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  • Price, Vincent (American actor)

    Vincent Price, American actor who was best known for his brilliant performances in horror films. His villains were debonair yet menacing, played with a silken voice and a self-mocking air that oozed treachery. Price’s father owned the National Candy Company, and his paternal grandfather developed

  • Price, Vincent Leonard (American actor)

    Vincent Price, American actor who was best known for his brilliant performances in horror films. His villains were debonair yet menacing, played with a silken voice and a self-mocking air that oozed treachery. Price’s father owned the National Candy Company, and his paternal grandfather developed

  • Price, William T. (American engineer)

    diesel engine: Price’s engine: …1914 a young American engineer, William T. Price, began to experiment with an engine that would operate with a lower compression ratio than that of the diesel and at the same time would not require either hot bulbs or tubes. As soon as his experiments began to show promise, he…

  • price-consumption curve (economics)

    utility and value: Changes in prices and incomes: …contains a locus UU′, τηε price–consumption curve, showing how the consumer’s purchases vary with PX.

  • price-fixing (economics)

    Price-fixing, any agreement between business competitors (“horizontal”) or between manufacturers, wholesalers, and retailers (“vertical”) to raise, fix, or otherwise maintain prices. Many, though not all, price-fixing agreements are illegal under antitrust or competition law. Illegal actions may be

  • price-specie-flow adjustment mechanism (economics)

    money: The gold standard: …adjustment process known as the price-specie-flow adjustment mechanism. This process, analyzed by 18th- and 19th-century economists such as David Hume, John Stuart Mill, and Henry Thornton, occurred as follows: a rise in a particular country’s quantity of money would tend to raise prices in that country relative to prices in…

  • priceite (mineral)

    Priceite, an earthy, white borate mineral, hydrated calcium borate (Ca4B10O19·7H2O). It has been found as masses and nodules in a hot-spring deposit near Chetco, Ore., U.S.; as nodules in shale in Death Valley, Calif., U.S.; and as very large masses (weighing up to a ton) underlying gypsum and

  • Prices and Production (work by Hayek)

    F.A. Hayek: Life and major works: …attacked Hayek’s own recent book, Prices and Production (1931). Both economists were criticized by other economists, and this caused each to rethink his framework. Keynes finished first, publishing in 1936 what would become perhaps the most famous economics book of the century, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money.…

  • Prichard (Alabama, United States)

    Prichard, city, Mobile county, southwestern Alabama, U.S., a northern industrial suburb of Mobile. It was named for Cleveland Prichard, who purchased a tract of land (1879) on the east side of the Mobile and Ohio Railroad track and developed it into a vegetable-shipping point for markets in the

  • Prichard, H. A. (British philosopher)

    H.A. Prichard, English philosopher, one of the leading members of the Oxford intuitionist school of moral philosophy, which held that moral values are ultimate and irreducible and can be ascertained only through the use of intuition. Prichard spent most of his life teaching at the University of

  • Prichard, Harold Arthur (British philosopher)

    H.A. Prichard, English philosopher, one of the leading members of the Oxford intuitionist school of moral philosophy, which held that moral values are ultimate and irreducible and can be ascertained only through the use of intuition. Prichard spent most of his life teaching at the University of

  • Prichard, James Cowles (British physician and ethnologist)

    James Cowles Prichard, English physician and ethnologist who was among the first to assign all the human races and ethnic groups to a single species. He was also responsible for the conception of moral insanity (psychopathic personality) as a distinct disease. Prichard received his early education

  • Prichard, Katharine Susannah (Australian author)

    Katharine Susannah Prichard, Australian novelist and writer of short stories, plays, and verse, best known for Coonardoo (1929). Prichard’s father was editor of the Fiji Times, and she grew up mostly in Australia. She first worked as a newspaper journalist in Melbourne and Sydney and then as a

  • Prichard, Rhys (Welsh writer)

    Celtic literature: Welsh literature in the 17th century: …version of the Psalms and Rhys Prichard’s Canwyll y Cymry (1646–72; “The Welshman’s Candle”), both written in so-called free metres. Prys’s Psalter contained the first Welsh metrical hymns. Prichard’s work consisted of moral verses in the metres of the old folk songs (penillion telyn). Many other poets wrote in these…

  • pricing (economics)

    Price, the amount of money that has to be paid to acquire a given product. Insofar as the amount people are prepared to pay for a product represents its value, price is also a measure of value. It follows from the definition just stated that prices perform an economic function of major

  • Prick up Your Ears (film by Frears [1987])

    Stephen Frears: …continued to garner praise with Prick Up Your Ears (1987), a biographical movie about British playwright Joe Orton, and the American films Dangerous Liaisons (1988) and The Grifters (1990), for which he received an Academy Award nomination. He subsequently directed the comedies The Snapper (1993) and The Van (1996), both…

  • prickle (plant anatomy)

    angiosperm: Dermal tissue: Prickles, such as those found in roses, are an outgrowth of the epidermis and are an effective deterrent against herbivores.

