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  • preganglionic neuron (anatomy)

    human nervous system: The autonomic nervous system: The first set, called preganglionic neurons, originates in the brainstem or the spinal cord, and the second set, called ganglion cells or postganglionic neurons, lies outside the central nervous system in collections of nerve cells called autonomic ganglia. Parasympathetic ganglia tend to lie close to or within the organs…

  • Pregl, Fritz (Austrian chemist)

    Fritz Pregl, Austrian chemist awarded the 1923 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for developing techniques in the microanalysis of organic compounds. Pregl received a medical degree from the University of Graz (1894), where he was associated for most of his professional life with the Medico-Chemical

  • pregnancy

    Pregnancy, process and series of changes that take place in a woman’s organs and tissues as a result of a developing fetus. The entire process from fertilization to birth takes an average of 266–270 days, or about nine months. (For pregnancies other than those in humans, see gestation.) A new

  • pregnancy termination (pregnancy)

    Abortion, the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before it has reached the stage of viability (in human beings, usually about the 20th week of gestation). An abortion may occur spontaneously, in which case it is also called a miscarriage, or it may be brought on purposefully, in which case it is

  • pregnancy test

    Pregnancy test, procedure aimed at determining whether a woman is pregnant. Pregnancy tests are based on a detectable increase in human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in the blood serum and urine during early pregnancy. HCG is the principal hormone produced by the chorionic layers of the placenta,

  • pregnanediol (hormone metabolite)

    hormone: Progestins: …but one important product is pregnanediol; formed mainly in the liver, it appears in part in the urine, where it can be measured to determine the degree of ovarian function.

  • pregnant chads (voting and elections)

    Bush v. Gore: …punched paper ballots) and “pregnant chads” (paper ballots that were dimpled, but not pierced, during the voting process), as well as “overvotes” (ballots that recorded multiple votes for the same office) and “undervotes” (ballots that recorded no vote for a given office). Also at issue was the so-called butterfly…

  • Pregnant Widow, The (novel by Amis)

    Martin Amis: In his novel The Pregnant Widow (2010), Amis examined the sexual revolution of the 1970s and its repercussions on a group of friends who lived through it. The pop culture indictment Lionel Asbo: State of England (2012) chronicles the vicissitudes of a fictional small-time criminal and his upstanding…

  • pregnenolone (biochemistry)

    human endocrine system: Hormone synthesis: …the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone, which occurs in mitochondria (organelles that produce most of the energy used for cellular processes). This conversion is mediated by a cleavage enzyme, the synthesis of which is stimulated in the adrenal glands by corticotropin (adrenocorticotropin, or ACTH) or angiotensin and in the ovaries…

  • prehensile foot (anatomy)

    primate: Size in evolutionary perspective: …evolution, the development of a prehensile foot preceded that of a prehensile hand. Vertical-clinging primates such as the tarsiers or small, squirrel-like quadrupeds such as the marmosets—all of which have prehensile feet but not completely prehensile hands—by remaining or becoming small, have avoided the evolutionary pressures that have impinged on…

  • prehensile hand (anatomy)

    primate: Size in evolutionary perspective: …foot preceded that of a prehensile hand. Vertical-clinging primates such as the tarsiers or small, squirrel-like quadrupeds such as the marmosets—all of which have prehensile feet but not completely prehensile hands—by remaining or becoming small, have avoided the evolutionary pressures that have impinged on larger primates. A large arboreal primate…

  • prehensile tail (anatomy)

    kinkajou: …procyonid) distinguished by its long, prehensile tail, short muzzle, and low-set, rounded ears. Native to Central America and parts of South America, the kinkajou is an agile denizen of the upper canopy of tropical forests.

  • prehensile-lipped rhinoceros (mammal)

    Black rhinoceros, (Diceros bicornis), the third largest rhinoceros and one of two African species of rhinoceros. The black rhinoceros typically weighs between 700 and 1,300 kg (1,500 and 2,900 pounds); males are the same size as females. It stands 1.5 metres (5 feet) high at the shoulder and is 3.5

  • prehensile-tailed skink (lizard)

    skink: The largest species, the prehensile-tailed skink (Corucia zebrata), reaches a maximum length of about 76 cm (30 inches), but most species are less than 20 cm (8 inches) long. Ground-dwelling and burrowing skinks may show such adaptations as a transparent “window” scale in place of a movable lower eyelid.…

  • prehension (understanding)
  • prehistoric age

    hand tool: Geological and archaeological aspects: 3 million years ago; geologically, this is the middle of the Pliocene Epoch (about 5.3 million to 2.6 million years ago). The Pliocene was succeeded by the Pleistocene Epoch (2.6 million to 11,700 years ago), which terminated with the recession of the last glaciers, when it was…

  • prehistoric archaeology (archaeology)

    archaeology: …century, been referred to as prehistoric archaeology, or prehistory. In prehistory the archaeologist is paramount, for here the only sources are material and environmental.

