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  • Prescott, William (American military leader)

    Battle of Bunker Hill: …time they were discovered, Colonel William Prescott and his men had completed a redoubt atop Breed’s Hill (which was an indefensible decision in the eyes of many historians, since Breed’s Hill was lower and less impregnable than Bunker Hill). Despite a cannonade from British men-of-war in the harbour and from…

  • Prescott, William H. (American historian)

    William H. Prescott, American historian, best known for his History of the Conquest of Mexico, 3 vol. (1843), and his History of the Conquest of Peru, 2 vol. (1847). He has been called America’s first scientific historian. Prescott was from a prosperous, old New England family. He received three

  • Prescott, William Hickling (American historian)

    William H. Prescott, American historian, best known for his History of the Conquest of Mexico, 3 vol. (1843), and his History of the Conquest of Peru, 2 vol. (1847). He has been called America’s first scientific historian. Prescott was from a prosperous, old New England family. He received three

  • prescribed burning

    Prescribed fire, form of land management in which fire is intentionally applied to vegetation. Prescribed fires are conducted under desired conditions to meet specific objectives, such as to restore fire regimes in adapted ecosystems or to limit the amount of dry brush in an area prone to

  • prescribed fire

    Prescribed fire, form of land management in which fire is intentionally applied to vegetation. Prescribed fires are conducted under desired conditions to meet specific objectives, such as to restore fire regimes in adapted ecosystems or to limit the amount of dry brush in an area prone to

  • prescription (medicine)

    medicinal poisoning: …to a doctor’s order or prescription. Each country has its own laws regulating this arrangement. In addition, educational campaigns are promoted by pharmaceutical companies, professional associations, and medical journals in order to induce doctors to prescribe judiciously and discriminatingly and, further, to convince the public that the misuse of medicines…

  • prescription (property law)

    Prescription, in both domestic and international law, the effect of the lapse of time in creating and destroying rights. Prescription is either acquisitive, in that an individual is allowed, after a specified period of time, to acquire title, or extinctive—i.e., barring for a period of time

  • prescriptive grammar (linguistics)

    grammar: Conceptions of grammar: …approach, a grammar can be prescriptive (i.e., provide rules for correct usage), descriptive (i.e., describe how a language is actually used), or generative (i.e., provide instructions for the production of an infinite number of sentences in a language). The traditional focus of inquiry has been on morphology and syntax, and…

  • prescriptivism (philosophy)

    Prescriptivism, In metaethics, the view that moral judgments are prescriptions and therefore have the logical form of imperatives. Prescriptivism was first advocated by Richard M. Hare (born 1919) in The Language of Morals (1952). Hare argued that it is impossible to derive any prescription from a

  • presegmental region (anatomy)

    crustacean: General features: …unsegmented, presegmental region called the acron. In most crustaceans at least four somites fuse with the acron to form the head. At the posterior end of the body there is another unsegmented region, the telson, that may bear two processes, or rami, which together form the furca. These two processes…

  • Presença (Portuguese literary group)

    Portuguese literature: From monarchy to republic: …Monteiro, a member of the Presença (“Presence”) group of writers (its name derived from the literary magazine Presença, founded in 1927). Although in his lifetime Pessoa published only four books—three of them collections of poetry in English, the fourth, Mensagem (1934; Message), a work in Portuguese comparable to Camões’s The…

  • Presença (Portuguese literary magazine)

    African literature: Portuguese: The literary magazine Presença (“Presence”), founded in 1927, was a revolutionary Portuguese publication, urging a break with the Portuguese past and encouraging ties to Cape Verde. Claridade led in 1944 to the founding of a new review, Certeza (“Certainty”), and with it came a new generation of poets,…

  • presence (theatrical process)

    theatrical production: Skills and attributes: Presence is not a fixed, definable quality but rather a process of continuous growth and change that takes place before the eyes of the audience.

  • Présence Africaine (Sengalese literary journal)

    Alioune Diop: …and founder of the newspaper Présence Africaine.