  • prickle cell layer (anatomy)

    integument: Skin structure: …the prickle cell layer (stratum spinosum), in which they are knit together by plaquelike structures called desmosomes. Next they move through a granular layer (stratum granulosum), in which they become laden with keratohyalin, a granular component of keratin. Finally the cells flatten, lose their nuclei, and form the stratum…

  • prickleback (fish)

    Prickleback, any of numerous fishes constituting the family Stichaeidae (order Perciformes). All of the approximately 60 species are marine, and most are restricted to the northern Pacific Ocean; a few species occur in the North Atlantic. Members of the family are characteristically elongate, with

  • prickly ash (plant genus)

    Prickly ash, (genus Zanthoxylum), genus of about 200 species of aromatic trees and shrubs of the rue family (Rutaceae), native to the middle latitudes of North America, South America, Africa, Asia, and Australia. Several species are cultivated as ornamentals or for their attractive wood, and some

  • prickly ash (tree)

    Angelica tree , (species Aralia spinosa), prickly-stemmed shrub or tree, of the ginseng family (Araliaceae), that can reach a height of 15 m (about 50 feet). Its leaves are large, with leaflets arranged feather-fashion and often prickly. The angelica tree is native to low-lying areas from Delaware

  • prickly heat (skin disorder)

    miliaria: Miliaria rubra, or prickly heat, the most common form of sweat retention, results from the escape of sweat into the epidermis, where it produces discrete, densely packed, pinhead vesicles or red papules (solid, usually conical elevations); these lesions occur chiefly on the trunk and extremities,…

  • prickly lettuce (plant)

    weed: Examples are prickly lettuce (Lactuca scariola) and sow thistle (Sonchus species) that serve as hosts for downy mildew; wild mustards (Brassica species) that host clubroot of cabbage; and saltbrush (Atriplex species) and Russian thistle, in which curly top virus

  • prickly pear (cactus)

    Prickly pear, any of several species of flat-stemmed spiny cacti of the genus Opuntia (family Cactaceae) and their edible fruits. Prickly pear cacti are native to the Western Hemisphere. Several are cultivated, especially the Indian fig (O. ficus-indica), which is an important food for many peoples

  • prickly poppy (plant)

    Prickly poppy, (genus Argemone), genus of approximately 30 species of North American and West Indian plants (one species is endemic to Hawaii) belonging to the poppy family (Papaveraceae). Prickly poppies are cultivated as garden ornamentals but frequently become troublesome weeds when growing

  • prickly potato (plant)

    Buffalo bur, (Solanum rostratum), plant of the nightshade family (Solanaceae), native to high plains east of the Rocky Mountains from North Dakota to Mexico. Buffalo bur, named for its prickly berries that were commonly entangled in the fur of American bison (Bison bison), is an aggressive weed in

  • prickly saltwort (plant)

    desert: Flora: (One notable exception is the prickly saltwort [Salsola kali], which occurs in deserts in Central Asia, North Africa, California, and Australia, as well as in many saline coastal areas.) Floristic similarities among desert regions are particularly obvious where no wide barriers of ocean or humid vegetation exist to restrict plant…

  • Pricksongs & Descants (short-story collection by Coover)

    Robert Coover: Coover’s short-story collection Pricksongs & Descants (1969) established him as a major figure in postwar American writing, and several of his stories were adapted for theatrical performance, including “The Babysitter” (film 1995), his most-anthologized work, and “Spanking the Maid.” In 2002 he published The Grand Hotels (of Joseph…

  • Pricopan Hills (hills, Romania)

    Romania: Relief: …feet (467 metres) in the Pricopan Hills.

