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  • primary standard (public health)

    water supply system: Standards: Primary standards are designed to protect public health, whereas secondary standards are based on aesthetic factors rather than on health effects. Primary standards specify maximum contaminant levels for many chemical, microbiological, and radiological parameters of water quality. They reflect the best available scientific and engineering…

  • primary station (navigation)

    loran: A primary station broadcasts an uninterrupted series of pulses of fixed duration and at a fixed rate (e.g., of 50 microseconds’ duration at a rate of 25 pulses per second). A secondary station, 200–300 miles (320–480 km) away, automatically transmits its own signals, maintaining a frequency…

  • primary stratification (geology)

    sedimentary rock: Types: …termed well-bedded, a type of primary stratification.

  • primary succession (ecology)

    Primary succession, type of ecological succession (the evolution of a biological community’s ecological structure) in which plants and animals first colonize a barren, lifeless habitat. Species that arrive first in the newly created environment are called pioneer species, and through their

  • primary symptom (plant pathology)

    plant disease: Symptoms: Primary symptoms are the direct result of pathogen activity on invaded tissues (e.g., swollen “clubs” in clubroot of cabbage and “galls” formed by feeding of the root knot nematode). Secondary symptoms result from the physiological effects of disease on distant tissues and uninvaded organs (e.g.,…

  • primary thickening meristem (plant anatomy)

    cycadophyte: Stem: …palms from activity of a primary thickening meristem (PTM) lateral to the apical meristem, which produces much greater increments of cortical parenchyma than would result if only an apical meristem were present. This is an important difference between cycadophytes and coniferophytes, for in the latter there is no PTM and…

  • primary tooth (biology)

    human digestive system: The teeth: …as the deciduous, milk, or primary dentition, is acquired gradually between the ages of six months and two years. As the jaws grow and expand, these teeth are replaced one by one by the teeth of the secondary set. There are five deciduous teeth and eight permanent teeth in each…

  • primary treatment (sanitation engineering)

    wastewater treatment: Wastewater treatment and disposal: Primary treatment removes about 60 percent of total suspended solids and about 35 percent of BOD; dissolved impurities are not removed. It is usually used as a first step before secondary treatment. Secondary treatment removes more than 85 percent of both suspended solids and BOD.…

  • primary urine (physiology)

    excretion: Mammals: Primary urine is formed by filtration from the blood. From this primary urine certain substances are reabsorbed into the blood and other substances are secreted into the primary urine from the blood. The word secretion is used by renal physiologists to imply transport, other than…

  • primary visual area (brain anatomy)

    photoreception: Central processing of visual information: …their axons exclusively to the primary visual area (V1) in the occipital lobe of the cortex. The V1 contains six layers, each of which has a distinct function. Axons from the LGN terminate primarily in layers four and six. In addition, cells from V1 layer four feed other layers of…

  • primary wall (plant anatomy)

    cell: Mechanical properties of wall layers: …the middle lamella and the primary cell wall, and many cells produce an additional layer, called the secondary wall. The middle lamella serves as a cementing layer between the primary walls of adjacent cells. The primary wall is the cellulose-containing layer laid down by cells that are dividing and growing.…

  • primary wave (seismology)

    earthquake: Principal types of seismic waves: The P seismic waves travel as elastic motions at the highest speeds. They are longitudinal waves that can be transmitted by both solid and liquid materials in the Earth’s interior. With P waves, the particles of the medium vibrate in a manner similar to sound waves—the…

  • primary xylem (plant tissue)

    xylem: …(apical meristems) give rise to primary xylem. In woody plants, secondary xylem constitutes the major part of a mature stem or root and is formed as the plant expands in girth and builds a ring of new xylem around the original primary xylem tissues. When this happens, the primary xylem…

  • primary zooid (biology)

    moss animal: Budding: …budding originates from either a primary zooid (the ancestrula) or a statoblast. The ancestrula is formed by the metamorphosis of a sexually produced larva. New zooids bud from the ancestrula to produce colonies of definite shape and growth habit. In the phylactolaemates, the primitive zooids are cylindrical in form, and…

  • primate (mammal)

