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  • Pan-Turanianism (political movement, Turkey)

    Pan-Turanianism, late 19th- and early 20th-century movement to unite politically and culturally all the Turkic, Tatar, and Uralic peoples living in Turkey and across Eurasia from Hungary to the Pacific. Its name is derived from Tūrān, the Persian word for Turkistan (i.e., the land to the north of I

  • Pan-Turanism (political movement, Turkey)

    Pan-Turanianism, late 19th- and early 20th-century movement to unite politically and culturally all the Turkic, Tatar, and Uralic peoples living in Turkey and across Eurasia from Hungary to the Pacific. Its name is derived from Tūrān, the Persian word for Turkistan (i.e., the land to the north of I

  • Pan-Turkism (political movement, Turkey)

    Pan-Turkism, political movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which had as its goal the political union of all Turkish-speaking peoples in the Ottoman Empire, Russia, China, Iran, and Afghanistan. The movement, which began among the Turks in Crimea and on the Volga, initially sought to

  • panachage (voting)

    list system: …extreme variations, is marked by panachage, the ability of the voter to mix candidates from several party lists if he so desires.

  • panacinar emphysema (pathology)

    respiratory disease: Pulmonary emphysema: …centre of the lobule, and panlobular (or panacinar) emphysema, in which alveolar destruction occurs in all alveoli within the lobule simultaneously. In advanced cases of either type, this distinction can be difficult to make. Centrilobular emphysema is the form most commonly seen in cigarette smokers, and some observers believe it…

  • Panaenos (Greek painter)

    Western painting: Early Classical (c. 500–450 bc): Panaenos, the brother or nephew of the sculptor Phidias, executed a picture of the Battle of Marathon for the Painted Stoa and, sometime later, included a painting of Greece and Salamis personified on the throne for the cult statue of Zeus at Olympia. This brought…

  • Panaetius (Roman philosopher)

    Panaetius, the founder of Roman Stoic philosophy, and a friend of Scipio Aemilianus and of Polybius. A pupil in Athens of Diogenes of Seleucia and of Antipater of Tarsus, Panaetius also studied the philosophies of Plato and of Aristotle. Many years a resident in Rome, he was an influential member

  • Panagiotopolous, Hermes (American choreographer)

    Hermes Pan, U.S. choreographer of dazzling motion picture dance sequences, especially in his work with Fred Astaire. The son of a Greek consul in Memphis, Pan was inspired by black dancers in his home town. He began collaborating with Astaire during rehearsals for Flying Down to Rio in 1933, and

  • Panahi, Jafar (Iranian director)

    Jafar Panahi, Iranian director whose films were critical depictions of Iranian society. As a teenager, Panahi studied film at the Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults in Tehrān, where he first met Abbas Kiarostami, who taught there. Panahi served in the military

  • Panaji (India)

    Panaji, town, capital of Goa state, western India. It lies on the estuary of the Mandavi River at the river’s mouth on the Arabian Sea. Panaji was a tiny village until the mid-18th century, when repeated plagues forced the Portuguese to abandon their capital of Velha Goa (Old Goa, or Ela). Panaji

  • Panamá (national capital, Panama)

    Panama City, capital of the Republic of Panama. It is located in the east-central part of the country near the Pacific Ocean terminus of the Panama Canal, on the Gulf of Panama. Area city, 38.5 square miles (100 square km). Pop. (2010) city, 430,299; (2010 est.) urban agglomeration, 1,378,000. The

  • Panama (novel by McGuane)

    Thomas McGuane: They include Panama (1978), Nobody’s Angel (1981), Something to Be Desired (1984), Keep the Change (1989), and Nothing but Blue Skies (1992). After a hiatus from writing novels, McGuane returned with The Cadence of Grass (2002), which depicts a Montana clan’s colourfully tangled lives.