  • prehistoric art

    Stone Age: Aurignacian: The oldest manifestations of art were produced during the Aurignacian, and the development continued during Upper Périgordian times. In general, Upper Paleolithic art falls into two closely related categories: mural art and portable art. The former includes finger tracings, paintings, engravings, bas-reliefs, and sculptures on the walls of caves…

  • prehistoric peoples

    Stone Age: prehistoric cultural stage, or level of human development, characterized by the creation and use of stone tools. The Stone Age, whose origin coincides with the discovery of the oldest known stone tools, which have been dated to some 3.3 million years ago, is usually divided…

  • prehistoric religion

    Prehistoric religion, the beliefs and practices of Stone Age peoples. The oldest known burials can be attributed to the Middle Paleolithic Period. The corpses, accompanied by stone tools and parts of animals, were laid in holes in the ground and sometimes the corpses were especially protected. In

  • prehistory

    hand tool: Geological and archaeological aspects: 3 million years ago; geologically, this is the middle of the Pliocene Epoch (about 5.3 million to 2.6 million years ago). The Pliocene was succeeded by the Pleistocene Epoch (2.6 million to 11,700 years ago), which terminated with the recession of the last glaciers, when it was…

  • prehistory (archaeology)

    archaeology: …century, been referred to as prehistoric archaeology, or prehistory. In prehistory the archaeologist is paramount, for here the only sources are material and environmental.

  • prehnite (mineral)

    Prehnite, pale green to gray, glassy silicate mineral that commonly lines cavities in igneous rocks. It also occurs as stalactite masses. Prehnite is a secondary or hydrothermal mineral that is a basic calcium and aluminum silicate, Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2, and is often associated with zeolites.

  • prehnite-pumpellyite facies (geology)

    metamorphic rock: Prehnite-pumpellyite facies: Along with the zeolite facies, the prehnite-pumpellyite facies received little attention until about 1950. The first rocks of the facies were described in New Zealand and Celebes. The facies is transitional, bridging the path to the blueschist facies or the greenschist facies. It…

  • Preil, Gabriel (American poet)

    Gabriel Preil, Jewish Estonian poet who, although he lived most of his life in the United States, was internationally known for his introspective and lyrical poems written in Hebrew. He was a powerful influence on younger Israeli poets both through his own works and through his translations into

  • preimplantation genetic diagnosis (medicine)

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), the testing of embryos produced through in vitro fertilization (IVF) for genetic defects, in which testing is carried out prior to the implantation of the fertilized egg within the uterus. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) also may be performed on eggs

  • preimpregnated tape

    materials science: Polymer-matrix composites: …of composite structures is the preimpregnated tape, or “prepreg.” There are two categories of prepreg: tapes, generally 75 millimetres (3 inches) or less in width, intended for fabrication in automated, computer-controlled tape-laying machines; and “broad goods,” usually several metres in dimension, intended for hand lay-up and large sheet applications. To…

  • Preindustrial City, Past and Present, The (work by Sjoberg)

    urban culture: Definitions of the city and urban cultures: Gideon Sjoberg (The Preindustrial City, Past and Present, 1960), in the next step toward a cross-culturally valid understanding of cities, challenged this conception of urban culture as ethnocentric and historically narrow. He divided the world’s urban centres into two types, the preindustrial city and the industrial city,…

  • Preis, Alfred (American architect)

    USS Arizona: Wreckage and memorial: It was designed by Alfred Preis, an Austrian-born architect who was sent to a U.S. internment camp after the Pearl Harbor attack. His simple design features a concave silhouette, with the middle representing the country’s low point following the attack and the raised ends symbolizing victory. The 21 open-air…

  • Preis, Ellen (Austrian athlete)