    Primate, in zoology, any mammal of the group that includes the lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans. The order Primates, with its 300 or more species, is the third most diverse order of mammals, after rodents (Rodentia) and bats (Chiroptera). Although there are some notable

  • primate (ecclesiastical office)

    Primate, in Christianity, an ecclesiastical title for a bishop in some churches who has precedence over a number of other bishops. In the early church, it was one of several titles, including metropolitan, exarch, and patriarch, used to designate a chief bishop who had certain rights of

  • Primate Research: A Key to Understanding What It Means to Be Human

    Laughter, tantrums, and swinging are actions readily associated with human children, whereas planning for the future, tooth flossing, and music appreciation are actions typically associated with human adolescents and adults. A number of investigations of nonhuman primates, however, connected these

  • Primates (mammal)

    Primate, in zoology, any mammal of the group that includes the lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans. The order Primates, with its 300 or more species, is the third most diverse order of mammals, after rodents (Rodentia) and bats (Chiroptera). Although there are some notable

  • Primaticcio, Francesco (Italian painter)

    Francesco Primaticcio, Italian Mannerist painter, architect, sculptor, and leader of the first school of Fontainebleau. Primaticcio was first trained as an artist in Bologna, under Innocenzo da Imola and later Bagnacavallo. He also studied with Giulio Romano and assisted him in his work on the

  • Primatice, Le (Italian painter)

    Francesco Primaticcio, Italian Mannerist painter, architect, sculptor, and leader of the first school of Fontainebleau. Primaticcio was first trained as an artist in Bologna, under Innocenzo da Imola and later Bagnacavallo. He also studied with Giulio Romano and assisted him in his work on the

  • primatology (anthropology)

    Primatology, the study of the primate order of mammals—other than recent humans (Homo sapiens). The species are characterized especially by advanced development of binocular vision, specialization of the appendages for grasping, and enlargement of the cerebral hemispheres. Nonhuman primates provide

  • primavera (tree)

    Primavera, (species Cybistax donnel-smithii), timber tree of Central America with brilliant yellow flowers, or its firm light wood, often called white mahogany. Although the tree is unrelated to true mahogany, the wood resembles it in being easy to work, lustrous, and free of tendency to warp. When

  • Primavera, The (painting by Botticelli)

    Sandro Botticelli: Mythological paintings: …of Botticelli’s most famous works: Primavera (c. 1477–82), Pallas and the Centaur (c. 1485), Venus and Mars (c. 1485), and The Birth of Venus (c. 1485). The Primavera, or Allegory of Spring, and The Birth of Venus were painted for the home of Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de’ Medici. All four…

  • prime (number)

    Prime, any positive integer greater than 1 that is divisible only by itself and 1—e.g., 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, …. A key result of number theory, called the fundamental theorem of arithmetic (see arithmetic: fundamental theory), states that every positive integer greater than 1 can be

  • Prime (divine office)

    divine office: …of monastic origin, as was Prime, recited in the early morning before being suppressed in 1964. The office has for centuries been primarily the responsibility of monks, who sang it in choir, and priests, who often recited it privately. The second Vatican Council encouraged the celebration of Lauds and Vespers…

  • prime cost (accounting)

    accounting: Cost finding: …are recognized under this method: prime costs and factory overhead costs. Prime costs are those that can be traced directly to a specific batch, or job lot, of products. These are the direct labour and direct materials costs of production. Overhead costs, on the other hand, are those that can…

  • prime customer (finance)

    credit score: …scores and are known as prime customers in the credit market. These high scores serve as a positive signal to lenders, making it easier for them to extend credit to such individuals. Since people with good credit scores are less likely to default on a loan, lenders usually end up…

  • Prime Cut (film by Ritchie [1972])

    Michael Ritchie: Films: Prime Cut (1972) was a neo-noir with Lee Marvin as Nick Devlin, a mob enforcer who is tasked with collecting a debt from a Kansas cattle rancher (played by Hackman) who also is involved in enforced prostitution; Sissy Spacek (in her film debut) portrayed one…

  • prime factorization, theorem of

    Fundamental theorem of arithmetic, Fundamental principle of number theory proved by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1801. It states that any integer greater than 1 can be expressed as the product of prime numbers in only one

  • prime knot (mathematics)

    knot theory: …be so resolved are called prime.