  • Panama

    Panama, country of Central America located on the Isthmus of Panama, the narrow bridge of land that connects North and South America. Embracing the isthmus and more than 1,600 islands off its Atlantic and Pacific coasts, the tropical nation is renowned as the site of the Panama Canal, which cuts

  • Panama Canal (canal, Central America)

    Panama Canal, lock-type canal, owned and administered by the Republic of Panama, that connects the Atlantic and Pacific oceans through the narrow Isthmus of Panama. The length of the Panama Canal from shoreline to shoreline is about 40 miles (65 km) and from deep water in the Atlantic (more

  • Panama Canal Commission (United States-Panamanian agency)

    Panama Canal: Panama Canal Authority: The Panama Canal Authority (Spanish: Autoridad del Canal de Panamá [ACP]) took over management of the canal from the joint U.S.-Panamanian Panama Canal Commission at noon on December 31, 1999. Created by an amendment to the Panamanian constitution as an autonomous agency…

  • Panama Canal Company (United States-Panamanian corporation)

    Balboa Heights: -owned Panama Canal Company during the period (1903–79) when the Canal Zone was in operation. Murals in the administration building (still in use by the Panama Canal Authority) depict the canal’s construction. The Canal Zone Library and Museum (founded 1914) in Balboa Heights exhibits relics and…

  • Panama Canal Treaty (Panama-United States [1977])

    Panama Canal: Treaties governing the canal’s international status: The Panama Canal Treaty was signed on September 7 of that year by Gen. Omar Torrijos Herrera of Panama and Pres. Jimmy Carter of the United States. It terminated all prior treaties between the United States and Panama concerning the canal and abolished the Canal Zone.…

  • Panama Canal Zone (region, Panama)

    Canal Zone, historic administrative entity in Panama over which the United States exercised jurisdictional rights from 1903 to 1979. It was a strip of land 10 miles (16 km) wide along the Panama Canal, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean and bisecting the Isthmus of Panama. It covered

  • Panama City (national capital, Panama)

    Panama City, capital of the Republic of Panama. It is located in the east-central part of the country near the Pacific Ocean terminus of the Panama Canal, on the Gulf of Panama. Area city, 38.5 square miles (100 square km). Pop. (2010) city, 430,299; (2010 est.) urban agglomeration, 1,378,000. The

  • Panama City (Florida, United States)

    Panama City, city, seat (1913) of Bay county, northwestern Florida, U.S. It is the port of entry on St. Andrew Bay (an arm of the Gulf of Mexico), about 95 miles (150 km) east of Pensacola. The first English settlement (c. 1765), known as Old Town, was a fishing village later called St. Andrew. In

  • Panama disease (plant disease)

    Panama disease, a devastating disease of bananas caused by the soil-inhabiting fungus species Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis cubense. A form of fusarium wilt, Panama disease is widespread throughout the tropics and can be found wherever susceptible banana cultivars are grown. Notoriously

  • Panama hat

    Ecuador: …Ecuador became known for exporting Panama hats (straw hats so named because they were shipped to Panama in the mid-18th century and bought by traveling gold seekers and because they were worn by Panama Canal work crews in the early 19th century) and agricultural products, notably cacao (the source of…

  • Panama hat palm (botany)

    Cyclanthaceae: Panama hat palm order of monocotyledonous flowering plants, which has 11 genera of mostly stemless, perennial, palmlike herbs, woody herbaceous shrubs, and climbing vines that are distributed in Central America and tropical South America.

  • Panama hat plant (botany)

    Cyclanthaceae: Panama hat palm order of monocotyledonous flowering plants, which has 11 genera of mostly stemless, perennial, palmlike herbs, woody herbaceous shrubs, and climbing vines that are distributed in Central America and tropical South America.

  • Panama Papers (business documents)

    Panama Papers, documents from the database of the Panama-based law firm Mossack Fonseca that were made public in April 2016, representing one of the biggest leaks of confidential papers in history. The massive trove revealed how the firm had assisted companies and individuals from more than 200

  • Panama Scandal (French history)

    Panama Scandal, exposure of corruption in France’s Chamber of Deputies, an episode much exploited in propaganda by the enemies of the Third Republic. To overcome a financial crisis in 1888, Compagnie Universelle du Canal Interocéanique (the French Panama Canal Company), originally sponsored by

  • Panama, Audiencia of (Central American history)

    Central America: Unification of the isthmus: …establishment of an audiencia at Panama in the same year continued the confusion over jurisdiction in Nicaragua. In 1543 Spain unified the entire isthmus from Tabasco and Yucatán to Panama as the Audiencia de los Confines, with its capital centrally located in Honduras in 1544 at the gold-mining boomtown of…

  • Panamá, Canal de (canal, Central America)

    Panama Canal, lock-type canal, owned and administered by the Republic of Panama, that connects the Atlantic and Pacific oceans through the narrow Isthmus of Panama. The length of the Panama Canal from shoreline to shoreline is about 40 miles (65 km) and from deep water in the Atlantic (more