  • Pride

    Gay Pride, annual celebration, usually in June in the United States and sometimes at other times in other countries, of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) identity. Gay Pride commemorates the Stonewall riots, which began in the early hours of June 28, 1969, after police raided

  • pride (animal behaviour)

    lion: Prides: Lions are unique among cats in that they live in a group, or pride. The members of a pride typically spend the day in several scattered groups that may unite to hunt or share a meal. A pride consists of several generations of lionesses,…

  • pride (human behaviour)

    ethics: Aristotle: …is sometimes translated as “pride,” though it literally means “greatness of soul.” This is the characteristic of holding a justified high opinion of oneself. For Christians the corresponding excess, vanity, was a vice, but the corresponding deficiency, humility, was a virtue.

  • Pride and Prejudice (novel by Austen)

    Pride and Prejudice, romantic novel by Jane Austen, published anonymously in three volumes in 1813. A classic of English literature, written with incisive wit and superb character delineation, it centres on the turbulent relationship between Elizabeth Bennet, the daughter of a country gentleman,

  • Pride and Prejudice (film by Wright [2005])

    Donald Sutherland: … (2003), The Italian Job (2003), Pride & Prejudice (2005; as the estimable Mr. Bennet), The Mechanic (2011), and The Eagle (2011).

  • Pride and Prejudice (television miniseries [1995])

    Colin Firth: …Darcy in the television miniseries Pride and Prejudice (1995). His portrayal of a repressed aristocrat whose haughtiness hides his growing affection for Elizabeth Bennet earned Firth a devoted following. A series of acclaimed films followed, including The English Patient (1996) and Shakespeare in Love (1998), both of which earned an…

  • Pride and Prejudice (film by Leonard [1940])

    Robert Z. Leonard: Dancing Lady to Ziegfeld Girl: …working with MacDonald, Leonard made Pride and Prejudice (1940), an acclaimed adaptation of the Jane Austen classic, with Laurence Olivier, Greer Garson, and Maureen O’Sullivan heading the cast; the script was cowritten by English novelist Aldous Huxley. After the lacklustre

  • Pride and the Passion, The (film by Kramer [1957])

    Stanley Kramer: Directing: The historical drama The Pride and the Passion (1957), however, was better received, in part because of a cast that featured Sinatra, Cary Grant, and Sophia Loren. Kramer’s success continued with The Defiant Ones (1958), the first of his notable “message” pictures. The drama starred Sidney Poitier and…

  • Pride of Baghdad (work by Vaughan)

    graphic novel: The graphic novel grows up: …The Last Man (2002–08) and Pride of Baghdad (2006) by Brian K. Vaughan, with artwork by Pia Guerra and Niko Henrichon, respectively. These comics, along with a host of other artful and literate publications, have gained recognition and awards well beyond the sometimes insular world of comic fandom. They have…

  • Pride of Havana, the (Cuban baseball player and manager)

    Dolf Luque, Cuban professional baseball player and manager who was the first player from Latin America to become a star in the U.S. major leagues. Luque, a right-handed pitcher, made his major league debut in 1914 with the Boston Braves but spent most of his career in the United States with the

  • Pride of the Bimbos, The (novel by Sayles)

    John Sayles: …he published his first novel, The Pride of the Bimbos, about a cross-dressing barnstorming softball team. A year later he won an O. Henry Award for his short story “I-80 Nebraska, m.490–m.205,” and he earned another in 1977 for “Breed.” Sayles’s second novel, Union Dues (1977), which follows a West…

  • Pride of the Marines (film by Daves [1945])

    Delmer Daves: Early work: Pride of the Marines (1945) was more serious fare. The biopic chronicles a marine’s difficulties in adjusting to civilian life after he was blinded at the Battle of Guadalcanal. Featuring a strong performance by Garfield in the lead role of Al Schmid, the film was…

  • Pride of the Yankees, The (film by Wood [1942])

    The Pride of the Yankees, American biographical film, released in 1942, about New York Yankees All-Star and baseball legend Lou Gehrig. With notable performances—especially by Gary Cooper in the title role—and an inspiring story, it is considered one of the best American sports films. Columbia

  • Pride’s Purge (British history)

    Long Parliament: …the army had done at Pride’s Purge. The surviving group, known to historians as the Rump, brought Charles I to trial and execution in January 1649; it was forcibly ejected in 1653. After the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell, the Rump was restored in May 1659 and expelled in October. It…

  • Pride, Charley (American singer)

    Charley Pride, American country music singer who broke new ground in the 1960s by becoming the most successful African American star that the field had known to date and a significant next-generation standard bearer for the hard-core honky-tonk country music sound. The son of poor, cotton-picking,