    Helene Mayer: Fencing for the Führer: …from the defending Olympic champion Ellen Preis of Austria. Mayer faced Schacherer in an early match, and the Hungarian was able to rattle and outscore Mayer with an unorthodox style. Mayer quickly recovered from this setback, fencing brilliantly in the following matches and regaining a tie with Schacherer. Mayer’s match…

  • Prejean, Sister Helen (American nun)

    Sister Helen Prejean, American nun, who was a leader in the movement to abolish the death penalty. Prejean worked actively on behalf of both death row inmates and family members of murder victims. Prejean became a member of the Roman Catholic religious order the Sisters of St. Joseph of Medaille

  • Prejevalsky’s horse (wild horse subspecies)

    Przewalski’s horse, (subspecies Equus caballus przewalskii or E. ferus przewalskii), last wild horse subspecies surviving in the 21st century. It was discovered in western Mongolia in the late 1870s by the Russian explorer N.M. Przhevalsky. Przewalski’s horse is yellowish or light red (sometimes

  • prejudice (behaviour)

    Prejudice, adverse or hostile attitude toward a group or its individual members, generally without just grounds or before sufficient evidence. It is characterized by irrational, stereotyped beliefs. In the social sciences, the term is often used with reference to ethnic groups (see also racism),

  • Prejudices (work by Mencken)

    H.L. Mencken: …filled six volumes aptly titled Prejudices (1919–27). In literature he fought against what he regarded as fraudulently successful writers and worked for the recognition of such outstanding newcomers as Theodore Dreiser and Sinclair Lewis. He jeered at American sham, pretension, provincialism, and prudery, and he ridiculed the nation’s organized religion,…

  • Prekmurje (region, Slovenia)

    Slovenia: Relief: …as the Slovenske Gorice is Prekmurje, a wheat-growing region drained by the Mura River in the extreme northeast of the country. It was ruled by Hungary until 1918; its main town is Murska Sobota.

  • prelate (ecclesiastical title)

    Prelate, an ecclesiastical dignitary of high rank. In the modern Roman Catholic church, prelates are those who exercise the public power of the church. True prelacy is defined as “preeminence with jurisdiction,” and true, or real, prelates are distinguished as (1) greater prelates, those who

  • Prelature of the Holy Cross and Opus Dei (Roman Catholic organization)

    Opus Dei, (Latin: “Work of God”) Roman Catholic lay and clerical organization whose members seek personal Christian perfection and strive to implement Christian ideals and values in their occupations and in society as a whole. Theologically conservative, Opus Dei accepts the teaching authority of

  • Preliminaries to Speech Analysis (work by Jakobson)

    Roman Jakobson: Among his later works are Preliminaries to Speech Analysis (1952), a pioneering work in the distinctive feature analysis of speech sounds, written in collaboration with C. Gunnar, M. Fant, and Morris Halle, and Fundamentals of Language (1956; rev. ed. 1971), also with Halle. Jakobson’s Selected Writings, 6 vol. (1962–71), are…

  • preliminary crime (law)

    criminal law: Attempt: …class of offenses known as inchoate, or preliminary, crimes because guilt attaches even though the criminal purpose of the parties may not have been achieved. Thus, the offense of incitement or solicitation consists of urging or requesting another to commit a crime. Certain specified types of solicitation may be criminal,…

  • Preliminary Discourse Concerning a Solid Body Enclosed by Processes of Nature Within a Solid, A (work by Steno)

    Earth sciences: Paleontology and stratigraphy: …intra naturaliter contento dissertationis” (“A Preliminary Discourse Concerning a Solid Body Enclosed by Processes of Nature Within a Solid”). Steno cited evidence to show that when the hard parts of an organism are covered with sediment, it is they and not the aggregates of sediment that are firm. Consolidation…

  • Preliminary Discourse on the Study of Natural Philosophy (work by Herschel)

    John Stuart Mill: Public life and writing: Herschel’s Preliminary Discourse on the Study of Natural Philosophy, Mill at last saw his way clear both to formulating the methods of scientific investigation and to joining the new logic onto the old as a supplement. A System of Logic, in two volumes, was published in…

  • Preliminary Discussion of the Logical Design of an Electronic Computing Instrument (paper by von Neumann)

    von Neumann machine: …and John von Neumann—in “Preliminary Discussion of the Logical Design of an Electronic Computing Instrument” (1946). Although many researchers contributed ideas directly or indirectly to the paper, von Neumann was the principal author, and it is frequently cited as the birth certificate of computer science.