  • Panama, flag of

    quartered white-red-blue-white national flag with two five-pointed stars, one blue and one red. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is approximately 2 to 3.Although there were secessionist movements in Panama when it was part of Colombia during the 19th century, there was no recognized Panamanian

  • Panama, Gulf of (gulf, Panama)

    Gulf of Panama, inlet of the Pacific Ocean, bordering the southern side of the Isthmus of Panama. It is 115 miles (185 km) across at its widest point and 100 miles (160 km) long. The gulf is relatively shallow and separates the mountain ranges of western Panama from the beginning of the Colombian

  • Panama, history of

    Panama: History: In 1501 the Spaniard Rodrigo de Bastidas, in the company of Juan de la Cosa and Vasco Núñez de Balboa, was the first European to explore the Atlantic coast of the Isthmus of Panama. In

  • Panama, Isthmus of (isthmus, Central America)

    Isthmus of Panama, land link extending east-west about 400 miles (640 km) from the border of Costa Rica to the border of Colombia. It connects North America and South America and separates the Caribbean Sea (Atlantic Ocean) from the Gulf of Panama (Pacific Ocean). The narrowest part of the Americas

  • Panama, Republic of

    Panama, country of Central America located on the Isthmus of Panama, the narrow bridge of land that connects North and South America. Embracing the isthmus and more than 1,600 islands off its Atlantic and Pacific coasts, the tropical nation is renowned as the site of the Panama Canal, which cuts

  • Panamá, República de

    Panama, country of Central America located on the Isthmus of Panama, the narrow bridge of land that connects North and South America. Embracing the isthmus and more than 1,600 islands off its Atlantic and Pacific coasts, the tropical nation is renowned as the site of the Panama Canal, which cuts

  • Panamá, University of (university, Panama)

    Panama: Education: …higher education include the state-run University of Panamá (founded 1935), the privately operated Santa María la Antigua Catholic University (1965), the Technological University of Panamá (1981), and the Latina University of Panamá (1989), all in Panama City. The University of Panamá also has branches in several provinces. In addition, some…

  • Panamanian capybara (rodent)

    capybara: Panamanian capybaras are smaller and weigh about 27 kg. Capybaras are short-haired brownish rodents with blunt snouts, short legs, small ears, and almost no tail. They are shy and associate in groups along the banks of lakes and rivers. They normally feed in the morning…

  • Panamanian golden frog (amphibian)

    Panamanian golden toad, (Atelopus zeteki), small, bright yellow toad, often with a few black spots or blotches, that is found at moderate elevations in the central part of Panama. Considered to be one of the most beautiful frogs in Panama, where it is endangered and legally protected, the golden

  • Panamanian golden toad (amphibian)

    Panamanian golden toad, (Atelopus zeteki), small, bright yellow toad, often with a few black spots or blotches, that is found at moderate elevations in the central part of Panama. Considered to be one of the most beautiful frogs in Panama, where it is endangered and legally protected, the golden

  • Panamax (ship)

    Gaillard Cut: …needed to accommodate two passing PANAMAX vessels. Prior to the work, the dimensions of these massive ships, built to the maximum size that will pass through a canal lock, limited them to one-way traffic while in the cut. As the number of these ships in service was expected to increase,…

  • Panameñista Party (political party, Panama)

    Panama: Political process: …Change (Cambio Democrático), and the Panameñista Party.

  • Panamerican Center for Geographic Studies and Investigation (educational institution, Quito, Ecuador)

    Ecuador: Education: …training are conducted by the Panamerican Center for Geographical Studies and Research at the Military Geographical Institute in Quito. The same building houses other environmental institutes, libraries, and laboratories. Social science institutes are also numerous, especially in Quito; they include a local unit of the Latin American Faculty of Social…

  • panamiga (plant)

    Pilea: …of the round leaves; and friendship plant, or panamiga (P. involucrata), with quilted bronzy leaves.

