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  • pressworking die (technology)

    tool and die making: The fabrication of pressworking dies constitutes the major part of the work done in tool and die shops. Most pressworking dies are utilized in the fabrication of sheet-metal parts that range in size from the finger stop on a dial telephone to the panels of an automobile body.…

  • Prestatyn (Wales, United Kingdom)

    Rhyl: Prestatyn, which adjoins Rhyl to the east, is a similar holiday resort. Prestatyn has remains of prehistoric settlement, Offa’s Dyke (8th century), and a demolished castle (12th century). Pop. (2001) 25,390; (2011) 25,149.

  • Prestea (Ghana)

    Prestea, town, southwestern Ghana, West Africa. It is located on the west bank of the Ankobra River, about 60 miles (100 km) northwest of Cape Coast. It is linked by railroad with Tarkwa and with Sekondi-Takoradi, both to the southeast. Prestea is a centre of trade for the surrounding agricultural

  • Prester John (work by Buchan)

    John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir: …style of Robert Louis Stevenson, Prester John (1910); it is a vivid, prophetic account of an African rising. During World War I Buchan held a staff appointment, and in 1917 he became director of information for the British government. His Thirty-Nine Steps (1915) was the most popular of his series…

  • Prester John (legendary ruler)

    Prester John, legendary Christian ruler of the East, popularized in medieval chronicles and traditions as a hoped-for ally against the Muslims. Believed to be a Nestorian (i.e., a member of an independent Eastern Christian church that did not accept the authority of the patriarch of Constantinople)

  • Prestes, Julio (Brazilian politician)

    Washington Luís: His candidate, Júlio Prestes, won in a controlled election in 1930; but the supporters of the opposition candidate, Getúlio Vargas, organized a successful coup d’état and deposed Luís on Oct. 24, 1930, just before he was to complete his term. The last president of the “old” republic, he…

  • Prestes, Luís Carlos (Brazilian revolutionary)

    Luís Carlos Prestes, Brazilian revolutionary. Beginning in 1924, he led a rebel force on a three-year trek through Brazil’s interior in an effort to spark a rebellion in the countryside. Although the effort failed, he became a romantic hero. He went on to lead the Brazilian Communist Party, which

  • prestidigitation (entertainment)

    Conjuring, theatrical representation of the defiance of natural law. Legerdemain, meaning “light, or nimble, of hand,” and juggling, meaning “the performance of tricks,” were the terms initially used to designate exhibitions of deception. The words conjuring and magic had no theatrical significance

  • prestige (sociology)

    Oceanic art and architecture: New Zealand: The continual quest for prestige in Maori society encouraged men of high status to commission and own important works. The choice of such works changed throughout Maori history. It appears that war canoes were the most prestigious works in the 18th century. Communal war canoes, which were up to…

  • Prestige, The (film by Nolan [2006])

    Hugh Jackman: … (2006) and the dramatic thriller The Prestige (2006) as well as X-Men: The Last Stand (2006). In 2008 he starred opposite Nicole Kidman in Baz Luhrmann’s lush historical epic Australia. While the film itself met with mixed reviews, Jackman’s performance was widely praised. As host of the Academy Awards ceremony…

  • prestin (protein)

    echolocation: …form of a protein called prestin increases their sensitivity to high-frequency sounds and thereby facilitates the detection of return echoes. The nearly identical molecular structure of the Prestin gene in these animals, which differs from the structure of the Prestin gene found in all other mammals, is an example of…

  • Prestoea montana (plant)

    palm: Distribution: The vegetation dominated by Prestoea montana is distinctive in the montane forests of the Caribbean. Many of these palms are economically useful, and their natural or seminatural stands may be immensely important in local economies.

  • Preston (England, United Kingdom)

    Preston, city and nonmetropolitan district, administrative and historic county of Lancashire, northwestern England. It is located at the lowest bridging point of the River Ribble estuary before it flows into the Irish Sea. The town of Preston grew near the site of a Roman fort at Walton-le-Dale, on

  • Preston (Ontario, Canada)

    Cambridge: …the towns of Hespeler and Preston, and parts of the townships of Waterloo and North Dumfries. Galt was founded about 1816 and, along with Dumfries Township, became the home of large numbers of Scottish immigrants. Hespeler and Preston were settled in the early 1800s, largely by Mennonites from Pennsylvania, U.S.…

  • Preston (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Preston: nonmetropolitan district, administrative and historic county of Lancashire, northwestern England. It is located at the lowest bridging point of the River Ribble estuary before it flows into the Irish Sea.