  • Preliminary Dissertation to the Mechanism of the Heavens (work by Somerville)

    Mary Somerville: …the book excellent and recommended Mechanism of the Heavens (1831) to another publisher. Mechanism of the Heavens’s introduction, in which Somerville summarized the current state of astronomical knowledge for the general reader, was published separately in 1832 as Preliminary Dissertation to the Mechanism of the Heavens. Mechanism of the Heavens…

  • Preliminary General Catalogue of 6,188 Stars for the Epoch 1900 (work by Boss)

    Lewis Boss: …in 1910 he published the Preliminary General Catalogue of 6,188 Stars for the Epoch 1900. Though he died leaving his work unfinished, his son Benjamin completed it in 1937 (General Catalogue of 33,342 Stars for the Epoch 1950, 5 vol.).

  • preliminary hearing (law)

    procedural law: Stages leading to trial or main hearing: At the pretrial stage, the parties notify each other of their claims and defenses and probe their factual foundations; at the trial stage, they or their counsel attempt to prove their factual contentions before a judge or jury, primarily through the oral examination of witnesses. The verdict…

  • Preliminary Treatise on Method (essay by Coleridge)

    encyclopaedia: Historical significance: …and said in his “Preliminary Treatise on Method” (1817) that in the Encyclopædia Metropolitana, which he was proposing to create,

  • preliterate society

    Nonliterate society, a people or culture without a written language. The term nonliterate is distinguished from “illiterate,” which indicates a member of a literate society who has not learned to read or write. Although the term is not entirely satisfactory because it distinguishes by the sole

  • Preljubovič (despot of Epirus)

    Greece: Despotate of Epirus: …Komnenos Palaeologus, also known as Preljubovič, the son of the caesar Gregory Preljub, who had been the Serbian governor of Thessaly under Stefan Uroš IV Dušan. He was able to assert Serbian control over northern Epirus and fought with the Albanian lords of Árta (Ghin Bua Spata and Peter Ljoša)…

  • Prelog, Vladimir (Swiss chemist)

    Vladimir Prelog, Swiss chemist who shared the 1975 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with John W. Cornforth for his work on the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions. (Stereochemistry is the study of the three-dimensional arrangements of atoms within molecules.) Prelog was born of Croatian

  • Prélude (work by Albéniz)

    Asturias, solo piano piece written in the early 1890s by Catalan composer and pianist Isaac Albéniz, using rolled chords that effectively evoke the strumming of a guitar. In fact, the version usually played is a transcription of the original piano piece for guitar. Despite being called

  • Prelude (work by Mansfield)

    Katherine Mansfield: Prelude (1918) was a series of short stories beautifully evocative of her family memories of New Zealand. These, with others, were collected in Bliss (1920), which secured her reputation and is typical of her art.

  • prelude (music)

    Prelude, musical composition, usually brief, that is generally played as an introduction to another, larger musical piece. The term is applied generically to any piece preceding a religious or secular ceremony, including in some instances an operatic performance. In the 17th century, organists in

  • Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune (work by Debussy)

    Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun, tone poem for orchestra by Claude Debussy. The original orchestral version was completed in 1894, and Debussy reworked it for performance on two pianos in 1895. The work is considered a quintessential example of musical Impressionism, a compositional style

  • Prelude to a Kiss (song by Ellington)

    Duke Ellington: Masterworks and popular songs of the 1930s and ’40s: …Around Much Any More,” “Prelude to a Kiss,” “Solitude,” and “I Let a Song Go out of My Heart,” he made wide interval leaps an Ellington trademark. A number of these hits were introduced by Ivy Anderson, who was the band’s female vocalist in the 1930s.

  • Prelude to a Kiss (play by Lucas)

    Mary-Louise Parker: …made her Broadway debut in Prelude to a Kiss, and her performance as Rita—a young bartender whose soul moves into the body of an old man, to the dismay of her new husband (played by Timothy Hutton)—earned her a Tony Award nomination. That year Parker was also on-screen in one…

  • Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun (work by Debussy)

    Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun, tone poem for orchestra by Claude Debussy. The original orchestral version was completed in 1894, and Debussy reworked it for performance on two pianos in 1895. The work is considered a quintessential example of musical Impressionism, a compositional style

  • Prelude to War (film by Capra [1942])

    Frank Capra: The 1940s: Of these films only Prelude to War (1942), which shared an Academy Award for best documentary, and Battle of Russia (1943; codirected with Anatole Litvak) were released theatrically during the war. Capra left the army with the rank of full colonel and with a Distinguished Service Medal.