  • Panamint Range (mountains, United States)

    Panamint Range, group of mountains lying mainly in Inyo county, eastern California, U.S. The range forms the western wall of Death Valley. Elevations average 6,000 to 11,000 feet (2,000 to 3,000 metres); Telescope Peak, at 11,049 feet (3,368 metres), is the highest point. Some mining ghost towns

  • Panammu (king of Zincirli)

    Syrian and Palestinian religion: Institutions and practices: King Panammu directs that his future heir, when making sacrifice to Hadad, pray that Panammu’s soul may eat and drink with the god. Phoenician kings of Sidon later refer to a resting place with the Healers/Shades, and the same word is used by the Israelites to…

  • PanAmSat Corporation (American corporation)

    Hughes Electronics Corporation: …merged its Galaxy operations with PanAmSat Corporation to create a new subsidiary, which kept the PanAmSat name. PanAmSat was founded in 1984 by the telecommunications entrepreneur Rene Anselmo as a commercial alternative to the intergovernmental satellite monopoly Intelsat. In 1988, with the launch of its own satellite, it became the…

  • Panaramittee style (Oceanic art)

    Oceanic art and architecture: Australia: …earliest known styles is the Panaramittee. It was widespread, mainly through southern Australia, central Australia, and Tasmania, and dates from about 30,000 bp onward. It is characterized by small pecked designs, both figurative and nonfigurative, on rock surfaces. The nonfigurative designs include circles, crescents, and radiating lines; the figurative are…

  • Panarion (work by Epiphanius)

    Saint Epiphanius of Constantia: …the chief work is the Panarion (374–377), an account of 80 heresies and their refutations, which ends with a statement of orthodox doctrine. His Ancoratus (374) is a compendium of the teachings of the church. His works are valuable as a source for the history of theological ideas.

  • Panarity, Querim (Albanian immigrant)

    flag of Albania: …Faik Konitsa of Brussels and Querim Panarity of Boston popularized Skanderbeg in the late 19th century and revived his flag as a national rallying point for Albanians at home and abroad. Independence from Ottoman rule was finally proclaimed on November 28, 1912. Since that time various Albanian regimes—republic, monarchy, fascist…

  • Panasonic (Japanese manufacturer)

    Panasonic, major Japanese manufacturer of electric appliances and consumer electronics products. Headquarters are in Kadoma, near Ōsaka. The company was founded in 1918 by Matsushita Konosuke to manufacture and market the electric lamp sockets and plugs he designed. It was incorporated in 1935 and

  • Panasonic Corporation (Japanese manufacturer)

    Panasonic, major Japanese manufacturer of electric appliances and consumer electronics products. Headquarters are in Kadoma, near Ōsaka. The company was founded in 1918 by Matsushita Konosuke to manufacture and market the electric lamp sockets and plugs he designed. It was incorporated in 1935 and

  • Panasqueira (mine, Portugal)

    Panasqueira, tungsten mine, central Portugal. Located in the Estrela Mountains (Serra da Estrela), it is about 5 miles (8 km) northwest of the village of Silvares. One of several tungsten deposits in Portugal, the mine earned a certain renown during World War II when the country was both publicly

  • panatela (cigar)

    cigar: A panatela is a thin cigar open at both ends, usually about 5 inches long with a straight shape but sometimes having a shoulder, or drawn-in portion, at the mouth end; originally it had a finished top that had to be cut off before smoking. A…

  • Panathenaea (Greek festival)

    Panathenaea, in Greek religion, an annual Athenian festival of great antiquity and importance. It was eventually celebrated every fourth year with great splendour, probably in deliberate rivalry to the Olympic Games. The festival consisted solely of the sacrifices and rites proper to the season

  • Panathenaic Stadium (stadium, Athens, Greece)

    Athens: The city plan: This leads to the 70,000-seat Panathenaic (Athens) Stadium, reconstructed by an expatriate Greek millionaire in time for the revival of the Olympic Games in 1896.

  • Panathenaicus (speech by Isocrates)

    panegyric: 380 bc) and the Panathenaicus (c. 340 bc), both by Isocrates.

  • Panavia MRCA (airplane)

    military aircraft: Multimission: …from the ground; the Panavia Tornado, a compact variable-geometry aircraft developed jointly by West Germany, Italy, and Great Britain in no fewer than four versions, ranging from two-seat all-weather, low-altitude attack to single-seat air-superiority; the U.S. General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, a high-performance single-seat multirole aircraft with impressive air-to-ground

  • Panavia Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (airplane)

    military aircraft: Multimission: …from the ground; the Panavia Tornado, a compact variable-geometry aircraft developed jointly by West Germany, Italy, and Great Britain in no fewer than four versions, ranging from two-seat all-weather, low-altitude attack to single-seat air-superiority; the U.S. General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, a high-performance single-seat multirole aircraft with impressive air-to-ground