  • Preston and Olin Institute (school, Blacksburg, Virginia, United States)

    Virginia Tech: The Preston and Olin Institute, a Methodist school founded in 1854, became the nucleus of Virginia Tech, which was established in 1872. It was then known as Virginia Agriculture and Mechanical College and was Virginia’s land-grant college under the provisions of the Morrill Act of 1862;…

  • Preston, Ann (American physician and educator)

    Ann Preston, American physician and educator who struggled for the rights of women to learn, practice, and teach medicine in the mid-1800s. Preston was educated in Quaker schools and later became active in the abolition and temperance movements. Her temperance work had aroused in her an interest in

  • Preston, Battle of (British history [1715])

    Battle of Preston, (9–14 November 1715). The last important siege of a city in England, Preston pitted the British army of the Hanoverian King George I against a Jacobite army attempting to restore Stuart rule in the person of the Old Pretender: Prince James, son of the deposed King James II. After

  • Preston, Battle of (British history [1648])

    Battle of Preston, (17–19 August 1648). In war, victors often fall out among themselves. Two years after the end of the English civil war, the victorious Parliamentary army took on its former allies, the Scots, at Preston. The battle was to become yet another famous victory for Parliamentary

  • Preston, Billy (American musician)

    Billy Preston, (William Everett Preston), American musician (born Sept. 2, 1946, Houston, Texas—died June 6, 2006, Scottsdale, Ariz.), was the consummate sideman as a keyboard player, recording and touring with a Who’s Who of popular music, but he was also a star in his own right. Preston was r

  • Preston, Frances Cleveland (American first lady)

    Frances Cleveland, American first lady (1886–89; 1893–97), the wife of Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th president of the United States, and the youngest first lady in American history. Frances Folsom was the only daughter of Emma Harmon Folsom and Oscar Folsom, a lawyer. She lived comfortably and

  • Preston, Lewis Thompson (American bank executive)

    Lewis Thompson Preston, U.S. bank executive (born Aug. 5, 1926, New York, N.Y.—died May 4, 1995, Washington, D.C.), served (1991-95) as president of the World Bank during the critical period when 23 new member nations entered the institution following the breakup of the former Soviet Union. While P

  • Preston, May Wilson (American illustrator)

    May Wilson Preston, American illustrator associated with the Ashcan School. She was known for the authenticity she brought to her work for the major magazines of the early 20th century. May Wilson displayed marked artistic ability from an early age. In 1889, when she was barely out of high school,

  • Preston, Robert (American actor)

    Robert Preston, versatile American actor best known for his role as Professor Harold Hill in The Music Man on the Broadway stage in 1957 and in the 1962 film. The son of a minor-league baseball player, Preston attended school in Hollywood, Calif., but quit at the age of 16 to become an actor. His

  • Preston, Thomas (British military officer)

    Boston Massacre: From mob to massacre: Thomas Preston marched seven soldiers with fixed bayonets through the crowd in an attempt to rescue the sentry. Emboldened by the knowledge that the Riot Act had not been read—and that the soldiers could not fire their weapons until it had been read and then…

  • Preston, Thomas Austin, Jr. (American gambler)

    Amarillo Slim, (Thomas Austin Preston, Jr.), American gambler (born Dec. 31, 1928, Johnson, Ark.—died April 29, 2012, Amarillo, Texas), was a colourful and astute poker player best remembered for his slender frame, huge Stetson hat, and pithy remarks he made during game play. He became an

  • Preston, William Everett (American musician)

    Billy Preston, (William Everett Preston), American musician (born Sept. 2, 1946, Houston, Texas—died June 6, 2006, Scottsdale, Ariz.), was the consummate sideman as a keyboard player, recording and touring with a Who’s Who of popular music, but he was also a star in his own right. Preston was r

  • Prestonpans, Battle of (British history)

    United Kingdom: The Jacobite rebellion: …the same size at the Battle of Prestonpans. In December, with an army of 5,000 men, he marched into England and got as far south as the town of Derby, some 150 miles from London.