  • prime meridian (geography)

    Greenwich meridian, imaginary line used to indicate 0° longitude that passes through Greenwich, a borough of London, and terminates at the North and South poles. An international conference held in Washington, D.C., in 1884 designated “the meridian passing through the centre of the transit

  • prime minister (government official)

    Prime minister, the head of government in a country with a parliamentary or semipresidential political system. In such systems, the prime minister—literally the “first,” or most important, minister—must be able to command a continuous majority in the legislature (usually the lower house in a

  • Prime Minister, The (novel by Trollope)

    The Prime Minister, novel by Anthony Trollope, published serially during 1875 and 1876 and in book form in 1876. Considered by modern critics to represent the apex of the Palliser novels, it is the fifth in the series and sustains two plotlines. One records the clash between the Duke of Omnium, now

  • prime mover (mechanics)

    jet engine: The prime mover: The gas turbine operates on the Brayton cycle in which the working fluid is a continuous flow of air ingested into the engine’s inlet. The air is first compressed by a turbocompressor to a pressure ratio of typically 10 to 40 times the…

  • prime mover (philosophy)

    the Five Ways: …begun with a first or prime mover that had not itself been moved or acted upon by any other agent. Aristotle sometimes called this prime mover “God.” Aquinas understood it as the God of Christianity.

  • prime number (number)

    Prime, any positive integer greater than 1 that is divisible only by itself and 1—e.g., 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, …. A key result of number theory, called the fundamental theorem of arithmetic (see arithmetic: fundamental theory), states that every positive integer greater than 1 can be

  • Prime of Life, The (book by Beauvoir)

    Jean-Paul Sartre: Early life and writings: …La Force de l’âge (1960; The Prime of Life), provide an intimate account of Sartre’s life from student years until his middle 50s. It was also at the École Normale Supérieure and at the Sorbonne that he met several persons who were destined to be writers of great fame; among…

  • Prime of Miss Jean Brodie, The (film by Neame [1969])

    Maggie Smith: …in the title role of The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie (1969), for which she received an Academy Award for best actress. Her subsequent stage appearances with the National Theatre included roles in William Wycherley’s The Country-Wife (1969), Farquhar’s The Beaux’ Stratagem (1970), and Henrik Ibsen’s Hedda Gabler

  • Prime of Miss Jean Brodie, The (novel by Spark)

    The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie, novel by Muriel Spark, published in 1961 and adapted for the stage in 1966. The story of an eccentric Edinburgh teacher who inspires cultlike reverence in her young students, the novel was Spark’s best-known work. It explores themes of innocence, betrayal, and cold

  • Prime Suspect (British television program)

    Helen Mirren: Television work and Broadway: …in the BBC television series Prime Suspect. The show aired for seven seasons and earned her three BAFTA Awards (1992–94) and two Emmy Awards (1996, 2007). She also won Emmy Awards for titular performances in the TV movie The Passion of Ayn Rand (1999) and the miniseries Elizabeth I (2005).…

  • Prime Time (American football and baseball player)

    Deion Sanders, American gridiron football player and baseball player who is the only person to have played in both a Super Bowl and a World Series. Known for his flashy personality and outspokenness, Sanders was a middling professional baseball player but is widely considered the best man-to-man

  • Prime Time (book by Fonda)

    Jane Fonda: …Life So Far (2005) and Prime Time (2011), a volume of advice about aging. The documentary Jane Fonda in Five Acts (2018) chronicled her life and career.

  • Prime Time Access Rule (American television)

    Television in the United States: The Prime Time Access Rule and fin-syn: ) The Prime Time Access Rule, designed to encourage the production of local and independent television programming, went into effect in September 1971. By the mid-1960s the prime viewing hours had been almost completely locked up by newly expanded editions…

  • prime-number theorem (mathematics)

    Prime number theorem, formula that gives an approximate value for the number of primes less than or equal to any given positive real number x. The usual notation for this number is π(x), so that π(2) = 1, π(3.5) = 2, and π(10) = 4. The prime number theorem states that for large values of x, π(x) is

  • Primeau, Joe (Canadian ice-hockey player)

    Toronto Maple Leafs: Joe Primeau—all under age 26.