  • Presence, Bread of the (Judaism)

    Shewbread, any of the 12 loaves of bread that stood for the 12 tribes of Israel, presented and shown in the Temple of Jerusalem in the Presence of God. The loaves were a symbolic acknowledgment that God was the resource for Israel’s life and nourishment and also served as Israel’s act of t

  • present (time)

    salvation: Time: …the temporal categories of past, present, and future. This time-consciousness is possessed by no other species with such insistent clarity. It enables humans to draw upon past experience in the present and to plan for future contingencies. This faculty, however, has another effect: it causes humans to be aware that…

  • Present at the Creation (book by Acheson)

    Dean Acheson: …in the Department of State, Present at the Creation, won the Pulitzer Prize in history in 1970. Other works include Power and Diplomacy (1958), Morning and Noon (1965), The Korean War (1971), and Grapes from Thorns (posthumous, 1972).

  • Present State of Germany, The (work by Pufendorf)

    Samuel, baron von Pufendorf: Early life and works: …at Heidelberg, where he wrote The Present State of Germany (1667). Written under the pseudonym Severnius de Monzabano Veronensis, the work was a bitter attack on the constitution of the Holy Roman Empire and the house of Habsburg. Based on his wide reading in constitutional law and history, the book…

  • present tense (grammar)

    tense: …defined in relation to the present time (now). Past tense refers to any time before the present time, and future tense refers to any time after the present. Not all languages perceive this relationship as a linear one, nor do these categories characterize all possible times. Tense, then, is a…

  • present value (finance)

    accounting: Asset value: …this example, $100 is the present value of the right to receive $110 one year later. Present value is the maximum amount the company would be willing to pay for a future inflow of cash after deducting interest on the investment at a specified rate for the time the company…

  • presentation (childbirth)

    Presentation, in childbirth, the position of the fetus at the time of delivery. The presenting part is the part of the fetus that can be touched by the obstetrician when he probes with his finger through the opening in the cervix, the outermost portion of the uterus, which projects into the

  • Presentation in the Temple (painting by Carpaccio)

    Vittore Carpaccio: Thomas Aquinas Enthroned (1507), Presentation in the Temple (1510), and Martyrdom of the Ten Thousand (1515). His last dated works are two organ shutters for the Duomo at Capodistria (1523).

  • Presentation in the Temple (painting by Mantegna)

    Albrecht Dürer: Second journey to Italy: …Bellini’s free adaptation of Mantegna’s Presentation in the Temple. Dürer’s work is a virtuoso performance that shows mastery and close attention to detail. In the painting the inscription on the scrap of paper out of the book held by the old man in the foreground reads, “Opus quinque dierum” (“the…

  • presentation layer (OSI level)

    computer science: Networking and communication: The presentation layer is concerned with functions that encode data, so that heterogeneous systems may engage in meaningful communication. At the highest level are protocols that support specific applications. An example of such an application is the file transfer protocol (FTP), which governs the transfer of…

  • presentation level (OSI level)

    computer science: Networking and communication: The presentation layer is concerned with functions that encode data, so that heterogeneous systems may engage in meaningful communication. At the highest level are protocols that support specific applications. An example of such an application is the file transfer protocol (FTP), which governs the transfer of…

  • Presentation of Christ in the Temple (work by Giovanni di Paolo)

    Giovanni di Paolo: …the monumental altarpiece of the Presentation of Christ in the Temple (1447–49) and six scenes from The Life of St. John the Baptist. The brooding Madonna Altarpiece of 1463 in the Pienza Cathedral marks the beginning of Giovanni’s late period, of which the coarse Assumption polyptych of 1475 from Staggia…

  • Presentation of Christ in the Temple (religious festival)

    Candlemas, Christian festival on February 2 commemorating the occasion when the Virgin Mary, in obedience to Jewish law, went to the Temple in Jerusalem both to be purified 40 days after the birth of her son, Jesus, and to present him to God as her firstborn (Luke 2:22–38). The festival was

  • Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple (painting by Titian)

    Titian: Religious paintings: The stately Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple, a very large canvas, reflects the splendour of Venetian Renaissance society in the great architectural setting, partly in the latest style of the contemporary architects Serlio and Jacopo Sansovino. The pageantry of the scene also belongs to well-established…

  • Presentation of the Virgin Mary in the Temple (painting by Tintoretto)

    Tintoretto: Career: The Presentation of the Virgin Mary in the Temple (c. 1556) was, according to Vasari, “a highly finished work, and the best executed and most successful painting that there is in the place.” In St. Peter’s Vision of the Cross and in The Martyrdom of St.…

