert Lewin: …reviews for the romantic mystery Pandora and the Flying Dutchman (1951), which cast Ava Gardner as an American playgirl whose love for a drifter (James Mason) is doomed. Less successful was Saadia (1953), a romance set in Morocco that featured Cornel Wilde, Mel Ferrer, and Rita Gam. In 1957 Lewin…

  • Pandora’s Box (film by Pabst [1929])

    Lulu: Pabst’s silent film of Die Büchse der Pandora (1929), starring the American actress Louise Brooks, was based on both of Wedekind’s plays. The 20th-century Austrian composer Alban Berg also used the character and thematic material from Wedekind’s plays in his opera Lulu (1937).

  • Pandora’s Box (play by Wedekind)

    Pandora’s Box, Expressionistic drama in three acts by Frank Wedekind, published and performed in German in 1904 as Die Büchse der Pandora. Originally written as the second part of a work similarly titled, the play was censored when it was first published for its explicit scenes of destructive

  • Pandoravirus (biology)

    virus: Size and shape: The genomes of Mimiviruses and Pandoraviruses, which are some of the largest known viruses, range from 1 to 2.5 Mb (1 Mb = 1,000,000 base pairs of DNA).

  • Pandosto (work by Greene)

    Robert Greene: …best of his pastorals is Pandosto (1588), the direct source of Shakespeare’s The Winter’s Tale.

  • Pandrosos (Greek mythology)

    Aglauros: …and her sisters (Herse and Pandrosos) were apparently at first fertility deities. Aglauros had a sanctuary on the Acropolis in which young men of military age swore an oath to her as well as to Zeus and to other deities. The honour, however, may have stemmed from another legend—that Aglauros…

  • Pandu (Hindu legendary figure)

    Mahabharata: …in favour of his brother Pandu as king on their father’s death. A curse prevents Pandu from fathering children, however, and his wife Kunti asks the gods to father children in Pandu’s name. As a result, the god Dharma fathers Yudhishtira, the Wind fathers Bhima, Indra fathers Arjuna, and the…

  • Pandua (ancient town, India)

    Malda: …of the Hindu capital of Pandua. During the 18th century it was the seat of prosperous cotton and silk industries. It remains an important distributing centre for rice, jute, and wheat. Historical monuments include the Jāmiʿ Masjid, or Great Mosque (1566), and the landmark Nimasari tower across the river. Constituted…

  • Pandukkabhaya (Sri Lankan king)

    Sri Lanka: Indo-Aryan settlement: …the kingdom of Anuradhapura to Pandukkabhaya, the third king of the Vijaya dynasty. With its growth as the strongest Sinhalese kingdom, the city of Anuradhapura and the nearby settlements flourished. Kings built up the city and developed it for urban life as they extended royal control over villages and outlying…

  • Pandulf (Italian-English churchman)

    Pandulph, papal legate to England and bishop of Norwich who was deeply involved in English secular politics. Pandulph’s early life is unknown. In 1211 Pope Innocent III sent him to England in an effort to secure King John’s acceptance of Stephen Langton as archbishop of Canterbury. When the n

  • Pandulf I (count of Capua)

    Italy: The south, 774–1000: …its most notable prince being Pandulf I (Ironhead; 961–981).

  • Pandulph (Italian-English churchman)

    Pandulph, papal legate to England and bishop of Norwich who was deeply involved in English secular politics. Pandulph’s early life is unknown. In 1211 Pope Innocent III sent him to England in an effort to secure King John’s acceptance of Stephen Langton as archbishop of Canterbury. When the n

  • Panduro, Leif (Danish writer)

    Leif Panduro, Danish novelist and dramatist, a social critic who wrote in a satirical, humorous vein. His first novel, Av, min guldtand (1957; “Off, My Gold Tooth”), was an ironic and at times hilarious description of small-town life, based to a large extent on Panduro’s own experiences. The same

  • Panduvasudeva (Sri Lankan king)

    Sri Lanka: Legendary origins: …land, sent his youngest son, Panduvasudeva, to Sri Lanka. Panduvasudeva landed with 32 followers at Gokanna (now Trincomalee) on the east coast. He was enthroned at Upatissagama and continued the Vijaya dynasty.