  • primer (explosives)

    fuse: It is distinct from the primer or firing pin that initiates the launching of a rocket or artillery shell. Impact fuzes function as they hit the target. Time fuzes delay the functioning for a certain period from the starting time. Command fuzes function on signal from a remote-control point. Proximity…

  • primer nueva corónica y buen gobierno, El (work by Guáman Poma de Ayala)

    Felipe Guáman Poma de Ayala: …Peruvian author and illustrator of El primer nueva corónica y buen gobierno (1612–15; “The First New Chronicle and Good Government”).

  • primer pheromone (biochemistry)

    chemoreception: Primer pheromones: Primer pheromones are important in aspects of social physiology in a range of animals. In mammals they are influential in coordinating reproductive physiology, and compounds excreted in the urine are especially important (see below Behaviour and chemoreception: Mammals). For example, the

  • Primera parte de Arauco domado (work by Oña)

    Pedro de Oña: His most famous work is Primera parte de Arauco domado (1596; “First Part of the Araucan Conquest”), a verse epic in rhymed couplets depicting the deeds of the Marquis of Canete, viceroy of Peru from 1556 to 1560, based in part on the famous La Araucana (1569, 1578, 1589; “The…

  • Primera parte de la Angélica (work by Barahona de Soto)

    Luis Barahona de Soto: …Angelica”), more commonly known as Las lágrimas de Angélica (“The Tears of Angelica”), a continuation of the Angelica and Medoro episode in Ludovico Ariosto’s Orlando furioso.

  • Primeras Líneas Uruguayas de Navegación Aérea (airline, Uruguay)

    Uruguay: Transportation and telecommunications: The government-owned airline, Primeras Líneas Uruguayas de Navegación Aérea (PLUNA), links Montevideo with the provincial capitals and international destinations.

  • Primerica Corporation (American corporation)

    Travelers Insurance, leading American insurance company with a history of mergers, acquisitions, and spin-offs, largely in the insurance and financial services industries. The Travelers Insurance Company was founded in 1864 by James Batterson, a stonecutter. That year it sold the first accident

  • Primero sueño (poem by Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz)

    Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz: …as the Primero sueño (1692; First Dream, published in A Sor Juana Anthology, 1988), is both personal and universal. The date of its writing is unknown. It employs the convoluted poetic forms of the Baroque to recount the torturous quest of the soul for knowledge. In the poem’s opening, as…

  • Primetime Live (American television program)

    Television in the United States: The newsmagazines: …it absorbed another ailing newsmagazine, Primetime Live (ABC, 1989–98; it emerged again in 2000 as Primetime Thursday and returned to its original name in 2004). Even 60 Minutes added a second weekly edition, 60 Minutes II (1999–2005). Several newsmagazines presented stories of a scandalous, sexual, or otherwise spectacular nature, and…

  • Primetime Thursday (American television program)

    Television in the United States: The newsmagazines: …it absorbed another ailing newsmagazine, Primetime Live (ABC, 1989–98; it emerged again in 2000 as Primetime Thursday and returned to its original name in 2004). Even 60 Minutes added a second weekly edition, 60 Minutes II (1999–2005). Several newsmagazines presented stories of a scandalous, sexual, or otherwise spectacular nature, and…

  • Primettes, the (American singing group)

    The Supremes, American pop-soul vocal group whose tremendous popularity with a broad audience made its members among the most successful performers of the 1960s and the flagship act of Motown Records. The principal members of the group were Diana Ross (byname of Diane Earle; b. March 26, 1944,

  • primeur (agriculture)

    Europe: Agricultural organization: …feature is the production of primeurs: table fruits, new potatoes, vegetables, salad crops, and flowers, produced when prices are high and made possible by the early arrival of spring to the coasts of Brittany, Cornwall, and southern France.