  • Presenter (software)

    Microsoft PowerPoint, virtual presentation software developed by Robert Gaskins and Dennis Austin for the American computer software company Forethought, Inc. The program, initially named Presenter, was released for the Apple Macintosh in 1987. In July of that year, the Microsoft Corporation, in

  • Presenting Lily Mars (film by Taurog [1943])

    Norman Taurog: Musical comedies and Boys Town: Presenting Lily Mars (1943) was an adaptation of a Booth Tarkington novel about a small-town girl (Judy Garland) who persuades a Broadway producer (Van Heflin) to take her to New York City. Taurog then inherited Girl Crazy (1943) from Busby Berkeley, who was released from…

  • Presenting Lily Mars (novel by Tarkington)

    Norman Taurog: Musical comedies and Boys Town: …adaptation of a Booth Tarkington novel about a small-town girl (Judy Garland) who persuades a Broadway producer (Van Heflin) to take her to New York City. Taurog then inherited Girl Crazy (1943) from Busby Berkeley, who was released from the production early on but had already staged the acclaimed “I…

  • presentment (law)

    Indictment, in the United States, a formal written accusation of crime affirmed by a grand jury and presented by it to a court for trial of the accused. The grand jury system was eliminated in England in 1933, and current law there provides for a bill of indictment to be presented to the court when

  • Prešeren, France (Slovene poet)

    France Prešeren, Slovenia’s national poet and its sole successful contributor to European Romanticism. Prešeren studied law in Vienna, where he acquired a familiarity with the mainstream of European thought and literary expression. Guided by his close friend and mentor Matija Čop, a literary

  • preservation and collection (biology)

    hunting: Later history: The idea of game preservation arose in feudal times when the right to hunt became attached to the ownership of land. Because of their hereditary claim to the title Lord High Masters of the Chase for the Holy Roman Empire, the electors of Saxony enjoyed exceptional opportunities to hunt.…

  • Preservation and Encouragement of Barber Shop Quartet Singing in America, Society for the (American music association)

    barbershop quartet singing: In any event, the modern Society for the Preservation and Encouragement of Barber Shop Quartet Singing in America (SPEBSQSA, Inc.), also called (since 2004) the Barbershop Harmony Society, was founded by Owen Clifton Cash, Rupert I. Hall, and 24 other men who attended a first meeting and songfest at the…

  • Preservation Hall (organization, New Orleans, Lousiana, United States)

    New Orleans style: …the 1940s; and another at Preservation Hall, an organization in New Orleans that into the 1990s continued to present improvised combo music by men who had lived in New Orleans during the music’s formative period. Samuel Charters’ Jazz: New Orleans 1885–1963 (1963) is a historical study. See also Chicago style.

  • Preservation of the Faith Among Indian Children, Society For the (American organization)

    St. Katharine Drexel: …which she helped found the Society for the Preservation of the Faith Among Indian Children (or Preservation Society). By that time as well, the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament had grown to some 500 members in 51 convents, and they had established 49 elementary schools, 12 high schools, and Xavier…

  • Preservation of the National Essence, Society for the (Japanese organization)

    Ōkawa Shūmei: …the influential nationalistic Yūzonsha (Society for the Preservation of the National Essence) in 1919. Through its magazine, Otakebi (“War Cry”), the Yūzonsha advocated the return of Japan to the simpler military values of its feudal past as well as the institution of a national socialist government. Yūzonsha gained a…

  • Preservation Society (American organization)

    St. Katharine Drexel: …which she helped found the Society for the Preservation of the Faith Among Indian Children (or Preservation Society). By that time as well, the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament had grown to some 500 members in 51 convents, and they had established 49 elementary schools, 12 high schools, and Xavier…

  • preservation, art

    Art conservation and restoration, any attempt to conserve and repair architecture, paintings, drawings, prints, sculptures, and objects of the decorative arts (furniture, glassware, metalware, textiles, ceramics, and so on) that have been adversely affected by negligence, willful damage, or, more

  • preservation, food

    Food preservation, any of a number of methods by which food is kept from spoilage after harvest or slaughter. Such practices date to prehistoric times. Among the oldest methods of preservation are drying, refrigeration, and fermentation. Modern methods include canning, pasteurization, freezing,