  • Prelude, or, Growth of a Poet’s Mind, The (poem by Wordsworth)

    The Prelude, autobiographical epic poem in blank verse by William Wordsworth, published posthumously in 1850. Originally planned as an introduction to another work, the poem is organized into 14 sections, or books. Wordsworth first began work on the poem in about 1798. It would absorb him

  • Prelude, The (poem by Wordsworth)

    The Prelude, autobiographical epic poem in blank verse by William Wordsworth, published posthumously in 1850. Originally planned as an introduction to another work, the poem is organized into 14 sections, or books. Wordsworth first began work on the poem in about 1798. It would absorb him

  • Preludes (works by Rachmaninoff)

    Preludes, a group of 24 preludes for piano by Russian composer and pianist Sergey Rachmaninoff. They were intended as virtuoso piano showpieces and were published over the course of nearly 20 years, mostly during the first decade of the 20th century. The most familiar of the preludes—and the

  • Preludes (work by Meynell)

    Alice Meynell: …her first volume of poems, Preludes, in 1875. She subsequently published Poems (1893) and Later Poems (1902); Last Poems (1923) was published posthumously.

  • Preludes to Definition (work by Aiken)

    Conrad Aiken: … (1953), including a long sequence “Preludes to Definition,” which some critics consider his masterwork, and the often anthologized “Morning Song of Senlin.” Aiken served as the poetry consultant to the Library of Congress (now poet laureate consultant in poetry) from 1950 to ’52.

  • Préludes, Les (work by Liszt)

    Les Préludes, symphonic, or tone, poem by Hungarian pianist and composer Franz Liszt that premiered in 1854 in Weimar, in the grand duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (now in Germany). It is the best known of Liszt’s 13 symphonic poems and is by turns reflective, martial, and majestic. Not only was

  • Preludio (work by Albéniz)

    Asturias, solo piano piece written in the early 1890s by Catalan composer and pianist Isaac Albéniz, using rolled chords that effectively evoke the strumming of a guitar. In fact, the version usually played is a transcription of the original piano piece for guitar. Despite being called

  • prelumirhodopsin (biochemistry)

    human eye: The transduction process: …changed into a substance called prelumirhodopsin, recognized by its different colour from that of rhodopsin; this product is so highly unstable that at body temperature it is converted, without further absorption of light, into a series of products. These changes may be arrested by cooling the solution to −195 °C…

  • Prem Chand (Indian author)

    Premchand, Indian author of novels and short stories in Hindi and Urdu who pioneered in adapting Indian themes to Western literary styles. Premchand worked as a teacher until 1921, when he joined Mohandas K. Gandhi’s Noncooperation Movement. As a writer, he first gained renown for his Urdu-language

  • Prem Tinsulanonda (prime minister of Thailand)

    Thailand: Partial democracy and the search for a new political order: Prem Tinsulanonda, Thailand had established a new system of government in which the military shared power with parliament through the mediation of the monarchy. Prem, who served as prime minister from 1980 to 1988, succeeded in eliminating the challenge of the Communist Party of Thailand…

  • Premadasa, Ranasinghe (president of Sri Lanka)

    Ranasinghe Premadasa, Sri Lankan politician (born June 23, 1924, Colombo, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka]—died May 1, 1993, Colombo), was at the centre of the Sri Lankan government for more than 25 years as leader of the national state assembly (1977-88), prime minister (1978-88), and president (1989-93). P

  • Premananda Bhatta (Indian poet)

    South Asian arts: Gujarati: …the non-bhakti Gujarati poets is Premānanda Bhaṭṭa (16th century), who wrote narrative poems based on Purāṇa-like tales; although his themes were conventional, his characters were real and vital, and he infused new life into the literature of his language.