  • Panavia Tornado (airplane)

    military aircraft: Multimission: …from the ground; the Panavia Tornado, a compact variable-geometry aircraft developed jointly by West Germany, Italy, and Great Britain in no fewer than four versions, ranging from two-seat all-weather, low-altitude attack to single-seat air-superiority; the U.S. General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, a high-performance single-seat multirole aircraft with impressive air-to-ground

  • Panax (herb)

    Ginseng, (genus Panax), genus of 12 species of medicinal herbs of the family Araliaceae. The root of Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng), native to Manchuria and Korea, has long been used as a drug and is made into a stimulating tea in China, Korea, and Japan. American ginseng (P. quinquefolius), native

  • Panax ginseng (herb)

    Araliaceae: Ginseng root, from Panax ginseng, has long been used by the Chinese in the treatment of various diseases; its American relative, Panax quinquefolium (see photograph), is used in the United States as a stimulant. Hari-giri, or castor aralia (Acanthopanax ricinifolius), is used in Japan in building and in…

  • Panax quinquefolius (herb)

    Araliaceae: …various diseases; its American relative, Panax quinquefolium (see photograph), is used in the United States as a stimulant. Hari-giri, or castor aralia (Acanthopanax ricinifolius), is used in Japan in building and in furniture making.

  • Panay (island, Philippines)

    Panay, island, westernmost of the Visayan Islands, central Philippines, surrounded by the Sibuyan, Visayan, and Sulu seas; the Guimaras Strait to the southeast separates it from Negros. It is roughly triangular in shape. A rugged, almost unpopulated mountain range parallels its western coast.

  • Panay Island cloud rat (rodent)

    cloud rat: Bushy-tailed cloud rats: …the most recent being the Panay Island cloud rat (C. heaneyi) in 1996. Additional undiscovered species may live on other Philippine islands. All cloud rats are intimately tied to old-growth tropical forests, and most populations are in danger owing to overhunting and deforestation. Three of the four Crateromys species have…

  • Panayan (people)

    Hiligaynon, fourth largest ethnolinguistic group of the Philippines, living on Panay, western Negros, southern Mindoro, Tablas, Romblon, Sibuyan, Guimaras, and northwestern Masbate. Numbering about 6,540,000 in the late 20th century, they speak a Visayan (Bisayan) language of the Austronesian

  • Panayía Evangelistría (church, Tínos, Greece)

    Tínos: …Church of Panayía Evangelistría (Our Lady of Good Tidings) was built in 1822 to house the icon, which is venerated for its healing powers. A road of local marble leads pilgrims for the feasts of the Annunciation and Assumption to this sanctuary.

  • Panayiotou, Georgios Kyriacos (British singer and composer)

    George Michael, (Georgios Kyriacos Panayiotou), British musician (born June 25, 1963, London, Eng.—died Dec. 25, 2016, Goring, Oxfordshire, Eng.), was a pop superstar in the 1980s, with a string of hits that made him an iconic figure who could sell out stadium concerts into the 21st century.

  • Panaz Tepe (ancient Greek settlement, Turkey)

    Aegean civilizations: Eastward explorations: …finds from the cemetery at Panaz Tepe near Phocaea in the north to Müskebi near Halicarnassus in the south. Panaz Tepe has warrior equipment, and apparently the soldiers took native wives, for the Greeks were buried while the Anatolians were cremated in the same small tholos tombs. Mycenaean pottery and…

  • pañc-piāra (Sikhism)

    Gobind Singh: …nectar) and given the title pañc-piāra (the five beloved), they formed the nucleus of the great Sikh military brotherhood known as the Khālsā (“pure”), founded in 1699.

  • pañca-parameṣṭhin (Jainism)

    siddha: …the other ascetics constitute the pañca-parameṣṭhin, the five chief divinities of the Jainas. Their figures are represented on a silver or brass tray called a siddha-cakra (saint-wheel), to which great sanctity and magical power are attributed. In the twice-yearly ceremony known as oḷī, the images are washed and anointed, and…

  • pañca-sīla (Buddhism)

    sīla: …the first five precepts (pañca-sīla) at all times. Occasionally, such as during the fortnightly fast day, they may observe eight precepts (aṣṭā-sīla; the first nine, with the seventh and eight combined as one). Normally, the full 10 vows are observed only by monks or nuns, who also follow the…