  • preservative (food processing)

    Preservative, in foods, any of numerous chemical additives used to prevent or retard spoilage caused by chemical changes, e.g., oxidation or the growth of mold. Along with emulsifying and stabilizing agents, preservatives also help to maintain freshness of appearance and consistency. See also

  • preserve (food)

    fruit processing: Fruit preserves, jams, and jellies: The making of jellies and other preserves is an old and popular process, providing a means of keeping fruits far beyond their normal storage life and sometimes making use of blemished or off-grade fruits that may not be ideal for fresh…

  • Preserve the Nation, Society to (Chinese organization)

    Kang Youwei: …powers, and he organized the Society to Preserve the Nation to marshal support. Finally, he prevailed upon the Guangxu emperor to launch the reform program. Among the many measures that were promulgated were streamlining the government, strengthening the armed forces, creating new standards in the civil service examination system, developing…

  • Preserving of Harmony, Hall of (building, Beijing, China)

    Palace Museum: The Hall of Preserving Harmony displays a fine collection of works of art, many from the imperial treasures. Among the more impressive works is a 14-metre- (47-foot-) long Yuan fresco that was taken from the Xinghua Temple. Other areas of the palace contain displays of bronzes,…

  • Preserving the World’s Historical and Cultural Legacy

    The continuing destruction of the Architectural, artistic, and historical patrimony of the multicultural society in Bosnia and Herzegovina continued to shock and appall the world in 1994. While some of the damage to historic sites, religious structures, libraries, and archives might be classified

  • preset board console (electronics)

    stagecraft: Control consoles: The preset board was derived directly from the group master board, but the preset board allowed dimmer intensity levels to be set in advance, before they were needed onstage. Preset boards typically had anywhere between 2 and 10 preset banks; each bank controlled a specified number…

  • presidency of the United States of America (United States government)

    Presidency of the United States of America, chief executive office of the United States. In contrast to many countries with parliamentary forms of government, where the office of president, or head of state, is mainly ceremonial, in the United States the president is vested with great authority and

  • Presidency University (university, Kolkata, India)

    education: Education under the East India Company: …Ram Mohun Roy, founded the Hindu College in Calcutta, the alumni of which established a large number of English schools all over Bengal. The demand for English education in Bengal thus preceded by 20 years any government action in that direction.

  • president (card game)

    President, card game of Chinese origin that suddenly appeared in the Western world during the 1980s. President is just one of many different names for the game, most of them vulgar and some scatological, and the game itself is played in many different forms with varying rules. Common to all,

  • president (government official)

    President, in government, the officer in whom the chief executive power of a nation is vested. The president of a republic is the head of state, but the actual power of the president varies from country to country; in the United States, Africa, and Latin America the presidential office is charged

  • President Clinton’s Africa Trip

    On March 23, 1998, U.S. Pres. Bill Clinton arrived in Accra, Ghana, to begin a six-country, 12-day visit to Africa, the most extensive journey to that continent ever undertaken by a U.S. leader. He went with high hopes, hailing "the beginning of a new African renaissance." In retrospect, however,

  • President Is Missing, The (novel by Patterson and Clinton)

    Bill Clinton: Life after the presidency: …(with James Patterson) the thriller The President Is Missing (2018).

  • President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act (United States [1992])

    assassination of John F. Kennedy: Subsequent congressional responses: …with the passage of the President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992 and the creation of the Assassination Records Review Board (the members of which were not sworn in until 1994). From 1994 to 1998 this independent board reviewed, declassified, and made available millions of pages of…

  • president of the United States of America (United States government)

    Presidency of the United States of America, chief executive office of the United States. In contrast to many countries with parliamentary forms of government, where the office of president, or head of state, is mainly ceremonial, in the United States the president is vested with great authority and

  • President Roosevelt and the Coming of War, 1941 (work by Beard)

    Charles A. Beard: …the Making, 1932–1940 (1946) and President Roosevelt and the Coming of War, 1941 (1948), he charged Roosevelt with virtually maneuvering the United States into war with Japan. Beard was criticized as an isolationist because of these views, and his reputation declined somewhat after the publication of his last works, but…

  • President Sarmiento (sculpture by Rodin)

    Auguste Rodin: Discords and triumphs: …and, in Buenos Aires, the President Sarmiento caused riots. The conflicts over the Victor Hugo and the Balzac were even more serious.