  • Primeval and Other Times (novel by Tokarczuk)

    Olga Tokarczuk: …Prawiek i inne czasy (1996; Primeval and Other Times), established Tokarczuk as an imaginative author and crucial Polish voice. The saga follows the inhabitants of a mythical Polish village through successive generations in the 20th century. In 1998 Tokarczuk published Dom dzienny, dom nocny (House of Day, House of Night),…

  • Primevères (poetry by Hasselt)

    André van Hasselt: …Hasselt’s first book of poems, Primevères (1834; “Primroses”), was the first important collection in the history of modern Belgium. His poetry continued to display the influence of Hugo and of the German tradition. Van Hasselt’s most innovative work was the Études rhythmiques (published in Poëmes, paraboles, odes, et études rhythmiques,…

  • Primigenia (Roman goddess)

    Fortuna, in Roman religion, goddess of chance or lot who became identified with the Greek Tyche; the original Italian deity was probably regarded as the bearer of prosperity and increase. As such she resembles a fertility deity, hence her association with the bounty of the soil and the

  • Primitive (religious order)

    Poor Clare, any member of the Franciscan Order of St. Clare, a Roman Catholic religious order of nuns founded by St. Clare of Assisi in 1212. The Poor Clares are considered the second of the three Franciscan orders. Because each convent of Poor Clares is largely autonomous, practices have varied

  • primitive

    calculus: Differentiation and integration: This is called the (indefinite) integral of the function y = x2, and it is written as ∫x2dx. The initial symbol ∫ is an elongated S, which stands for sum, and dx indicates an infinitely small increment of the variable, or axis, over which the function is being summed.…

  • primitive art

    art criticism: Critical response to early avant-garde art: So-called primitive art (or the art of non-Western, nonindustrial, and often tribal, cultures such as those of Africa) was appreciated by critics for its seemingly pure plasticity; this seemed novel to European artists and critics eager to break with tradition and make a new art for…

  • Primitive Baptists (religious association)

    Primitive Baptist, member of any of the conservative, independent Baptist church congregations in the United States that oppose centralized administrative associations and organized mission societies. In the 1820s and ’30s some Baptists began to protest the educational and mission societies that

  • primitive carrion beetle (insect family)

    coleopteran: Annotated classification: Family Agyrtidae (primitive carrion beetles) Scavengers of decaying organic material; inhabit damp, cool environments; dark-coloured. Family Hydraenidae (minute moss beetles) Small, 1.2–2.5 mm; found in brackish or intertidal pools and along streams. Family

  • primitive Christian art

    Early Christian art, architecture, painting, and sculpture from the beginnings of Christianity until about the early 6th century, particularly the art of Italy and the western Mediterranean. (Early Christian art in the eastern part of the Roman Empire is usually considered to be part of Byzantine

  • primitive church (Christianity)

    Christianity: The relation of the early church to late Judaism: Christianity began as a movement within Judaism at a period when the Jews had long been dominated culturally and politically by foreign powers and had found in their religion (rather than in their politics or cultural achievements) the linchpin of…

  • Primitive Church, The (work by Streeter)

    Burnett Hillman Streeter: This work was followed by The Primitive Church (1929), in which he argued that there were three systems (not one) of church government in the earliest Christian churches.

  • primitive communism (sociology)
  • primitive culture

    Primitive culture, in the lexicon of early anthropologists, any of numerous societies characterized by features that may include lack of a written language, relative isolation, small population, relatively simple social institutions and technology, and a generally slow rate of sociocultural change.

  • Primitive Culture (work by Tylor)

    Sir Edward Burnett Tylor: Tylor’s concept of progressive development: …chiefly upon the publication of Primitive Culture. In it he again traced a progressive development from a savage to a civilized state and pictured primitive man as an early philosopher applying his reason to explain events in the human and natural world that were beyond his control, even though his…

  • Primitive Future (design philosophy)

    Sou Fujimoto: …philosophy, which he dubbed “primitive future,” was evident in his Final Wooden House (2008) in Kumamoto, Japan. The structure was composed of large cedar beams stacked like blocks that allowed occupants to interpret the space according to their own needs and encouraged flexible use of surfaces as, variously, walls,…

  • Primitive Marriage: An Enquiry into the Origin of the Form of Capture in Marriage Ceremonies (work by McLennan)

    John Ferguson McLennan: …evolution, outlined in his book Primitive Marriage: An Enquiry into the Origin of the Form of Capture in Marriage Ceremonies (1865, reissued as Studies in Ancient History, 2nd series, 1896, and again as Primitive Marriage, 1970).