  • pancake bomb (volcanic ejecta)

    bomb: …thread; others, called cow-dung or pancake bombs, are flattened on landing; and still others are ribbon-shaped. If bombs are still molten or plastic when they land (a characteristic of those formed during the relatively weak explosions of basaltic magma), they may partly fuse to form volcanic spatter. If their outer…

  • Pancake Day (Christianity)

    Shrove Tuesday, the day immediately preceding Ash Wednesday (the beginning of Lent in Western churches). It occurs between February 2 and March 9, depending on the date of Easter. Shrove, derived from shrive, refers to the confession of sins as a preparation for Lent, a usual practice in Europe in

  • pancake dome (landform)

    Venus: Volcanic features: …unusual in appearance are so-called pancake domes, which are typically a few tens of kilometres in diameter and about 1 km (0.6 mile) high and are remarkably circular in shape. Flat-topped and steep-sided, they appear to have formed when a mass of thick lava was extruded from a central vent…

  • pancake ice (ice formation)

    sea ice: Sea ice formation and features: …agglomerate into discs known as pancakes. As they grow from a few centimetres to a few metres across, they solidify and thicken mechanically by rafting on top of each other. Pancakes freeze together to form cakes and floes, which contain a large amount of ice with a granular texture. The…

  • pancake tortoise (reptile)

    turtle: Form and function: …the major exception being the pancake tortoise (Malacochersus tornieri) of southeastern Africa. The pancake tortoise lives among rocky outcroppings, where its flat shell allows it to crawl into crevices to rest. Once in a crevice, the pancake tortoise can inflate its lungs, thus expanding the shell and lodging itself so…

  • Pancake Tuesday (Christianity)

    Shrove Tuesday, the day immediately preceding Ash Wednesday (the beginning of Lent in Western churches). It occurs between February 2 and March 9, depending on the date of Easter. Shrove, derived from shrive, refers to the confession of sins as a preparation for Lent, a usual practice in Europe in

  • pañcama (Hindu caste)

    varna: …of a fifth class, the pancama (Sanskrit: “fifth”), which include the “untouchable” classes and others, such as tribal groups, who are outside the system and, consequently, avarna (“classless”).

  • Pāñcarātra (religious movement)

    Pancharatra, early Hindu religious movement whose members worshiped the deified sage Narayana (who came to be identified with Lord Vishnu) and, in merger with the Bhagavata sect, formed the earliest sectarian movement within Hinduism. The new group was a forerunner of modern Vaishnavism, or the

  • Pancarida (crustacean superorder)

    crustacean: Annotated classification: Superorder Pancarida Order Thermosbaenacea Holocene; eyes reduced or absent; brood pouch formed from dorsal extension of carapace; length about 4 mm; fresh and brackish water, some in warm springs; about 9 species. There is no universal agreement

  • Pancasila (Indonesian political philosophy)

    Pancasila, the Indonesian state philosophy, formulated by the Indonesian nationalist leader Sukarno. It was first articulated on June 1, 1945, in a speech delivered by Sukarno to the preparatory committee for Indonesia’s independence, which was sponsored by the Japanese during their World War II

  • Pancatantra (Indian literature)

    Panchatantra, (Sanskrit: “Five Treatises” or “Five Chapters”) collection of Indian animal fables, which has had extensive circulation both in the country of its origin and throughout the world. In Europe the work was known under the name The Fables of Bidpai (for the narrator, an Indian sage,

  • pancayat (housing)

    India: Rural settlement: …village, might be found the panchayat (village council) hall, a few shops, a tea stall, a public radio hooked up to a loudspeaker, a small post office, or perhaps a dharmshala (a free guest house for travelers). The village school is usually on the edge of the village in order…

  • pañcāyat (Indian caste government)

    Panchayat, the most important adjudicating and licensing agency in the self-government of an Indian caste. There are two types: permanent and impermanent. Literally, a panchayat (from Sanskrit pañca, “five”) consists of five members, but usually there are more; the panchayat has a policy committee,

  • pañcāyat-rāj (Indian government)

    panchayat: …instruments of government, the so-called panchayat raj, or government by panchayats.