  • President Vanishes, The (film by Wellman [1934])

    William Wellman: Films of the early to mid-1930s: …novel of the same name; The President Vanishes (1934), a cautionary political tale that is memorable chiefly for providing one of Rosalind Russell’s earliest screen appearances; and the love story Small Town Girl (1936), which teamed Robert Taylor and Janet Gaynor.

  • President Vargas diamond (gem)

    President Vargas diamond, Brazilian stone weighing about 727 carats in rough form. It was discovered in the Santo Antônio River, Minas Gerais, and named for the nation’s president, Getulio Vargas. The diamond was cut in New York into 29 stones ranging in weight from about 5 to 48

  • President Yo La Tengo (album by Yo La Tengo)

    Yo La Tengo: By the time President Yo La Tengo (1989) was released, the band’s sound had evolved from basic roots-rock to encompass dramatic juxtapositions of feedback-driven noise rock with melodic folk-influenced pop, drawing frequent comparisons to 1960s cult favourites the Velvet Underground. This comparison was alluded to in the 1996…

  • President’s Annual Message to Congress (presidential address)

    State of the Union, in the United States, the annual address of the president of the United States to the U.S. Congress. The U.S. Constitution (Article II, Section 3) requires the president to “from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union.” Although the president now

  • President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice

    police: The professional crime-fighting model: Indeed, in 1967 the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, which was critical of the strategies of other criminal justice agencies, endorsed both preventive patrols and rapid responses to calls. The commission concluded that the basic strategy of policing was satisfactory and that improvement would come…

  • President’s Commission on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy

    Warren Commission, commission appointed by U.S. Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson on November 29, 1963, to investigate the circumstances surrounding the assassination of his predecessor, John F. Kennedy, in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963, and the shooting of Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin, two

  • President’s Commission on the Status of Women

    President’s Commission on the Status of Women, advisory commission established on December 14, 1961, by U.S. President John F. Kennedy to investigate questions regarding women’s equality in education, in the workplace, and under the law. Chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt until her death in 1962, the

  • President’s Cup (equestrian sports)

    show jumping: The President’s Cup, instituted in 1965, is based on the results of the several Nations Cup competitions each year and is considered a world team championship. The prize is awarded to the team with the six best scores.

  • President’s Lady (work by Stone)

    Irving Stone: …of the explorer John Frémont; President’s Lady (1951), based on the life of Rachel Jackson, wife of the seventh U.S. president; Love Is Eternal (1954), a fictionalized account of the marriage of Mary Todd and Abraham Lincoln; The Agony and the Ecstasy (1961), a life of the Renaissance artist Michelangelo;…

  • President’s Own, The (United States military band)

    The United States Marine Corps: ” The Marine Band, the oldest musical organization in the U.S. armed forces, is known as “The President’s Own” because of its privilege of performing at all state functions at the White House. The official colours of the Corps are scarlet and gold, but forest green enjoys…

  • President’s Palace (presidential office and residence, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    White House, the official office and residence of the president of the United States at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue N.W. in Washington, D.C. The White House and its landscaped grounds occupy 18 acres (7.2 hectares). Since the administration of George Washington (1789–97), who occupied presidential

  • President’s Science Advisory Committee (American science group)

    Hans Bethe: From atomic warrior to political physicist: …United States government, including the President’s Science Advisory Committee (PSAC). As a member of PSAC, he helped persuade President Dwight D. Eisenhower to commit the United States to ban atmospheric nuclear tests. (The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which banned atmospheric nuclear testing, was finally ratified in 1963.) In 1972 Bethe’s…

  • President, The (work by Asturias)

    Miguel Ángel Asturias: …Cabrera, El señor presidente (1946; The President). In Hombres de maíz (1949; Men of Maize), the novel generally considered his masterpiece, Asturias depicts the seemingly irreversible wretchedness of the Indian peasant. Another aspect of that misery—the exploitation of Indians on the banana plantations—appears in the epic trilogy that comprises the…

  • Presidente Costa e Silva Bridge (bridge, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