  • prestressed concrete (building material)

    Prestressed concrete, Concrete reinforced by either pretensioning or posttensioning, allowing it to carry a greater load or span a greater distance than ordinary reinforced concrete. In pretensioning, lengths of steel wire or cables are laid in the empty mold and stretched. The concrete is placed

  • Prestupleniye i nakazaniye (novel by Dostoyevsky)

    Crime and Punishment, novel by Russian writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky, first published in 1866. His first masterpiece, the novel is a psychological analysis of the poor former student Raskolnikov, whose theory that he is an extraordinary person able to take on the spiritual responsibility of using evil

  • Prestwick (Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Prestwick, burgh (town), South Ayrshire council area, historic county of Ayrshire, western Scotland, on the Firth of Clyde and contiguous with the city of Ayr to the south. Prestwick’s international airport has grown because of its proximity to Glasgow and its favourable climatic conditions and has

  • Prestwick Golf Club (Scottish golf club)

    British Open: Courses: …Open was played exclusively at Prestwick Golf Club. Since 1872 it has been played at a number of courses in rotation. Initially the three courses were Prestwick, St. Andrews, and Musselburgh, all located in Scotland. The nine courses in the current rotation are the Old Course at St. Andrews; Carnoustie…

  • Presumed Innocent (film by Pakula [1990])

    Alan J. Pakula: Films of the 1990s: Presumed Innocent (1990), an adaptation of Scott Turow’s best-selling thriller, was a return to form for Pakula. Harrison Ford starred as an attorney who has been charged with the murder of his former assistant, with whom he had an affair. Pakula (who cowrote the screenplay)…

  • Presumed Innocent (work by Turow)

    Scott Turow: His first novel, Presumed Innocent (1987; film 1990), was written while he was working as an assistant U.S. attorney in Chicago (1978–86). The story of Rusty Sabich, a deputy prosecutor assigned to investigate the murder of a female colleague with whom he had had an affair, is a…

  • presumption, fallacy of (logic)

    fallacy: Material fallacies: The material fallacies are also known as fallacies of presumption, because the premises “presume” too much—they either covertly assume the conclusion or avoid the issue in view.

  • presupposition (logic)

    applied logic: Logic of questions and answers: …is equivalent to forming the presupposition of the question. For example, suppose that this is done in the desideratum of the question “Who murdered Dick?”—viz., in “I know who murdered Dick,” or symbolically KI(∃x/KI) M(x,d). Then the result is KI(∃x) M(x,d), which says, “I know that someone murdered Dick,” which…

  • presymptomatic genetic testing (medicine)

    human genetic disease: Genetic testing: …disease, options often exist for presymptomatic diagnosis—that is, diagnosis of individuals at risk for developing a given disorder, even though at the time of diagnosis they may be clinically healthy. Options may even exist for carrier testing, studies that determine whether an individual is at increased risk of having a…

  • presynaptic dense projection (biology)

    nervous system: Axon: The thickened areas are called presynaptic dense projections, or active zones.

  • presynaptic facilitation (physiology)

    nervous system: Simple mollusks: …mechanism underlying this response is presynaptic facilitation, which is thought to be caused by an increase in the second messenger cAMP in the terminals of the sensory neurons.

  • presynaptic terminal (biology)

    nervous system: Axon: Presynaptic terminals, when seen by light microscope, look like small knobs and contain many organelles. The most numerous of these are synaptic vesicles, which, filled with neurotransmitters, are often clumped in areas of the terminal membrane that appear to be thickened. The thickened areas are…

  • Prêt-à-Porter (film by Altman [1994])

    Robert Altman: 1980s and ’90s: …than these two efforts was Prêt-à-Porter (1994), an impressionistic look at the world of Paris couture that reteamed iconic actors Sophia Loren and Marcello Mastroianni.

  • preta (Buddhist spirit)

    Buddhism: All Souls festival: …those who are suffering as pretas, or hell beings, so that they may ascend to heaven. Under the guidance of Buddhist temples, societies (hui, Youlanhui) are formed to carry out the necessary ceremonies—lanterns are lit, monks are invited to recite sacred verses, and offerings of fruit are made. An 8th-century…

  • Prete bello (work by Parise)

    Italian literature: Social commitment and the new realism: The Priest Among the Pigeons). In contrast to the more topical appeal of these writings, the great virtue of Pavese’s narrative was the universality of its characters and themes. Among his finest works may be numbered La casa in collina (1949; The House on the…