  • primitive material (astronomy)

    asteroid: Origin and evolution of the asteroids: …asteroids, originally formed from so-called primitive material (i.e., material of solar composition with the volatile components removed), were heated, perhaps by short-lived radionuclides or solar magnetic induction, to the point where their interiors melted and geochemical processes occurred. In certain cases, temperatures became high enough for metallic iron to separate…

  • Primitive Methodist Church (religious association)

    Primitive Methodist Church, conservative Protestant church that developed in England. It was formed in 1811 by Hugh Bourne and William Clowes after their expulsion from the Wesleyan Methodist Connection. The Primitive Methodists differed from the Wesleyan Methodists primarily in encouraging camp

  • Primitive Methodist Church, U.S.A. (American church)

    Primitive Methodist Church: The Primitive Methodist Church, U.S.A., grew as a result of the work of missionaries of the Primitive Methodist Church of England who settled in the United States in 1829. The American group separated from the British church in 1840, and the English Primitive Methodist Church merged…

  • Primitive Norse language (language)

    Scandinavian languages: History of Old Scandinavian: It is known as Proto-Scandinavian, or Ancient Scandinavian, but shows few distinctively North Germanic features. The earliest inscriptions may reflect a stage, sometimes called Northwest Germanic, prior to the splitting of North and West Germanic (but after the separation of Gothic). Only after the departure of the Angles and…

  • primitive painting (art)

    Grandma Moses: Her naive style (labeled “American Primitive” by art historians) was acclaimed for its purity of colour, its attention to detail, and its vigour. Her other notable paintings include Black Horses (1942), Out for the Christmas Trees (1946), The Old Oaken Bucket (1946), From My Window (1949), and Making Apple…

  • primitive Pythagorean triple (mathematics)

    number game: Pythagorean triples: …common factor—the set is a primitive Pythagorean triple.

  • primitive recursive function (mathematics)

    foundations of mathematics: Recursive definitions: …S, and substitution) are called primitive recursive. Gödel used this concept to make precise what he meant by “effectively enumerable.” A set of natural numbers is said to be recursively enumerable if it consists of all f(n) with n ∊ ℕ, where f ∶ ℕ → ℕ is a primitive…

  • Primitive Rule (monastery, Duruelo, Spain)

    St. Teresa of Ávila: …the first monastery of the Primitive Rule at Duruelo, Spain.

  • Primitive Rule (work by Francis of Assisi)

    St. Francis of Assisi: The Franciscan rule: …friars, a simple rule (Regula primitiva, “Primitive Rule”) drawn from passages in the Bible: “To follow the teachings of our Lord Jesus Christ and to walk in his footsteps.” He then led the group of 12 disciples to Rome to seek the approval of Pope Innocent III, an important…

  • Primitive Society (work by Lowie)

    Robert H. Lowie: His book Primitive Society had a major impact on anthropology, dominating theories of social organization for nearly 30 years. Broad in scope, the work considered kinship, justice, property, government, and other topics and made much of the concept of cultural diffusion.

  • primitive society

    Primitive culture, in the lexicon of early anthropologists, any of numerous societies characterized by features that may include lack of a written language, relative isolation, small population, relatively simple social institutions and technology, and a generally slow rate of sociocultural change.

  • primitive streak (embryology)

    embryo: …elongated depression known as the primitive streak. As the embryo develops, the cell layers fold over so that the endoderm forms a long tube surrounded by mesoderm, with an ectodermal layer around the whole.

  • primitive symbol (logic)

    metalogic: Syntax and semantics: …parts: (1) a list of primitive symbols (basic units) given mechanically, (2) certain combinations of these symbols, singled out mechanically as forming the simple (atomic) sentences, and (3) a set of inductive clauses—inductive inasmuch as they stipulate that natural combinations of given sentences formed by such logical connectives as the…

  • primitive weevil (insect)

    Primitive weevil, (family Brentidae), any of approximately 2,000 species of beetles related to the weevil family Curculionidae (insect order Coleoptera) that are predominantly tropical, although some species occur in temperate regions. The female uses her long, straight snout to bore holes in trees

  • primitivism (art)

    Paul Gauguin: Beginnings: …as an element of “primitivism” in his own nature and artistic vision.