  • Pride, Charley Frank (American singer)

    Charley Pride, American country music singer who broke new ground in the 1960s by becoming the most successful African American star that the field had known to date and a significant next-generation standard bearer for the hard-core honky-tonk country music sound. The son of poor, cotton-picking,

  • Pride, Sir Thomas (English soldier)

    Sir Thomas Pride, Parliamentary soldier during the English Civil Wars (1642–51), remembered chiefly for his expulsion of the Presbyterians and other members who opposed the Parliamentary army from the House of Commons in 1648. “Pride’s Purge,” as the incident is called, put the Independents in

  • pride-of-India (plant)

    Goldenrain tree, (Koelreuteria paniculata), flowering tree of the soapberry family (Sapindaceae), native to East Asia and widely cultivated in temperate regions for its handsome foliage and curious bladderlike seedpods. The dome-shaped tree grows to about 9 metres (30 feet) tall. The yellow

  • Pridgett, Gertrude Malissa Nix (American singer)

    Ma Rainey, American singer who was known as the “mother of the blues” and who was recognized as the first great professional blues vocalist. While most sources state that she was born on April 26, 1886, in Columbus, Georgia, some suggest that her birth occurred in September 1882 in Alabama.

  • Pridi Banomyong (Thai political leader)

    Pridi Phanomyong, Thai political leader who was one of the instigators of the June 1932 constitutional revolution and was made prime minister in 1946. After studies at the Royal Law School, Pridi won a government scholarship to study law in France; he earned a doctorate in law from Paris in 1927.

  • Pridi Phanomyong (Thai political leader)

    Pridi Phanomyong, Thai political leader who was one of the instigators of the June 1932 constitutional revolution and was made prime minister in 1946. After studies at the Royal Law School, Pridi won a government scholarship to study law in France; he earned a doctorate in law from Paris in 1927.

  • Pridneprovskaya Lowland (region, Europe)

    Ukraine: Resources and power: …brown coal found in the Dnieper River basin (north of Kryvyy Rih) and the bituminous coal deposits of the Lviv-Volyn basin. The coal mines of Ukraine are among the deepest in Europe. Many of them are considered dangerous because their depth contributes to increased levels of methane; methane-related explosions have…

  • Pridnestrovskaia Moldavskaia Republic (separatist enclave, Moldova)

    Transdniestria, separatist enclave in Moldova, located on the east bank of the Dniester River. Loosely occupying some 1,350 square miles (3,500 square km), the self-proclaimed (1990) Pridnestrovskaia Moldavskaia Republic is not recognized by any state. It has a national bank, national currency (the

  • Přídolí Series (geology and stratigraphy)

    Pridoli Series, uppermost of four main divisions of the Silurian System, representing those rocks deposited worldwide during the Pridoli Epoch (423 million to 419.2 million years ago). The series name is derived from the Pridoli area of the Daleje Valley on the outskirts of Prague in the Czech

  • Pridoli Series (geology and stratigraphy)

    Pridoli Series, uppermost of four main divisions of the Silurian System, representing those rocks deposited worldwide during the Pridoli Epoch (423 million to 419.2 million years ago). The series name is derived from the Pridoli area of the Daleje Valley on the outskirts of Prague in the Czech

  • Pridolian Series (geology and stratigraphy)

    Pridoli Series, uppermost of four main divisions of the Silurian System, representing those rocks deposited worldwide during the Pridoli Epoch (423 million to 419.2 million years ago). The series name is derived from the Pridoli area of the Daleje Valley on the outskirts of Prague in the Czech

  • Pridolian Stage (geology and stratigraphy)

    Pridoli Series, uppermost of four main divisions of the Silurian System, representing those rocks deposited worldwide during the Pridoli Epoch (423 million to 419.2 million years ago). The series name is derived from the Pridoli area of the Daleje Valley on the outskirts of Prague in the Czech

  • Pridvorov, Yefim Alekseyevich (Soviet poet)

    Demyan Bedny, Soviet poet known both for his verses glorifying the Revolution of 1917 and for his satirical fables. The natural son of a grand duke, Pridvorov began contributing to the socialist press before the Revolution, adopting the name Demyan Bedny (“Demyan the Poor”). In 1912 his satires

  • Prie, Jeanne-Agnes Berthelot de Pleneuf, Marquise de (French adventuress)