  • premarital coitus (sexual behaviour)

    human sexual activity: Sociosexual activity: …majority of human societies permit premarital coitus, at least under certain circumstances. In more repressive societies, such as modern Western society, it is more likely to be tolerated (but not encouraged) if the individuals intend marriage. Marital coitus is usually regarded as an obligation in most societies. Extramarital coitus, particularly…

  • premarital sex (sexual behaviour)

    human sexual activity: Sociosexual activity: …majority of human societies permit premarital coitus, at least under certain circumstances. In more repressive societies, such as modern Western society, it is more likely to be tolerated (but not encouraged) if the individuals intend marriage. Marital coitus is usually regarded as an obligation in most societies. Extramarital coitus, particularly…

  • premature aging (pathology)

    Progeria, any of several rare human disorders associated with premature aging. The two major types of progeria are Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), which has its onset in early childhood, and Werner syndrome (adult progeria), which occurs later in life. A third condition,

  • premature birth (medicine)

    Premature birth, in humans, any birth that occurs less than 37 weeks after conception. A full-term pregnancy lasts anywhere from 37 to 42 weeks. The worldwide incidence of premature birth ranges between 6 and 11 percent. In the United States prematurity occurs in about 7 to 9 percent of pregnancies

  • Premature Burial, The (short story by Poe)

    The Premature Burial, short story by Edgar Allan Poe, first published in Dollar Newspaper in July 1844. As a frequent victim of catalepsy, the narrator has obsessive fears and horrible nightmares that he will be buried alive while comatose. As a precaution, he supplies his tomb with escape routes

  • premature ejaculation (sexual behaviour)

    sexual dysfunction: …orgasm by other methods; and premature ejaculation, in which the man ejaculates before or immediately after entering the vagina.

  • premature seeding (agriculture)

    vegetable farming: Temperature: Premature seeding, or bolting, is an undesirable condition that is sometimes seen in fields of cabbage, celery, lettuce, onion, and spinach. The condition occurs when the plant goes into the seeding stage before the edible portion reaches a marketable size. Bolting is attributed to either…

  • Premchand (Indian author)

    Premchand, Indian author of novels and short stories in Hindi and Urdu who pioneered in adapting Indian themes to Western literary styles. Premchand worked as a teacher until 1921, when he joined Mohandas K. Gandhi’s Noncooperation Movement. As a writer, he first gained renown for his Urdu-language

  • premenstrual dysphoric disorder (pathology)

    premenstrual syndrome: …syndrome may be diagnosed with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). While premenstrual dysphoric disorder is closely related to major depressive disorder, the symptoms of severe depression are cyclical in nature, fluctuating with cycles of ovulation and menstruation. A distinguishing factor in the diagnosis of premenstrual dysphoric disorder is that depression eventually…

  • premenstrual syndrome (medicine)

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), a medical condition in which a group of characteristic physical and emotional symptoms are felt by women before the onset of menstruation. The symptoms of PMS are cyclic in nature, generally beginning from 7 to 14 days before menstruation and ending within 24 hours

  • premier (government official)

    Prime minister, the head of government in a country with a parliamentary or semipresidential political system. In such systems, the prime minister—literally the “first,” or most important, minister—must be able to command a continuous majority in the legislature (usually the lower house in a

  • Premier Foods (British company)

    Campbell Soup Company: In 2006 Premier Foods, the United Kingdom’s largest food producer, purchased Campbell Soup’s subsidiaries in both the United Kingdom and Ireland. In 2008 Campbell entered a licensing agreement with Wolfgang Puck Worldwide, Inc., that allowed the company to sell Wolfgang Puck soup, stock, and broth products, thereby…

  • Premier League (British soccer organization)

    Premier League, English professional football (soccer) league established in 1992. The league, which comprises 20 clubs, superseded the first division of the English Football League (EFL) as the top level of football in England. During a Premier League season, each club plays one home and one away

  • Premier livre d’orgue (work by Grigny)

    Nicolas de Grigny: His volume Premier livre d’orgue (1699; “First Book of the Organ”) sums up the work of his predecessors and stands with that of François Couperin at the apex of the French classical organ tradition. J.S. Bach so admired it that he transcribed the entire volume for his…

  • Premier livre de pièces de clavecin (work by Rameau)

    Jean-Philippe Rameau: …harpsichord pieces in A minor, Premier livre de pièces de clavecin (1706). These works show the beneficial influence of Louis Marchand, a famous organist-harpsichordist of the day whose playing Rameau greatly admired.

  • Premier livre de pièces de clavecin (work by Daquin)

    Louis-Claude Daquin: …de pièces de clavecin (1735; First Book of Pieces for the Harpsichord), containing his best-known work, Le Coucou, and a successful collection of carols, Noëls pour l’orgue et le clavecin.