    Rio de Janeiro: The economy: The Rio-Niterói Bridge, which is about 9 miles (14.5 km) long, connects the city of Rio de Janeiro with Niterói, located on the east side of Guanabara Bay. The state has two major airports: Santos Dumont, on Guanabara Bay within the city of Rio; and Galeão,…

  • Presidente Prudente (Brazil)

    Presidente Prudente, city, western São Paulo estado (state), Brazil. It lies near the Santo Anastácio River at 1,535 feet (468 metres) above sea level. Formerly known as Córrego do Veado, the settlement was given status as a town in 1921 and as a municipality in 1923. The local economy is based

  • Presidential Airlines (American company)

    Continental Airlines, Inc.: …People Express Airlines (1981), and Presidential Airlines (1985)—were merged into Continental Airlines, significantly increasing the company’s aircraft and routes, but it continued to lose money and continued to be debt-ridden. Bitter conflicts between the airline unions and Texas Air’s corporate management (headed by chairman Frank Lorenzo until August 1990) tended…

  • Presidential Apology for the Study at Tuskegee

    On May 16, 1997, in the East Room of the White House, President Bill Clinton issued a formal apology for the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male, the "longest nontherapeutic experiment on human beings" in the history of medicine and public health. That study, conducted under the

  • Presidential Debates, Commission on (United States organization)

    Commission on Presidential Debates (CPD), U.S. organization established in 1987 that sponsored U.S. general election presidential debates beginning in 1988. The CPD’s stated mission was In 1987 the chairmen of the Republican and Democratic national committees, Frank Fahrenkopf and Paul Kirk,

  • Presidential disability and succession (United States Constitution)

    Twenty-fifth Amendment, amendment (1967) to the Constitution of the United States that set forth succession rules relating to vacancies and disabilities of the office of the president and of the vice president. It was proposed by the U.S. Congress on July 6, 1965, and it was ratified on Feb. 10,

  • Presidential Election Campaign Fund (United States)

    presidency of the United States of America: The money game: …federal income tax to the Presidential Election Campaign Fund. To become eligible for such funds, candidates are required to raise a minimum of $5,000 in at least 20 states (only the first $250 of each contribution counts toward the $5,000); they then receive from the FEC a sum equivalent to…

  • presidential election of 1956 (United States government)

    United States presidential election of 1956, American presidential election held on Nov. 6, 1956, in which incumbent Republican Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower defeated Democrat Adlai E. Stevenson. It was the second consecutive election in which Stevenson lost to Eisenhower. In the winter of 1955–56

  • presidential election of 1960 (United States government)

    United States presidential election of 1960, American presidential election held on November 8, 1960, in which Democrat John F. Kennedy narrowly defeated Republican Vice Pres. Richard M. Nixon. Kennedy thus became the first Roman Catholic and the youngest person ever elected president. Kennedy was

  • presidential election of 1964 (United States government)

    United States presidential election of 1964, American presidential election held on November 3, 1964, in which Democratic Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson defeated Republican Barry Goldwater in one of the largest landslides in U.S. history. The 1964 election occurred just less than one year after the

  • presidential election of 1968 (United States government)

    United States presidential election of 1968, American presidential election held on November 5, 1968, in which Republican Richard M. Nixon defeated Democrat Hubert H. Humphrey. The run-up to the 1968 election was transformed in 1967 when Minnesota’s Democratic senator, Eugene J. McCarthy,

  • presidential election of 1972 (United States government)

    United States presidential election of 1972, American presidential election held on November 7, 1972, in which Republican Pres. Richard Nixon was elected to a second term, defeating Democrat George McGovern in one of the largest landslides in U.S. history. In January 1971 McGovern announced his

  • presidential election of 1976 (United States government)

    United States presidential election of 1976, American presidential election held on Nov. 2, 1976, in which Democrat Jimmy Carter defeated Republican Pres. Gerald R. Ford. The campaign was conducted in the aftermath of the Watergate scandal that forced Pres. Richard M. Nixon to become the first

  • presidential election of 1980 (United States government)

    United States presidential election of 1980, American presidential election held on Nov. 4, 1980, in which Republican Ronald Reagan defeated incumbent Democratic Pres. Jimmy Carter. A onetime movie star and president of the Screen Actor’s Guild (1947–1952), Reagan was originally a Democrat but

  • presidential election of 1984 (United States government)