    Jeanne-Agnes Berthelot de Pleneuf, marquise de Prie, French adventuress during the reign of Louis XV. The daughter of an unscrupulous financier, Étienne Berthelot, she was married at age 15 to Louis, marquess de Prie, and went with him to the court of Savoy at Turin, where he was ambassador. She

  • prie-dieu (furniture)

    Prie-dieu, praying desk for one individual with a knee bench close to the floor and a vertical panel supporting an armrest, below which there is usually a shelf for prayer books and the like. The knee rest and arm support are often upholstered. First used by the higher clergy during religious

  • Priebus, Reince (American lawyer and politician)

    Reince Priebus, American lawyer and politician who was chief of staff (2017) in the administration of U.S. Pres. Donald Trump. He had previously served as chairman of the Republican National Committee (2011–17). Priebus grew up in Kenosha, Wisconsin. He attended the University of Wisconsin at

  • Priebus, Reinhold Richard (American lawyer and politician)

    Reince Priebus, American lawyer and politician who was chief of staff (2017) in the administration of U.S. Pres. Donald Trump. He had previously served as chairman of the Republican National Committee (2011–17). Priebus grew up in Kenosha, Wisconsin. He attended the University of Wisconsin at

  • Priego de Córdoba (city, Spain)

    Priego de Córdoba, city, Córdoba provincia (province), in Andalusia comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), southern Spain. It lies about 50 miles (80 km) northwest of Granada city. Originally a Roman settlement, it changed hands several times during the medieval Moorish-Christian wars and was

  • Priene (ancient city, Turkey)

    Priene, ancient city of Ionia about 6 miles (10 km) north of the Menderes (Maeander) River and 10 miles (16 km) inland from the Aegean Sea, in southwestern Turkey. Its well-preserved remains are a major source of information about ancient Greek town planning. By the 8th century bc Priene was a

  • Priesand, Sally J. (American rabbi)

    Sally J. Priesand, American rabbi who on June 3, 1972, became the first woman in the United States to be so ordained. Priesand, who grew up in a Jewish family in Cleveland, as a teenager aspired to become a rabbi. She earned a bachelor’s degree from the University of Cincinnati in 1968 and won

  • Priesand, Sally Jane (American rabbi)

    Sally J. Priesand, American rabbi who on June 3, 1972, became the first woman in the United States to be so ordained. Priesand, who grew up in a Jewish family in Cleveland, as a teenager aspired to become a rabbi. She earned a bachelor’s degree from the University of Cincinnati in 1968 and won

  • Priessnitz, Vinzenz (Silesian farmer)

    hydropathy: …century through the efforts of Vinzenz Priessnitz (1799–1851), a Silesian farmer who believed in the medicinal value of water from the wells on his land. See also hydrotherapy; spa.

  • priest (Christianity)

    Priest, (from Greek presbyteros, “elder”), in some Christian churches, an officer or minister who is intermediate between a bishop and a deacon. A priesthood developed gradually in the early Christian church as first bishops and then elders, or “presbyters,” began to exercise certain priestly

  • Priest Among the Pigeons, The (work by Parise)

    Italian literature: Social commitment and the new realism: The Priest Among the Pigeons). In contrast to the more topical appeal of these writings, the great virtue of Pavese’s narrative was the universality of its characters and themes. Among his finest works may be numbered La casa in collina (1949; The House on the…

  • Priest and the Jester, The (work by Kolakowski)

    Leszek Kolakowski: His 1959 essay “The Priest and the Jester,” in which Kolakowski explored the roles of dogmatism and skepticism in intellectual history, brought him to national prominence in Poland. In the 1950s and ’60s he published a series of books on the history of Western philosophy and a study…

  • Priest Lake (lake, Idaho, United States)

    Priest River: Priest Lake, with a 63-mile (101-km) shoreline and several recreational islands, is known for its giant-size trout (Mackinaw and Dolly Varden). Among the area’s scenic attractions are the Indian Rock pictographs and the Roosevelt Grove of Ancient Cedars, with 800-year-old trees, some more than 150…

  • Priest River (Idaho, United States)

    Priest River, city, Bonner county, northwestern Idaho, U.S., at the junction of the Priest and Pend Oreille rivers. It is a gateway to a spectacular aquatic and forested mountain domain focusing on Priest Lake and Upper Priest Lake (north) and the Kaniksu and Coeur d’Alene national forests in the