  • pretectal centre (anatomy)

    human nervous system: The eye: …transmit luminosity information to the pretectum, where particular types of neurons relay the information to parasympathetic preganglionic neurons located in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus of the midbrain. The axons of these neurons exit the ventral surface of the midbrain and synapse in the ciliary ganglion. From there, parasympathetic postganglionic neurons innervate…

  • pretectum (anatomy)

    human nervous system: The eye: …transmit luminosity information to the pretectum, where particular types of neurons relay the information to parasympathetic preganglionic neurons located in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus of the midbrain. The axons of these neurons exit the ventral surface of the midbrain and synapse in the ciliary ganglion. From there, parasympathetic postganglionic neurons innervate…

  • Pretenders, The (film by Franco [2018])

    James Franco: Other work: His later directorial efforts included The Pretenders (2018) and Zeroville (2019).

  • Pretenders, The (play by Ibsen)

    Henrik Ibsen: First plays and directing: …own, and in Kongsemnerne (1863; The Pretenders) he dramatized the mysterious inner authority that makes a man a man, a king, or a great playwright. This one play was in fact the national drama after which Ibsen had been groping so long, and before long it would be recognized as…

  • pretensioning (construction)

    concrete: It is achieved by either pretensioning or posttensioning processes. In pretensioning, lengths of steel wire, cables, or ropes are laid in the empty mold and then stretched and anchored. After the concrete has been poured and allowed to set, the anchors are released and, as the steel seeks to return…

  • Preti, Mattia (Italian artist)

    Western painting: Early and High Baroque in Italy: …in the frescoes (1661) of Mattia Preti at the Palazzo Pamphili, Valmontone (southeast of Rome); but the transition between the High Baroque and the Late Baroque was a continuous process and occurred at different dates with different artists. At Valmontone the sense of dynamic structure characteristic of the High Baroque…

  • Pretiglian Glacial Stage (geology)

    Pleistocene Epoch: Glacial records: …cold period, known as the Pretiglian and based on pollen data from the Netherlands, began about 2.3 million years ago, soon after extensive ice-rafted material first appears in North Atlantic deep-sea cores. The Pretiglian was followed by a succession of warm and cold intervals, which also are based on pollen…

  • preto (people)

    Brazil: Ethnic groups: …pardos (of mixed ethnicities) or pretos (entirely African); the latter term is usually used to refer to those with the darkest skin colour. Although skin colour is the main basis of the distinction between pardo and preto, this distinction is often subjective and self-attributed. Many Brazilians of colour consider it…

  • Pretoria (national administrative capital, South Africa)

    Pretoria, city in Gauteng province and administrative capital of the Republic of South Africa. Pretoria stretches along both sides of the Apies River and extends into the western foothills of the Magaliesberg on the east. Founded in 1855 by Marthinus, son of Andries Pretorius, the Boer statesman

  • Pretoria Zoo (zoo, Pretoria, South Africa)

    National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, zoo near Pretoria, S.Af., that is noted for its wildlife conservation programs. It was opened in 1899 by the State Museum of the South African Republic on a small stretch of land along the Apies River, which flows through Pretoria. In 1913 the zoo

  • Pretoria, Universiteit van (university, Pretoria, South Africa)

    University of Pretoria, state-supported coeducational institution of higher learning at Pretoria, South Africa. It was founded in 1908, when the arts and science courses of Transvaal University College in Johannesburg were transferred to Pretoria. In 1910 the two institutions were separated, the

  • Pretoria, University of (university, Pretoria, South Africa)

    University of Pretoria, state-supported coeducational institution of higher learning at Pretoria, South Africa. It was founded in 1908, when the arts and science courses of Transvaal University College in Johannesburg were transferred to Pretoria. In 1910 the two institutions were separated, the

  • Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereeniging complex (metropolitan area, South Africa)

    South Africa: Urban settlement: …far the largest is the Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereeniging complex; centred on Johannesburg, it radiates about 45 miles (70 km) in each direction and is now mostly in Gauteng province. Other urban concentrations are centred on Durban, Cape Town, and the Port Elizabeth–Uitenhage area. The main centres in these metropolitan areas offer the…

  • Pretorio, Palazzo (museum, Cortona, Italy)

    Cortona: The 13th-century Pretorio (or Casali) Palace houses the Etruscan museum. Notable medieval churches include the originally Romanesque cathedral, much altered; the former church of the Gesù, now housing the diocesan museum; and the Gothic churches of San Domenico, San Francesco, Santa Margherita, and Santa Maria del Calcinaio.…