    United States presidential election of 1984, American presidential election held on November 6, 1984, in which Republican Ronald Reagan was elected to a second term, defeating Democrat Walter Mondale, a former U.S. vice president. Reagan won 49 states en route to amassing 525 electoral votes to

  • presidential election of 1988 (United States government)

    United States presidential election of 1988, American presidential election held on Nov. 8, 1988, in which Republican George Bush defeated Democrat Michael Dukakis. The 1988 campaign featured an open contest on both the Republican and Democratic sides, as Republican Pres. Ronald Reagan was entering

  • presidential election of 1992 (United States government)

    United States presidential election of 1992, American presidential election held on Nov. 3, 1992, in which Democrat Bill Clinton defeated incumbent Republican Pres. George Bush. Independent candidate Ross Perot secured nearly 19 percent of the vote—the highest percentage of any third-party

  • presidential election of 1996 (United States government)

    United States presidential election of 1996, American presidential election held on November 5, 1996, in which Democrat Bill Clinton was elected to a second term, defeating Republican Bob Dole, a former U.S. senator from Kansas. Clinton had won his first term in 1992 against incumbent Republican

  • presidential election of 2000 (United States government)

    United States presidential election of 2000, American presidential election held on Nov. 7, 2000, in which Republican George W. Bush narrowly lost the popular vote to Democrat Al Gore but defeated Gore in the electoral college. Gore, as Bill Clinton’s vice president for eight years, was the clear

  • presidential election of 2004 (United States government)

    United States presidential election of 2004, American presidential election held on Nov. 2, 2004, in which Republican George W. Bush was elected to a second term, defeating Democrat John Kerry, a U.S senator from Massachusetts. In the primary campaign, Bush faced little opposition for the

  • Presidential Election of 2008 (United States government)

    On November 4, 2008, after a campaign that lasted nearly two years, Americans elected Illinois senator Barack Obama their 44th president. The result was historic, as Obama, a first-term U.S. senator, became, when he was inaugurated on January 20, 2009, the country’s first African American

  • Presidential Election of 2012 (United States government)

    American voters went to the polls on November 6, 2012, to determine—for the 57th time—their country’s president for the next four years. Incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama’s reelection bid was, from the outset, expected to be closely contested as the United States faced a number of

  • presidential election of 2016 (United States government)

    United States Presidential Election of 2016, American presidential election held on November 8, 2016, in which Republican Donald Trump lost the popular vote to Democrat Hillary Clinton by more than 2.8 million votes but won 30 states and the decisive electoral college with 304 electoral votes to

  • presidential election of 2020 (United States government)

    Michael Bennet: …Bennet announced his candidacy for president in 2020. He stated that one of his reasons for running was to “restore integrity to the government.” Shortly after entering the presidential race, Bennet published The Land of Flickering Lights: Restoring America in an Age of Broken Politics (2019). His campaign, however, never…

  • Presidential Family (work by Botero)

    Fernando Botero: …brushwork and texture, as in Presidential Family (1967). In works such as this, he also drew from the Old Masters he had emulated in his youth: his formal portraits of the bourgeoisie and political and religious dignitaries clearly reference the composition and meditative quality of formal portraits by Goya and…

  • Presidential House (palace, New Delhi, India)

    Sir Edwin Lutyens: …single most important building, the Viceroy’s House (1913–30), he combined aspects of classical architecture with features of Indian decoration. Lutyens was knighted in 1918.

  • Presidential Medal of Freedom (American award)

    Presidential Medal of Freedom, the foremost U.S. civilian decoration, awarded to individuals who have made “an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavors.” Recipients of the

  • Presidential Palace (palace, New Delhi, India)

    Sir Edwin Lutyens: …single most important building, the Viceroy’s House (1913–30), he combined aspects of classical architecture with features of Indian decoration. Lutyens was knighted in 1918.

  • Presidential Palace (building, Jakarta, Indonesia)

    Jakarta: City layout: The Presidential Palace, north of Medan Merdeka, faces Monas, or Monumen Nasional (National Monument). The Istiqlal Mosque, in the northeast corner of Medan Merdeka opposite Lapangan Banteng, is one of the largest mosques in Southeast Asia. The National Museum (formerly the Central Museum), on the west…

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