  • Priest’s Valley (British Columbia, Canada)

    Vernon, city, southern British Columbia, Canada. It lies in Okanagan Lake country, 274 miles (441 km) northeast of Vancouver. Pioneers called the early settlement Priest’s Valley because of a missionary outpost maintained there by Paul Durieu. It was also known as Forge Valley (for its

  • priesthood (religion)

    Priesthood, the office of a priest, a ritual expert learned in a special knowledge of the technique of worship and accepted as a religious and spiritual leader. Throughout the long and varied history of religion, the priesthood has been the official institution that has mediated and maintained a

  • priesthood of all believers (Christianity)

    Priesthood of all believers, cardinal doctrinal principle of the churches of the 16th-century Reformation, both Lutheran and Reformed, and the Protestant Free churches that arose from the Reformation churches. The doctrine asserts that all humans have access to God through Christ, the true high

  • Priestley, J. B. (British writer)

    J. B. Priestley, British novelist, playwright, and essayist, noted for his varied output and his ability for shrewd characterization. Priestley served in the infantry in World War I (1914–19) and then studied English literature at Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., 1922). He thereafter worked as a

  • Priestley, John Boynton (British writer)

    J. B. Priestley, British novelist, playwright, and essayist, noted for his varied output and his ability for shrewd characterization. Priestley served in the infantry in World War I (1914–19) and then studied English literature at Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., 1922). He thereafter worked as a

  • Priestley, Joseph (English clergyman and scientist)

    Joseph Priestley, English clergyman, political theorist, and physical scientist whose work contributed to advances in liberal political and religious thought and in experimental chemistry. He is best remembered for his contribution to the chemistry of gases. Priestley was born into a family of

  • Priestly code (biblical criticism)

    Priestly code, biblical source that, according to the document hypothesis, is one of the four original sources of the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Old Testament). The priestly writings are so named because they emphasize the priestly tradition or interest, giving detailed explanations

  • Priestly Code Source (biblical criticism)

    Priestly code, biblical source that, according to the document hypothesis, is one of the four original sources of the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Old Testament). The priestly writings are so named because they emphasize the priestly tradition or interest, giving detailed explanations

  • Priestly Confraternity of Saint Pius X (Roman Catholic organization)

    Marcel Lefebvre: In 1969 he founded the Priestly Confraternity of Saint Pius X in Fribourg, Switz. (the namesake, Pope Pius X, had been a staunch conservative), and in 1970 he established the society’s seminary at Ecône, a villa near Riddes in Valais canton, Switz., to train priests according to his traditionalist model.…

  • Priestly source (biblical criticism)

    Priestly code, biblical source that, according to the document hypothesis, is one of the four original sources of the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Old Testament). The priestly writings are so named because they emphasize the priestly tradition or interest, giving detailed explanations

  • Priests of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Congregation of the (religious order)

    Léon-Gustave Dehon: …Catholic priest who founded the Congregation of the Priests of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, a congregation of priests and brothers dedicated to spreading the apostolate of the Sacred Heart.

  • Priests’ Charter (Swiss treaty)

    Priests’ Charter, (October 1370), treaty that unified the legal system in all the Swiss cantons, particularly highlighting two features: safety on the highways for traders and nonintervention by foreign priests. Bruno Brun, a provost wanting to escape punishment, was the catalyst for an amendment i

  • Prieto, Joaquín (president of Chile)

    Chile: The conservative hegemony, 1830–61: …that brought Ovalle and later Joaquín Prieto to power. The new government was strengthened by a successful war against the Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation (1836–39), during which it broadened its support by reinstating army officers ousted when the conservatives had seized power in 1829–30.

  • Prieur, Pierre-Louis (French politician)

    Pierre-Louis Prieur, French political figure, a member of the Committee of Public Safety, which ruled Revolutionary France during the period of the Jacobin dictatorship (1793–94). He vigorously enforced the committee’s policies in the antirepublican coastal towns west of Paris. Prieur was a lawyer

  • Prieur-Duvernois, Claude-Antoine (French military engineer)

    Claude-Antoine Prieur-Duvernois, French military engineer who was a member of the Committee of Public Safety, which ruled Revolutionary France during the period of the Jacobin dictatorship (1793–94). He organized the manufacture and requisitioning of the weapons and munitions that were needed by

  • Prigg v. Pennsylvania (law case)