  • Pretorius, Andries (Boer South African leader)

    Andries Pretorius, Boer leader in the Great Trek from British-dominated Cape Colony, the dominant military and political figure in Natal and later in the Transvaal, and one of the major agents of white conquest in Southern Africa. After taking part in several frontier wars in the Cape Colony,

  • Pretorius, Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus (Boer South African leader)

    Andries Pretorius, Boer leader in the Great Trek from British-dominated Cape Colony, the dominant military and political figure in Natal and later in the Transvaal, and one of the major agents of white conquest in Southern Africa. After taking part in several frontier wars in the Cape Colony,

  • Pretorius, Marthinus Wessel (Boer South African leader)

    Marthinus Wessel Pretorius, Boer statesman, soldier, and founder of the town of Pretoria (1855). He was the first president of the South African Republic and also served as president of the Orange Free State, the only man to hold both offices. His plans to unite the sister republics, however,

  • Prêtre marié, Un (work by Barbey d’Aurevilly)

    Jules-Amédée Barbey d'Aurevilly: …against the French Republic, and Un Prêtre marié (1865; “A Married Priest”), dealing with the sufferings of a priest under the new regime. Les Diaboliques (1874; Weird Women), a collection of six short stories, is often considered his masterpiece.

  • pretrial conference (law)

    procedural law: Pretrial conference: The discovery process may make the parties aware of significant issues not previously considered or may make it clear that an issue considered important before discovery is no longer so. In order to provide a means for reflecting these changes and also to…

  • pretrial detention (law)

    procedural law: Pretrial detention: Incarceration of the suspect before trial most seriously impairs the preparation of an effective defense. Nevertheless, all legal systems permit pretrial detention, though under differing conditions.

  • pretrial hearing (law)

    procedural law: Stages leading to trial or main hearing: At the pretrial stage, the parties notify each other of their claims and defenses and probe their factual foundations; at the trial stage, they or their counsel attempt to prove their factual contentions before a judge or jury, primarily through the oral examination of witnesses. The verdict…

  • Pretty Baby (film by Malle [1978])

    Louis Malle: In 1978 he directed Pretty Baby, the story of a 12-year-old resident of a brothel in New Orleans. His later films included the critically acclaimed Atlantic City (1980), a comedy-drama about the emotional renewal of a small-time criminal; My Dinner with André (1981), an unusual film consisting almost entirely…

  • Pretty Boy (American boxer)

    Floyd Mayweather, Jr., American boxer whose combination of speed, power, and technical prowess made him one of the best pound-for-pound fighters of all time. Mayweather earned the nickname “Pretty Boy” during his amateur career because of his unmarked face. He won the national Golden Gloves in

  • Pretty Hate Machine (album by Nine Inch Nails)

    Nine Inch Nails: …popularity with its debut release, Pretty Hate Machine (1989), which eventually sold more than three million copies in the United States and signaled a breakthrough into the American mainstream for industrial music. After a drawn-out legal battle with his recording company, TVT, Reznor set up his own label, Nothing Records,…

  • pretty house (anthropology)

    South American nomad: Rites of passage: …special hut known as the pretty house was erected for initiation ceremonies (as well as for some other rites, such as first menses). Medicine men bled themselves and smeared the novices with blood. There was dancing by the men and singing by the women. Horses were killed and roasted, and…

  • Pretty in Pink (film by Deutch [1986])

    John Hughes: …The Breakfast Club (1985) and Pretty in Pink (1986), made stars out of a group of young actors—Molly Ringwald, Emilio Estevez, and Judd Nelson, among them—who collectively became known as the Brat Pack. (This name was a play on the Rat Pack, a close-knit group of celebrities of an earlier…

  • Pretty on the Inside (album by Hole)

    Courtney Love: …acclaim for its debut album, Pretty on the Inside (1991), produced by Sonic Youth’s Kim Gordon.