  • Pandwani (Indian folk ballad)

    Madhya Pradesh: Oral tradition: The Pandwani is the Gond equivalent of the Mahabharata (one of the two great Hindu epics), while the Lachmanjati legend is the Gond equivalent of the Ramayana (the other great Hindu epic). All tribes have myths and legends regarding their origin. Some songs are associated with…

  • Pandya dynasty (Indian dynasty)

    Pandya dynasty, Tamil rulers in the extreme south of India of unknown antiquity (they are mentioned by Greek authors in the 4th century bce). The Roman emperor Julian received an embassy from a Pandya about 361 ce. The dynasty revived under Kadungon in the early 7th century ce and ruled from Madura

  • Pandya, Sunita (American astronaut)

    Sunita Williams, American astronaut who set records on her two flights to the International Space Station (ISS). In 1983 Williams entered the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland. She was made an ensign in 1987 and reported for aviator training at the Naval Aviation Training Command. In July

  • Pane e cioccolata (film by Brusati [1973])

    Anna Karina: …Brusati’s Pane e cioccolata (Bread and Chocolate), though she continued to act into the 2000s.

  • Pane e vino (novel by Silone)

    Ignazio Silone: …novels, Pane e vino (Bread and Wine, both 1937; revised as Vino e pane, 1955) and Il seme sotto la neve (1940; The Seed Beneath the Snow, 1942), portray socialist heroes who try to help the peasants by sharing their sufferings in a Christian spirit. Pane e vino was…

  • Pane e vino (work by Papini)

    Giovanni Papini: …of the life of Jesus; Pane e vino (1926; “Bread and Wine”), a volume of religious poetry; and Sant’Agostino (1929; St. Augustine).

  • panegyreis (Greek religion)

    Panegyris, in Greek religion, an ancient assembly that met on certain fixed dates for the purpose of honouring a specific god. The gatherings varied in size from the inhabitants of a single town to great national meetings, such as the Olympic Games. The religious aspect of the meetings was by far

  • panegyric (rhetoric)

    Panegyric, eulogistic oration or laudatory discourse that originally was a speech delivered at an ancient Greek general assembly (panegyris), such as the Olympic and Panathenaic festivals. Speakers frequently took advantage of these occasions, when Greeks of various cities were gathered together,

  • Panegyric to Origen (work by Gregory Thaumaturgus)

    patristic literature: Late 2nd to early 4th century: Gregory Thaumaturgus left a fascinating Panegyric to Origen, giving a graphic description of Origen’s method of instruction, as well as a dogmatically important Symbol and a Canonical Epistle that is in effect one of the most ancient treatises of casuistry (i.e., the application of moral principles to practical questions).

  • Panegyricus (speech by Isocrates)

    Isocrates: Isocrates as rhetorician.: In the “Panegyric” he developed the theme that many, notably Gorgias and the rhetorician Lysias, had recently argued: he called on Sparta to establish concord in Greece by recognizing the fitness and right of Athens to share with Sparta hegemony in Greece and by proceeding with the…

  • panegyris (Greek religion)

    Panegyris, in Greek religion, an ancient assembly that met on certain fixed dates for the purpose of honouring a specific god. The gatherings varied in size from the inhabitants of a single town to great national meetings, such as the Olympic Games. The religious aspect of the meetings was by far

  • panegyry (Greek religion)

    Panegyris, in Greek religion, an ancient assembly that met on certain fixed dates for the purpose of honouring a specific god. The gatherings varied in size from the inhabitants of a single town to great national meetings, such as the Olympic Games. The religious aspect of the meetings was by far

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