    Joseph Story: In Prigg v. Pennsylvania, 16 Peters 539 (1842), Story, who opposed slavery, upheld the federal Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 in order to strike down state statutes concerning the recapture of escaped slaves. In Swift v. Tyson, 16 Peters 1 (1842; overruled 1938), he, in effect,…

  • Priglasheniye na kazn (novel by Nabokov)

    Invitation to a Beheading, anti-utopian novel by Vladimir Nabokov, published serially in Russian as Priglasheniye na kazn from 1935 to 1936 and in book form in 1938. It is a stylistic tour de force. The novel is set in a mythical totalitarian country and presents the thoughts of Cincinnatus, a

  • Prigogine, Ilya (Russian-Belgian physical chemist)

    Ilya Prigogine, Russian-born Belgian physical chemist who received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1977 for contributions to nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Prigogine was taken to Belgium as a child. He received a doctorate in 1941 at the Free University in Brussels, where he accepted the position

  • Prigov, Dmitry (Russian author)

    Dmitry Aleksandrovich Prigov, Russian poet and artist (born Nov. 5, 1940, Moscow, U.S.S.R.—died July 16, 2007, Moscow, Russia), was a leading member of the Russian artistic avant-garde and of the Moscow conceptualism movement in the 1970s and ’80s. His texts subverted Socialist Realism, and most

  • Priistas (political party, Mexico)

    Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), Mexican political party that dominated the country’s political institutions from its founding in 1929 until the end of the 20th century. Virtually all important figures in Mexican national and local politics belonged to the party, because the nomination of

  • prijaji (Indonesian social class)

    Priyayi, in traditional Javanese society, a class that comprised the elite in contrast to the masses, or “little people” (wong cilik). Until the 18th century the priyayi, under the royal families, were the rulers of the Javanese states. Like the knights in medieval Europe and the samurai of J

  • Prikaspiyskaya Nizmennost (lowland, Asia)

    Caspian Depression, flat lowland, Kazakhstan and Russia, much of it below sea level at the north end of the Caspian Sea. It is one of the largest such areas in Central Asia, occupying about 77,220 square miles (200,000 square km). Both the Ural and Volga rivers flow through the depression into t

  • prikaz (historical Russian administrative department)

    Russia: Trends in the 17th century: In 1613 there were 22 prikazy, or departments; by mid-century there were 80. At the beginning of the period, the jurisdiction of the bureaucracy included primarily fiscal, juridical, and military matters; by the end of the century, it also covered industrial, religious, and cultural life. At the close of the…

  • Prilep (North Macedonia)

    Prilep, town, North Macedonia, south of Skopje on the Titov Veles–Bitola railway line. Prilep was an important centre during the Middle Ages. St. Nikola’s Church (1299) has valuable frescoes. The Monastery of Archangel Michael and the Church of St. Dimitri both date from the 14th century, during

  • prill (pellet form)

    explosive: Ammonium nitrate–fuel oil mixtures: ANFO applications were based on prilled rather than crystallized ammonium nitrate. Prills, or free-flowing pellets, were developed for the fertilizer market, which requires a coarse product that has little tendency to set and can be spread easily and smoothly. A small amount of kieselguhr is generally added to improve the…

  • Priluki (Ukraine)

    Pryluky, city, northern Ukraine, on the Uday River. It is one of the oldest cities in Ukraine, being first documented in 1092. It was destroyed by the Mongols in the 13th century. In modern times it became a centre of the oil industry based on local deposits (those of the Dnieper-Donets

  • Prim y Prats, Juan (Spanish statesman)

    Juan Prim, Spanish military leader and political figure who played an important role in the Revolution of 1868 that resulted in the dethronement of Isabella II, the Bourbon Spanish queen. Prim rose to military fame in the struggle to win the throne for Isabella II against her uncle, Don Carlos

  • Prim, Juan (Spanish statesman)

    Juan Prim, Spanish military leader and political figure who played an important role in the Revolution of 1868 that resulted in the dethronement of Isabella II, the Bourbon Spanish queen. Prim rose to military fame in the struggle to win the throne for Isabella II against her uncle, Don Carlos

  • Prim-Rull Museum (museum, Reus, Spain)

    Reus: The municipal museum (Prim-Rull Museum) houses a prehistoric collection and educational, cultural, sporting, and recreational centres. Reus was the birthplace of the architect Antonio Gaudí. Reus is the site of an important textile industry, and its position in the centre of a wine-growing district accounts for what is…

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