  • Pretty Polly (British racehorse)

    Pretty Polly, (foaled 1901), English racehorse (Thoroughbred) who won 22 of 24 races in her four-year career and earned more than $130,000. Pretty Polly was foaled by Admiration and sired by Gallinule. Exceptional from the start of her career, the two-year-old filly won her first race, the British

  • Pretty Woman (film by Marshall [1990])

    Michael Eisner: …of Money (1986), and Pretty Woman (1990); and restored Disney’s reputation for classic animation with Beauty and the Beast (1991) and The Lion King (1994). He also expanded the company into fields such as television, publishing, home video, and cruise ship travel. Disney’s profits rebounded spectacularly, and Eisner himself…

  • Pretty Woman: The Musical (musical theatre)

    Bryan Adams: …Vallance wrote the score for Pretty Woman: The Musical, a stage version of the 1990 film, which premiered in Chicago in March 2018 and moved to Broadway later that year.

  • pretty-faced wallaby (marsupial)

    wallaby: The pretty-faced wallaby, or whiptail (M. elegans, or M. parryi), with distinctive cheek marks, is found in open woods of coastal eastern Australia.

  • pretzel (cracker)

    Pretzel, a brittle, glazed-and-salted cracker of German or Alsatian origin. Made from a rope of dough typically fashioned into the shape of a loose knot, the pretzel is briefly boiled and then glazed with egg, salted, and baked. Pretzels are customarily eaten as a snack with beer. In many large

  • Pretzel Logic (album by Steely Dan)

    Steely Dan: …Dan reached its peak with Pretzel Logic (1974)—with the hit song “Rikki Don’t Lose That Number”—and Katy Lied (1975). Dragging pop music into its high modernist phase, Becker and Fagen took musical ideas from the entire American spectrum, especially jazz, and compressed them into immediately accessible three-minute vignettes. Their songs…

  • Preuning, Kunz (German potter)

    Hafner ware: …the mid-16th century Paul and Kunz Preuning, potters of Nürnberg, introduced a polychrome style. The large stoves made of these tiles, which are decorated with religious or allegorical subjects, are handsome works of art, as well as functional objects. Although the centre of Hafner ware manufacture was Nürnberg, the industry…

  • Preuning, Paul (German potter)

    Hafner ware: …and in the mid-16th century Paul and Kunz Preuning, potters of Nürnberg, introduced a polychrome style. The large stoves made of these tiles, which are decorated with religious or allegorical subjects, are handsome works of art, as well as functional objects. Although the centre of Hafner ware manufacture was Nürnberg,…

  • Preuss, Hugo (German political theorist)

    Hugo Preuss, German political theorist and legal expert who became the principal author of the constitution of the Weimar Republic. Schooled in the organic-state philosophy of the German political theorist Otto von Gierke, Preuss sustained throughout his own writings the theoretical orientation of

  • Preussen (region, Europe)

    Prussia, in European history, any of certain areas of eastern and central Europe, respectively (1) the land of the Prussians on the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea, which came under Polish and German rule in the Middle Ages, (2) the kingdom ruled from 1701 by the German Hohenzollern dynasty,

  • Preussische Kriegslieder von einem Grenadier (work by Gleim)

    Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim: Of higher merit is his Preussische Kriegslieder von einem Grenadier (1758), inspired by the campaigns of Frederick II.

  • Preussler, Daniel (German artist)

    Hausmalerei: …porcelain, and Ignaz Bottengruber and Daniel Preussler, who worked on both Meissen and Vienna porcelain.

  • Preussler, Otfried (German author)

    Otfried Preussler, German author (born Oct. 20, 1923, Reichenberg, Bohemia, Czech. [now Liberec, Cz.Rep.]—died Feb. 18, 2013, Prien am Chiemsee, Ger.), penned more than 30 books for children and young adults, often incorporating tales of fantasy, magic, witchcraft, and other elements drawn from

  • Preuves, Les (book by Jaurès)

    Jean Jaurès: His book Les Preuves, asking for Dreyfus’ retrial and rehabilitation, caused his defeat in the elections of 1898. Temporarily retired from national politics, Jaurès began to compile his monumental Histoire socialiste de la Révolution française (1901–07; “Socialist History of the French Revolution”). This work, written “under the…

  • prevailing wind (meteorology)

    climate: Circulation, currents, and ocean-atmosphere interaction: …way across the Atlantic, and prevailing westerlies extend the warming effect deep into northern Europe. As a result, January temperatures of Tromsø, Nor. (69°40′ N), for example, average 24 °C (43 °F) above the mean for that latitude. The Gulf Stream maintains a warming influence in July, but it is…

  • Préval, René (president of Haiti)