  • pañcāyatana (architecture)

    Western architecture: The middle Byzantine period (843–1204): …producing a type called the quincunx. These domes were usually comparatively small and were set on drums, which tended to become narrower and taller with the progress of time. The eastern extremities of the side aisles formed chapels which played an important part in the liturgy, that to the north…

  • Panch Shila (Indian history)

    India: Foreign policy: …as nonaligned, was based on Five Principles (Panch Shila): mutual respect for other nations’ territorial integrity and sovereignty; nonaggression; noninterference in internal affairs; equality and mutual benefit; and peaceful coexistence. These principles were, ironically, articulated in a treaty with China over the Tibet region in 1954, when Nehru still hoped…

  • Panchakosi (road, Vārānasi, India)

    Varanasi: The contemporary city: …by a road known as Panchakosi; devout Hindus hope to walk that road and visit the city once in a lifetime and, if possible, to die there in old age. The site receives more than a million pilgrims each year. In addition, thousands of domestic and foreign tourists flock to…

  • Panchama (social class, India)

    Untouchable, in traditional Indian society, the former name for any member of a wide range of low-caste Hindu groups and any person outside the caste system. The use of the term and the social disabilities associated with it were declared illegal in the constitutions adopted by the Constituent

  • Panchapadika (work by Padmapada)

    Indian philosophy: Shankara’s theory of error and religious and ethical concerns: …Nonaction”), and Padmapada, author of Panchapadika, a commentary on the first five padas, or sections, of the bhashya. These early pupils raised and settled issues that were not systematically discussed by Shankara himself—issues that later divided his followers into two large groups: those who followed the Vivarana (a work written…

  • Pancharatra (religious movement)

    Pancharatra, early Hindu religious movement whose members worshiped the deified sage Narayana (who came to be identified with Lord Vishnu) and, in merger with the Bhagavata sect, formed the earliest sectarian movement within Hinduism. The new group was a forerunner of modern Vaishnavism, or the

  • Panchashika (Indian philosopher)

    Indian philosophy: Relation to orthodoxy: …Asuri and by Asuri to Panchashika. He refers also to Shashtitantra (“Doctrine of 60 Conceptions”), the main doctrines of which he claims to have expounded in the karikas. The Samkhya of Charaka, which is substantially the same as is attributed to Panchashika in the Mahabharata, is theistic and regards the…

  • Panchatantra (Indian literature)

    Panchatantra, (Sanskrit: “Five Treatises” or “Five Chapters”) collection of Indian animal fables, which has had extensive circulation both in the country of its origin and throughout the world. In Europe the work was known under the name The Fables of Bidpai (for the narrator, an Indian sage,

  • Panchatantra (dance by Shanti Bardhan)

    South Asian arts: Modern Indian dance: His posthumous production Panchatantra (The Winning of Friends) is based on an ancient fable of four friends (Mouse, Turtle, Deer, and Crow), in which he used masks and the mimed movements of animals and birds.

  • panchayat (Indian caste government)

    Panchayat, the most important adjudicating and licensing agency in the self-government of an Indian caste. There are two types: permanent and impermanent. Literally, a panchayat (from Sanskrit pañca, “five”) consists of five members, but usually there are more; the panchayat has a policy committee,

  • panchayat raj (Indian government)

    panchayat: …instruments of government, the so-called panchayat raj, or government by panchayats.

  • panchayet (Indian caste government)

    Panchayat, the most important adjudicating and licensing agency in the self-government of an Indian caste. There are two types: permanent and impermanent. Literally, a panchayat (from Sanskrit pañca, “five”) consists of five members, but usually there are more; the panchayat has a policy committee,

  • Panchen Lama (Tibetan Buddhism)

    Panchen Lama, any of the line of reincarnated lamas in Tibet, each of whom heads the influential Tashilhunpo Monastery (near Shigatse) and until recent times was second only to the Dalai Lama in spiritual authority within the dominant Dge-lugs-pa sect of Tibetan Buddhism. The title Panchen (a short

  • Panchimalco (El Salvador)

    Panchimalco, town, southern El Salvador. It lies in the Pacific coastal range just south of San Salvador. The population is made up primarily of descendants of Pipil Indians, who are noted for their handwoven textiles and for their traditional (pre-Columbian) dress and customs. Pop. (2006) mun.,

  • panchromatic film (photography)

    history of photography: Colour photography: …with a thin film of panchromatic (i.e., sensitive to all colours) emulsion, and it resulted in a positive colour transparency. Because Autochrome was a colour transparency and could be viewed only by reflected light, however, researchers continued to look for improvements and alternative colour processes.

  • panchromatic makeup (makeup)

    makeup: …range of makeup colours called panchromatic makeup, an achievement for which he won a special Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Award.

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