  • Premier livre des inventions musicales (work by Janequin)

    invention: …use of the term in Premier livre des inventions musicales (1555; “First Book of Musical Inventions”) by the Frenchman Clément Janequin clearly alludes to the composer’s highly original programmatic chansons—secular French part-songs containing extramusical allusions (e.g., imitations of battle sounds and birdcalls). Similarly capricious or novel effects occur in John…

  • Premier Tome de l’architecture de Philibert de L’Orme, Le (work by Delorme)

    Philibert Delorme: …à petits fraiz (1561) and Le Premier Tome de l’architecture de Philibert de L’Orme (1567, revised 1568), two architectural treatises expounding the theories behind his practices. These works also attest to the way in which Delorme successfully grafted the spirit of Renaissance new learning onto the classic French tradition. In…

  • Premier’s Plan (Australian history)

    Australia: The postwar years: …on a plan, called the Premiers’ Plan. Although the plan had some inflationary features, it foreshadowed a one-fifth reduction in government spending, including wages and pensions—a considerable affront to Labor’s traditional attitudes.

  • Premiership (British soccer organization)

    Premier League, English professional football (soccer) league established in 1992. The league, which comprises 20 clubs, superseded the first division of the English Football League (EFL) as the top level of football in England. During a Premier League season, each club plays one home and one away

  • premillennialism (Christianity)

    Christian fundamentalism: Origins: …Brethren, many accepted the “premillennialism” of Darby’s followers. They believed that the next important event in human history would be the coming of Christ to justify and redeem his people and establish them in leadership over a millennial (thousand-year) kingdom.

  • Preminger, Otto (American filmmaker)

    Otto Preminger, Austrian-born American director who defied Hollywood’s Production Code with a series of controversial films—notably The Moon Is Blue (1953), The Man with the Golden Arm (1955), and Anatomy of a Murder (1959)—which helped bring about the relaxation of censorship regulations.

  • Preminger, Otto Ludwig (American filmmaker)

    Otto Preminger, Austrian-born American director who defied Hollywood’s Production Code with a series of controversial films—notably The Moon Is Blue (1953), The Man with the Golden Arm (1955), and Anatomy of a Murder (1959)—which helped bring about the relaxation of censorship regulations.

  • Premio de Literatura en Lengua Castellana Miguel de Cervantes (award)

    Cervantes Prize, literary award established in 1975 by the Spanish Ministry of Culture; the prize was first awarded the following year. It is the most prestigious and remunerative award given for Spanish-language literature. The Cervantes Prize is presented to an author whose Castilian-language

  • Prémio Literário José Saramago (literature award)

    José Saramago: …Prémio Literário José Saramago (José Saramago Literary Prize) was established in his honour to recognize young authors writing in Portuguese.

  • premios, Los (novel by Cortázar)

    Julio Cortázar: The Winners), 62: modelo para armar (1968; 62: A Model Kit), and Libro de Manuel (1973; A Manual for Manuel). A series of playful and humorous stories that Cortázar wrote between 1952 and 1959 were published in Historias de cronopios y de famas (1962; Cronopios…

  • premise (logic)

    logic: Scope and basic concepts: …one or more propositions, called premises, to a new proposition, usually called the conclusion. A rule of inference is said to be truth-preserving if the conclusion derived from the application of the rule is true whenever the premises are true. Inferences based on truth-preserving rules are called deductive, and the…

  • premium (insurance)

    insurance: …high as to require excessive premiums. What is “excessive” depends on individual circumstances, including the insured’s attitude toward risk. At the same time, the potential loss must be severe enough to cause financial hardship if it is not insured against. Insurable risks include losses to property resulting from fire, explosion,…

  • premixed flame (chemistry)

    combustion: Premixed flames: Flame combustion is most prominent with fuels that have been premixed with an oxidant, either oxygen or a compound that provides oxygen, for the reaction. The temperature of flames with this mixture is often several thousand degrees. The chemical reaction in such flames…

  • Premji, Azim (Indian businessman)

    Azim Premji, Indian business entrepreneur who served as chairman of Wipro Limited, guiding the company through four decades of diversification and growth to emerge as a world leader in the software industry. By the early 21st century, Premji had become one of the world’s wealthiest people. In the

  • Premji, Azim Hasham (Indian businessman)

    Azim Premji, Indian business entrepreneur who served as chairman of Wipro Limited, guiding the company through four decades of diversification and growth to emerge as a world leader in the software industry. By the early 21st century, Premji had become one of the world’s wealthiest people. In the

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