  • primitivism (philosophy)

    Primitivism, an outlook on human affairs that sees history as a decline from an erstwhile condition of excellence (chronological primitivism) or holds that salvation lies in a return to the simple life (cultural primitivism). Linked with this is the notion that what is natural should be a standard

  • Primo de Rivera, José Antonio, marqués de Estella (Spanish political leader)

    José Antonio Primo de Rivera, marqués de Estella, eldest son of the dictator General Miguel Primo de Rivera and the founder of the Spanish fascist party, the Falange. After a university education and military service, Primo de Rivera began a career as a lawyer in 1925. In October 1933 he launched

  • Primo de Rivera, Miguel (Spanish dictator)

    Miguel Primo de Rivera, general and statesman who, as dictator of Spain from September 1923 to January 1930, founded an authoritarian and nationalistic regime that attempted to unify the nation around the motto “Country, Religion, Monarchy.” Though it enjoyed success in certain areas, his

  • primo libro delle musiche, Il (work by Caccini)

    Francesca Caccini: …her one publication of madrigals, Il primo libro delle musiche (1618; “The First Book of Music”), may have served both artistic and pedagogical purposes, and it offers a glimpse of her methodologies as a teacher. The book contains a wide variety of musical genres set to both secular and sacred…

  • Primo vere (poetry by D’Annunzio)

    Gabriele D'Annunzio: …was 16, his first poems, Primo vere (1879; “In Early Spring”), were published. The poems in Canto novo (1882; “New Song”) had more individuality and were full of exuberance and passionate, sensuous descriptions. The autobiographical novel Il piacere (1889; The Child of Pleasure) introduces the first of D’Annunzio’s passionate Nietzschean…

  • primogeniture (law)

    Primogeniture and ultimogeniture, preference in inheritance that is given by law, custom, or usage to the eldest son and his issue (primogeniture) or to the youngest son (ultimogeniture, or junior right). In exceptional cases, primogeniture may prescribe such preferential inheritance to the line of

  • primordial germ cell (biology)

    stem cell: Embryonic germ cells: …germ (EG) cells, derived from primordial germ cells found in the gonadal ridge of a late embryo, have many of the properties of embryonic stem cells. The primordial germ cells in an embryo develop into stem cells that in an adult generate the reproductive gametes (sperm or eggs). In mice…

  • primordial man

    Isaac ben Solomon Luria: …and Adam Qadmon, the symbolic “primordial man,” who is the highest configuration of the divine light, is rebuilt. Man plays an important role in this process through various kawwanot used during prayer and through mystical intentions involving secret combinations of words, all of which is directed toward the restoration of…

  • primordial rubble pile (cometary nuclei)

    comet: Cometary nuclei: …Hughes in 1982, or “primordial rubble piles,” proposed by American astronomer Paul Weissman (the author of this article) in 1986, with low binding strength and high porosity. Key data supporting these models are estimates of nucleus bulk density, ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 gram per cubic centimetre, with preferred…

  • primordial turbulence (astronomy)

    nebula: Turbulence: …always show chaotic motions called turbulence. This is a well-known phenomenon in gas dynamics that results when there is low viscosity in flowing fluids, so the motions become chaotic eddies that transfer kinetic and magnetic energy and momentum from large scales down to small sizes. On small-enough scales viscosity always…

  • primordialist approach (sociology)

    ethnic conflict: Theories of ethnic identity: …of thought, known as the primordialist approach, explains ethnicity as a fixed characteristic of individuals and communities. According to primordialists, ethnicity is embedded in inherited biological attributes, a long history of practicing cultural differences, or both. Ethnic identity is seen as unique in intensity and durability and as an existential…

  • Primorje (region, Europe)

    Slovenia: Relief: …one-twelfth of Slovenia’s surface) is Primorska, or the Slovene Littoral. It overlaps what were the Habsburg regions of Trieste and Gorizia and is made up of Slovenia’s portion of the Istrian Peninsula, the Adriatic hinterland, and the Soča and Vipava river valleys. The 29-mile (47-km) strip of coast makes up…

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