    René Préval, Haitian politician who served as president of Haiti from 1996 to 2001 and again from 2006 to 2011. The son of agronomist Claude Préval, René showed an interest in his father’s career, and in 1963 he left Haiti for Belgium to study agronomy. He earned a degree in that subject from

  • Préval, René García (president of Haiti)

    René Préval, Haitian politician who served as president of Haiti from 1996 to 2001 and again from 2006 to 2011. The son of agronomist Claude Préval, René showed an interest in his father’s career, and in 1963 he left Haiti for Belgium to study agronomy. He earned a degree in that subject from

  • prevalence (epidemiology)

    Prevalence, in epidemiology, the proportion of a population with a disease or a particular condition at a specific point in time (point prevalence) or over a specified period of time (period prevalence). Prevalence is often confused with incidence, which is concerned only with the measure of new

  • Prevelakis, Pandelis (Greek author)

    Greek literature: Literature after 1922: Pandelís Prevelákis published a number of philosophical novels set in his native Crete, the most successful being O ílios tou thanátou (1959; The Sun of Death), which shows a boy learning to come to terms with death.

  • Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Convention on the (UN)

    genocide: Defining genocide: the Nürnberg Charter and the genocide convention: …approved the text of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, the first UN human rights treaty. The convention, which entered into force in 1951, has been ratified by more than 130 countries. Although the United States played a major role in drafting the convention…

  • prevention principle (law)

    environmental law: The prevention principle: Although much environmental legislation is drafted in response to catastrophes, preventing environmental harm is cheaper, easier, and less environmentally dangerous than reacting to environmental harm that already has taken place. The prevention principle is the fundamental notion behind laws regulating the generation, transportation,…

  • preventive detention (law)

    Preventive detention, the practice of incarcerating accused individuals before trial on the assumption that their release would not be in the best interest of society—specifically, that they would be likely to commit additional crimes if they were released. Preventive detention is also used when

  • preventive diplomacy

    war: Limiting conflict: First, “preventive diplomacy,” largely comprising the diplomatic initiatives of the secretary-general and the stationing of peacekeeping forces, has served to contain local conflicts and to prevent escalation, especially the involvement of the superpowers. Second, although the General Assembly’s recommendations have no legal binding force, they have…

  • preventive medicine

    Preventive medicine, efforts directed toward the prevention of disease, either in the community as a whole—an important part of what is broadly termed public health—or in the individual. Hippocrates, the Greek physician of the 5th century bc, classified causes of disease into those concerned with

  • Preventive Medicine Research Institute (American organization)

    Dean Ornish: …Ornish also founded the nonprofit Preventive Medicine Research Institute (PMRI) in nearby Sausalito. He began the Lifestyle Heart Trial, a controlled study of the effects of a low-fat diet and stress-management regime on a small group of heart disease patients, implementing a unique approach to treating heart disease that he…

  • preverb (grammar)

    Caucasian languages: Grammatical characteristics: …is a developed system of preverbs, elements preceding the verb stem and attached to it, with local meaning indicating location of the action in space, as well as its direction (especially in Mingrelian and Laz). Simple preverbs are combined into complex ones. The preverbs are also used to mark the…

  • Prévert, Jacques-Henri-Marie (French poet)

    Jacques Prévert, French poet who composed ballads of social hope and sentimental love; he also ranked among the foremost of screenwriters, especially during the 1930s and ’40s. From 1925 to 1929 Prévert was associated with the Surrealists Robert Desnos, Yves Tanguy, Louis Aragon, and André Breton

  • prevertebral ganglion (anatomy)

    human nervous system: The peripheral nervous system: Prevertebral motor ganglia are located near internal organs innervated by their projecting fibres, while terminal ganglia are found on the surfaces or within the walls of the target organs themselves. Motor ganglia have multipolar cell bodies, which have irregular shapes and eccentrically located nuclei and…

  • Preveza, Battle of (Ottoman Empire [1538])

    Barbarossa: …Charles V’s fleet at the Battle of Preveza (1538), thereby securing the eastern Mediterranean for the Turks (until their defeat at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571). Barbarossa remained one of the great figures of the court at Constantinople until his death.

  • Previn, André (American composer and musician)

    André Previn, German-born American pianist, composer, arranger, and conductor, especially sympathetic to French, Russian, and English music of the 19th and 20th centuries. Previn’s family fled Nazi persecution and moved to Los Angeles in 1939. While still a teenager he was recognized as a gifted

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